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Babesia genotypes in Haemaphysalis concinna collected from birds in Hungary reflect phylogeographic connections with Siberia and the Far East.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290398
Source
Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2017 06; 8(4):666-670
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
06-2017
Author
Barbara Flaisz
Kinga M Sulyok
Dávid Kováts
Jeno Kontschán
Tibor Csörgo
Ármin Csipak
Miklós Gyuranecz
Sándor Hornok
Author Affiliation
Department of Parasitology and Zoology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary.
Source
Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2017 06; 8(4):666-670
Date
06-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animal Migration
Animals
Babesia - genetics
Babesiosis - epidemiology - parasitology
Bird Diseases - epidemiology - parasitology
Birds
Genotype
Hungary - epidemiology
Ixodidae - growth & development - microbiology - physiology
Larva - growth & development - microbiology - physiology
Nymph - growth & development - microbiology - physiology
Phylogeography
RNA, Protozoan - genetics
RNA, Ribosomal, 18S - genetics
Abstract
Haemaphysalis concinna is the second most common tick species attaching to birds in Hungary. Recently, Babesia genotypes, found in Siberia and the Far East, have been detected in this tick species collected from the vegetation in Hungary and Slovakia. The aim of this study was to molecularly investigate if these piroplasms also occur in H. concinna carried by migratory birds, which might explain their occurrence in the western Palaearctic. During a 2-year period, 321 H. concinna larvae and nymphs were collected from 121 passerine birds (of 19 species) in Hungary. These were molecularly investigated for the presence of piroplasm DNA with PCR and sequencing. The prevalence of PCR positive ticks was 15.9% (51 out of 321). Piroplasm PCR positivity of H. concinna ticks was significantly more frequent during the summer and autumn compared to spring, suggesting that migratory birds arriving in Hungary from the north or north east are the most important in the dispersal of H. concinna-associated piroplasms. Three genotypes, i.e. Babesia sp. "Irk-Hc133", "Irk-Hc130" (originally found in Irkutsk, Siberia) and "Kh-Hc222" (originally found in Khabarovsk, Far East) were detected. Phylogenetically all these belonged to the group formed by Babesia spp. of ruminants. Four bird species, which had 14-60% prevalence of PCR positive ticks, are known to be associated with northeast to southwest autumn migration. In conclusion, the presence of Central and East Asian Babesia genotypes in Central Europe are most likely related to bird species with known eastern migratory habit and/or phylogenetically substantiated connections between their eastern and western Eurasian populations.
PubMed ID
28499722 View in PubMed
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Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in wild birds on Danish livestock farms.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature276972
Source
Acta Vet Scand. 2016 Feb 03;58:11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-03-2016
Author
Birthe Hald
Marianne Nielsine Skov
Eva Møller Nielsen
Carsten Rahbek
Jesper Johannes Madsen
Michael Wainø
Mariann Chriél
Steen Nordentoft
Dorte Lau Baggesen
Mogens Madsen
Source
Acta Vet Scand. 2016 Feb 03;58:11
Date
Feb-03-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animal Husbandry
Animals
Animals, Wild - microbiology
Bird Diseases - epidemiology - microbiology
Campylobacter Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Campylobacter coli - isolation & purification
Campylobacter jejuni - isolation & purification
Cattle
Chickens
Denmark - epidemiology
Feces - microbiology
Prevalence
Seasons
Sus scrofa
Abstract
Reducing the occurrence of campylobacteriosis is a food safety issue of high priority, as in recent years it has been the most commonly reported zoonosis in the EU. Livestock farms are of particular interest, since cattle, swine and poultry are common reservoirs of Campylobacter spp. The farm environment provides attractive foraging and breeding habitats for some bird species reported to carry thermophilic Campylobacter spp. We investigated the Campylobacter spp. carriage rates in 52 wild bird species present on 12 Danish farms, sampled during a winter and a summer season, in order to study the factors influencing the prevalence in wild birds according to their ecological guild. In total, 1607 individual wild bird cloacal swab samples and 386 livestock manure samples were cultured for Campylobacter spp. according to the Nordic Committee on Food Analysis method NMKL 119.
