We reviewed the results of fine needle biopsy of the adrenal glands guided by ultrasonography or CT in 56 patients. The final diagnoses, obtained at operation, autopsy or follow-up were: metastasis (n = 22), adenoma (n = 21), adrenal cyst (n = 6), hematoma (n = 3), lymphoma (n = 1), pheochromocytoma (n = 1), lymph node (n = 1), and amyloid mass (n = 1). Sufficient cytologic material was obtained in 96.4% (54/56). The overall accuracy to differentiate benign from malignant disease was 85.7% (48/56), 2 were false-negative, one was false-positive. The biopsy was inconclusive ("possibly malignant") in 3 patients, 2 of whom had an additional cutting needle biopsy yielding a correct positive finding. No complications occurred. We conclude that in disseminated malignant disease with suspected adrenal metastases diagnostic results can be obtained with guided fine needle biopsy. Biopsy in primary adrenal lesions is helpful, especially if the aspirate of the lesion turns out to be composed of something other than adrenal cells.
The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy and clinical utility of fine needle aspiration (FNA) for the preoperative diagnosis of patients presenting with solitary thyroid nodules. Between 1987 and 1991, 317 patients with a thyroid nodule underwent FNA. Surgery was performed on 98 of the patients, and the cytologic findings were correlated with the final histologic diagnoses for these cases. Of the 98 patients operated on, satisfactory aspirates were obtained in 85 patients and classified as either malignant, suspicious for malignancy, or benign. The FNA was correct in predicting malignancy in 29 of 35 nodules (82.9%). With the benign nodules, FNA was correct in 44 of 50 nodules (88%). The overall accuracy of FNA was 85.9%. The accuracy for the combination of FNA and frozen section (FS) was 92.6%. We conclude that both FNA and FS are accurate tests that play a useful role in the pre- and intraoperative diagnostic evaluation of patients presenting with solitary thyroid nodules.
To investigate how well the Gleason score in diagnostic needle biopsies predicted the Gleason score in a subsequent radical prostatectomy (RP) specimen before and after the 2005 International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) revision of Gleason grading, and if the recently proposed ISUP grades 1-5 (corresponding to Gleason scores 6, 3 + 4, 4 + 3, 8 and 9-10) better predict the RP grade.
All prostate cancers diagnosed in Sweden are reported to the National Prostate Cancer Register (NPCR). We analysed the Gleason scores and ISUP grades from the diagnostic biopsies and the RP specimens in 15 598 men in the NPCR who: were diagnosed between 2000 and 2012 with clinical stage T1-2 M0/X prostate cancer on needle biopsy; were aged =70 years; had serum PSA concentration of
Previous studies have suggested that the intake of trans-fatty acids (TFA) plays a role in the development of obesity. The proportions of adipose tissue fatty acids not synthesised endogenously in humans, such as TFA, usually correlate well with the dietary intake. Hence, the use of these biomarkers may provide a more accurate measure of habitual TFA intake than that obtained with dietary questionnaires. The objective of the present study was to investigate the associations between the proportions of specific TFA in adipose tissue and subsequent changes in weight and waist circumference (WC). The relative content of fatty acids in adipose tissue biopsies from a random sample of 996 men and women aged 50-64 years drawn from a Danish cohort study was determined by GC. Baseline data on weight, WC and potential confounders were available together with information on weight and WC 5 years after enrolment. The exposure measures were total trans-octadecenoic acids (18:1t), 18:1 ?6-10t, vaccenic acid (18:1 ?11t) and rumenic acid (18:2 ?9c, 11t). Data were analysed using multiple regression with cubic spline modelling. The median proportion of total adipose tissue 18:1t was 1.52% (90% central range 0.98, 2.19) in men and 1.47% (1.01, 2.19) in women. No significant associations were observed between the proportions of total 18:1t, 18:1 ?6-10t, vaccenic acid or rumenic acid and changes in weight or WC. The present study suggests that the proportions of specific TFA in adipose tissue are not associated with subsequent changes in weight or WC within the exposure range observed in this population.
BACKGROUND: Beneficial training outcomes have been reported in sedentary patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) after exercise training. However, data on training effects in previously trained patients, as well as comparisons of different exercise modes, are lacking. The aim of this study is to compare exercise training on a cycle ergometer (major muscle mass) and aerobic knee-extensor training (minor muscle mass) in previously trained patients with CHF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-four men and women (age, 63 +/- 10 years [mean +/- SD]) with stable, moderate CHF (left ventricular ejection fraction, 30% +/- 11%) who had completed their first exercise training period more than 1 year ago were allocated to either the exercise or control group. After stratification for sex, age, ejection fraction, and cardiac output response, the training group was further randomized to either cycle ergometer or knee-extensor training for 8 weeks. The control and training patients did not differ at baseline, and the measured variables did not change in the control group during the 8 weeks. Citrate synthase activity in skeletal muscle increased after cycle training (23%; P
To investigate the association between diverticulitis and colon cancer in a large, nationwide cohort study.
Diverticulitis is a common disease, especially in the Western world. Previous articles have investigated the association between diverticulitis and colon cancer with inconclusive results.
We conducted a population-based cohort study based on longitudinal Danish national registers with data from the period 1995 to 2012. Data were extracted from comprehensive Danish national registers containing information from both public and private hospitals. Patients with diverticulitis were identified from the registers and matched by sex and age (? 1 year) with a ratio of 1:10 to people who did not have a registration of diverticulitis or diverticulosis. Main outcome was the event of colon cancer. Subgroup analyses were performed to investigate the effect of colonoscopies and treatment on the colon cancer rate after diverticulitis.
A total of 445,456 people were included, of whom 40,496 had a diagnosis of diverticulitis. The incidence of colon cancer in the group with diverticulitis (4.3%) and the group without diverticulitis (2.3%) differed significantly (P
The occurrence of abnormal nuclear DNA content in major salivary gland adenomas is not well known and its correlation with tumor recurrence has not been documented previously. From 1987 to 1991, 119 consecutive major salivary gland adenomas were operated on at Turku