The highest Campylobacter spp. prevalence was seen in 110 out of 178 thrushes (61.8 %), of which the majority were Common Blackbird (Turdus merula), and in 131 out of 616 sparrows (21.3 %), a guild made up of House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) and Eurasian Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus). In general, birds feeding on a diet of animal or mixed animal and vegetable origin, foraging on the ground and vegetation in close proximity to livestock stables were more likely to carry Campylobacter spp. in both summer (P 
Notes
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PubMed ID
26842400 View in PubMed
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Characterization of Campylobacter from resident Canada geese in an urban environment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature117336
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2013 Jan;49(1):1-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2013
Author
M Elizabeth Rutledge
Robin M Siletzky
Weimin Gu
Laurel A Degernes
Christopher E Moorman
Christopher S DePerno
Sophia Kathariou
Author Affiliation
Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology Program, Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7646, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695, USA. merutled@ncsu.edu
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2013 Jan;49(1):1-9
Date
Jan-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Bacterial Typing Techniques - veterinary
Bird Diseases - epidemiology - microbiology - transmission
Campylobacter Infections - epidemiology - microbiology - transmission - veterinary
Campylobacter jejuni - isolation & purification
Canada - epidemiology
Disease Reservoirs - microbiology - veterinary
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Feces - microbiology
Geese - microbiology
Humans
Microbial Sensitivity Tests - veterinary
Prevalence
Public Health
Risk factors
Water Microbiology
Zoonoses
Abstract
Waterfowl are natural reservoirs for zoonotic pathogens, and abundant resident (nonmigratory) Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) in urban and suburban environments pose the potential for transmission of Campylobacter through human contact with fecal deposits and contaminated water. In June 2008 and July 2009, we collected 318 fecal samples from resident Canada Geese at 21 locations in and around Greensboro, North Carolina, to test for Campylobacter. All campylobacter species detected were C. jejuni isolates, and prevalences in 2008 and 2009 were 5.0% and 16.0%, respectively. Prevalence of C. jejuni-positive sampling sites was 21% (3/14) and 40% (6/15) in 2008 and 2009, respectively. All C. jejuni isolates were susceptible to a panel of six antimicrobial agents (tetracycline, streptomycin, erythromycin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, and ciprofloxacin). We used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and fla-typing to identify several strain types among these isolates. Multilocus sequence typing of representative isolates revealed six sequence types, of which two (ST-3708 and ST-4368) were new, two (ST-702 and ST-4080) had been detected previously among C. jejuni from geese, and two (ST-991 and ST-4071) were first reported in C. jejuni from an environmental water source and a human illness, respectively. These results indicate a diverse population of antibiotic-susceptible C. jejuni in resident Canada Geese in and around Greensboro, North Carolina, and suggest a need for additional assessment of the public health risk associated with resident Canada Geese in urban and suburban areas.
PubMed ID
23307366 View in PubMed
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Chlamydia psittaci in Swedish wetland birds: a risk to zoonotic infection?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature116448
Source
Avian Dis. 2012 Dec;56(4):737-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2012
Author
Maria Blomqvist
Linus Christerson
Jonas Waldenström
Björn Herrmann
Björn Olsen
Author Affiliation
Section of Clinical Bacteriology, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, S-751 85 Uppsala, Sweden.
Source
Avian Dis. 2012 Dec;56(4):737-40
Date
Dec-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins - genetics
Bird Diseases - epidemiology - microbiology
Birds
Chlamydia - genetics - isolation & purification
Chlamydophila pneumoniae - genetics - isolation & purification
Chlamydophila psittaci - genetics - isolation & purification
Cloaca - microbiology
Ducks
Feces - microbiology
Genetic Variation
Genotype
Humans
Molecular Sequence Data
Polymerase Chain Reaction - veterinary
Prevalence
Psittacosis - epidemiology - microbiology - veterinary
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S - genetics
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction - veterinary
Sequence Analysis, DNA - veterinary
Sweden - epidemiology
Wetlands
Zoonoses - epidemiology - microbiology
Abstract
Chlamydia psittaci in birds may be transmitted to humans and cause respiratory infections, sometimes as severe disease. Our study investigated the C. psittaci prevalence in migratory birds in Sweden by real-time PCR. Fecal specimens or cloacal swabs were collected from 497 birds from 22 different species, mainly mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), at two bird observatories in Sweden. DNA from C psittaci was found in six (1.2%) birds from three different species. Five of the positive specimens were infected with four novel strains of C. psittaci, based on sequencing of partial 16S rRNA gene and ompA gene, and the sixth was indentified as a recently described Chlamydiaceae-like bacterium. Considering exposure to humans it is concluded that the risk of zoonotic infection is low.
PubMed ID
23397847 View in PubMed
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Circumpolar diversification of the Ixodes uriae tick virome.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature305164
Source
PLoS Pathog. 2020 08; 16(8):e1008759
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
08-2020
Author
John H-O Pettersson
Patrik Ellström
Jiaxin Ling
Ingela Nilsson
Sven Bergström
Daniel González-Acuña
Björn Olsen
Edward C Holmes
Author Affiliation
Zoonosis Science Center, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
Source
PLoS Pathog. 2020 08; 16(8):e1008759
Date
08-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animals
Bird Diseases - epidemiology - parasitology
Birds - parasitology
Host-Parasite Interactions
Ixodes - physiology
Phylogeny
RNA Virus Infections - genetics - virology
RNA Viruses - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Tick Infestations - epidemiology - parasitology - veterinary
Abstract
Ticks (order: Ixodida) are a highly diverse and ecologically important group of ectoparasitic blood-feeding organisms. One such species, the seabird tick (Ixodes uriae), is widely distributed around the circumpolar regions of the northern and southern hemispheres. It has been suggested that Ix. uriae spread from the southern to the northern circumpolar region millions of years ago and has remained isolated in these regions ever since. Such a profound biographic subdivision provides a unique opportunity to determine whether viruses associated with ticks exhibit the same evolutionary patterns as their hosts. To test this, we collected Ix. uriae specimens near a Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) colony at Neko harbour, Antarctica, and from migratory birds-the Razorbill (Alca torda) and the Common murre (Uria aalge)-on Bonden island, northern Sweden. Through meta-transcriptomic next-generation sequencing we identified 16 RNA viruses, seven of which were novel. Notably, we detected the same species, Ronne virus, and two closely related species, Bonden virus and Piguzov virus, in both hemispheres indicating that there have been at least two cross-circumpolar dispersal events. Similarly, we identified viruses discovered previously in other locations several decades ago, including Gadgets Gully virus, Taggert virus and Okhotskiy virus. By identifying the same or closely related viruses in geographically disjunct sampling locations we provide evidence for virus dispersal within and between the circumpolar regions. In marked contrast, our phylogenetic analysis revealed no movement of the Ix. uriae tick hosts between the same locations. Combined, these data suggest that migratory birds are responsible for the movement of viruses at both local and global scales.
PubMed ID
32745135 View in PubMed
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Coxiella burnetii in ticks and wild birds.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299115
Source
Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2019 02; 10(2):377-385
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
02-2019
Author
N K Tokarevich
Yu A Panferova
O A Freylikhman
O V Blinova
S G Medvedev
S V Mironov
L A Grigoryeva
K A Tretyakov
T Dimova
M M Zaharieva
B Nikolov
P Zehtindjiev
H Najdenski
Author Affiliation
Saint-Petersburg Pasteur Institute, Laboratory of Zooantroponozes, 14, ul. Mira, 197101, St. Petersburg, Russia. Electronic address: zoonoses@mail.ru.
Source
Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2019 02; 10(2):377-385
Date
02-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animal Migration
Animals
Animals, Wild - microbiology
Antibodies, Bacterial - blood
Baltic States - epidemiology
Bird Diseases - epidemiology - microbiology
Birds - microbiology
Bulgaria - epidemiology
Coxiella burnetii - genetics - isolation & purification
DNA, Bacterial - isolation & purification
Disease Reservoirs - microbiology - veterinary
Europe - epidemiology
Feces - microbiology
High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
Ixodes - microbiology
Nymph - microbiology
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Prevalence
Q Fever - epidemiology - veterinary
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S - isolation & purification
Russia - epidemiology
Tick Infestations - epidemiology - microbiology
Abstract
The study objective was to get more information on C. burnetii prevalence in wild birds and ticks feeding on them, and the potentialities of the pathogen dissemination over Europe by both.
Blood, blood sera, feces of wild birds and ticks removed from those birds or from vegetation were studied at two sites in Russia: the Curonian Spit (site KK), and the vicinity of St. Petersburg (site SPb), and at two sites in Bulgaria: the Atanasovsko Lake (site AL), and the vicinity of Sofia (site SR).
C. burnetii DNA was detected in blood, feces, and ticks by PCR (polymerase chain reaction). All positive results were confirmed by Sanger's sequencing of 16SrRNA gene target fragments. The antibodies to C. burnetii in sera were detected by CFR (complement fixation reaction).
Eleven of 55 bird species captured at KK site hosted Ixodes ricinus. C. burnetii DNA was detected in three I. ricinus nymphs removed from one bird (Erithacus rubecula), and in adult ticks flagged from vegetation: 0.7% I. persulcatus (site SPb), 0.9% I. ricinus (site KK), 1.0% D. reticulatus (AL site). C. burnetii DNA was also detected in 1.4% of bird blood samples at SPb site, and in 0.5% of those at AL site. Antibodies to C. burnetii were found in 8.1% of bird sera (site SPb). C. burnetii DNA was revealed in feces of birds: 0.6% at AL site, and 13.7% at SR site.
Both molecular-genetic and immunological methods were applied to confirm the role of birds as a natural reservoir of C. burnetii. The places of wild bird stopover in Russia (Baltic region) and in Bulgaria (Atanasovsko Lake and Sofia region) proved to be natural foci of C. burnetii infection. Migratory birds are likely to act as efficient "vehicles" in dispersal of C. burnetii -infested ixodid ticks.
PubMed ID
30509727 View in PubMed
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Disseminated visceral coccidiosis in sandhill cranes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6964
Source
J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1984 Dec 1;185(11):1342-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1-1984
Author
J W Carpenter
M N Novilla
R. Fayer
G C Iverson
Source
J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1984 Dec 1;185(11):1342-6
Date
Dec-1-1984
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Animals
Animals, Wild - parasitology
Bird Diseases - epidemiology - parasitology
Birds
Coccidiosis - epidemiology - parasitology - veterinary
Eimeria - growth & development
Female
Granuloma - epidemiology - parasitology - veterinary
Male
Saskatchewan
United States
Abstract
Disseminated visceral coccidiosis (DVC) caused by Eimeria spp was first recognized as a disease entity in captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) and whooping cranes (G americana) at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Because cranes produced at the Center are reintroduced to the wild to augment wild populations, studies involving both experimentally induced and natural infections were initiated to determine the potential or actual occurrence of DVC in wild Gruidae. Nine sandhill cranes dosed orally with eimerian oocysts of wild origin developed lesions characteristic of DVC. Extraintestinal granulomas associated with developing schizonts were found in 6 birds. Similar lesions were observed in wild sandhill cranes throughout parts of midwestern United States, Alaska, and Saskatchewan. These studies revealed the wide geographic distribution and the high frequency of occurrence of DVC in wild cranes.
PubMed ID
6511579 View in PubMed
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Ecosystem health as a clinical rotation for senior students in Canadian veterinary schools.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature207856
Source
Can Vet J. 1997 Aug;38(8):485-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1997
Author
C. Ribble
B. Hunter
N. Larivière
D. Bélanger
G. Wobeser
P Y Daoust
T. Leighton
D. Waltner-Toews
J. Davidson
E. Spangler
O. Nielsen
Author Affiliation
Department of Herd Medicine and Theriogenology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon.
Source
Can Vet J. 1997 Aug;38(8):485-90
Date
Aug-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agriculture
Animals
Aquaculture
Bird Diseases - epidemiology - mortality
Botulism - epidemiology - mortality - veterinary
Canada
Cattle
Cattle Diseases - epidemiology - etiology - mortality
Curriculum
Ducks
Ecosystem
Education, Veterinary - organization & administration - trends
Environment
Environmental health
Environmental monitoring
Epidemiological Monitoring
Humans
Ostreidae
Water Pollution
Whales
Abstract
We describe 4 years of an experimental rotation in ecosystem health offered to senior veterinary students in Canada. Faculty from the 4 Canadian veterinary colleges collaborated in offering the rotation once annually at 1 of the colleges. The 1st rotation was held in Guelph in 1993, followed in successive years by rotations at Saskatoon, Saint-Hyacinthe, and Charlottetown. The rotation is a predominantly field-based experience that allows students to work with veterinary and other role models who are actively engaged in clinical research related to ecosystem health. Five specific field studies that worked particularly well during the rotations are presented. These studies involved investigating mortality in wildlife due to botulism, designing an environmental surveillance system around herds of beef cattle, using belugas to evaluate the health of the St. Lawrence River, dealing with competition for water use by aquaculture and agriculture, and exploring the role of veterinarians during major coastal oil spills. The experience has resulted in our developing the subject matter, field examples, teaching approach, and confidence necessary to make ecosystem health the focus of a productive clinical rotation for senior year veterinary students.
Notes
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PubMed ID
9262857 View in PubMed
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Emperor geese (Anser canagicus) are exposed to a diversity of influenza A viruses, are infected during the non-breeding period and contribute to intercontinental viral dispersal.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature310559
Source
Transbound Emerg Dis. 2019 Sep; 66(5):1958-1970
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Sep-2019
Author
Andrew M Ramey
Brian D Uher-Koch
Andrew B Reeves
Joel A Schmutz
Rebecca L Poulson
David E Stallknecht
Author Affiliation
U.S. Geological Survey Alaska Science Center, Anchorage, Alaska.
Source
Transbound Emerg Dis. 2019 Sep; 66(5):1958-1970
Date
Sep-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Alaska - epidemiology
Animals
Animals, Wild
Bird Diseases - epidemiology - virology
Female
Geese
Influenza A virus - classification - physiology
Influenza in Birds - epidemiology - virology
Prevalence
Russia - epidemiology
Seasons
Abstract
Emperor geese (Anser canagicus) are endemic to coastal areas within Beringia and have previously been found to have antibodies to or to be infected with influenza A viruses (IAVs) in Alaska. In this study, we use virological, serological and tracking data to further elucidate the role of emperor geese in the ecology of IAVs in Beringia during the non-breeding period. Specifically, we assess evidence for: (a) active IAV infection during spring staging, autumn staging and wintering periods; (b) infection with novel Eurasian-origin or interhemispheric reassortant viruses; (c) contemporary movement of geese between East Asia and North America; (d) previous exposure to viruses of 14 haemagglutinin subtypes, including Eurasian lineage highly pathogenic (HP) H5 IAVs; and (e) subtype-specific antibody seroconversion and seroreversion. Emperor geese were found to shed IAVs, including interhemispheric reassortant viruses, throughout the non-breeding period; migrate between Alaska and the Russian Far East prior to and following remigial moult; have antibodies reactive to a diversity of IAVs including, in a few instances, Eurasian lineage HP H5 IAVs; and exhibit relatively broad and stable patterns of population immunity among breeding females. Results of this study suggest that emperor geese may play an important role in the maintenance and dispersal of IAVs within Beringia during the non-breeding period and provide information that may be used to further optimize surveillance activities focused on the early detection of Eurasian-origin IAVs in North America.
PubMed ID
31077545 View in PubMed
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Fatal paralytic shellfish poisoning in Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) nestlings, Alaska, USA.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263586
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2014 Oct;50(4):933-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2014
Author
Valerie Shearn-Bochsler
Ellen W Lance
Robin Corcoran
John Piatt
Barbara Bodenstein
Elizabeth Frame
James Lawonn
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2014 Oct;50(4):933-7
Date
Oct-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska - epidemiology
Animals
Bird Diseases - epidemiology - mortality
Charadriiformes
Environmental monitoring
Fishes
Food Contamination
Shellfish Poisoning - epidemiology - veterinary
Time Factors
Abstract
Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is an acute toxic illness in humans resulting from ingestion of shellfish contaminated with a suite of neurotoxins (saxitoxins) produced by marine dinoflagellates, most commonly in the genus Alexandrium. Poisoning also has been sporadically suspected and, less often, documented in marine wildlife, often in association with an outbreak in humans. Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) is a small, rare seabird of the Northern Pacific with a declining population. From 2008 to 2012, as part of a breeding ecology study, multiple Kittlitz's Murrelet nests on Kodiak Island, Alaska, were monitored by remote cameras. During the 2011 and 2012 breeding seasons, nestlings from several sites died during mild weather conditions. Remote camera observations revealed that the nestlings died shortly after consuming sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus), a fish species known to biomagnify saxitoxin. High levels of saxitoxin were subsequently documented in crop content in 87% of nestling carcasses. Marine bird deaths from PSP may be underreported.
PubMed ID
25098307 View in PubMed
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44 records – page 1 of 5.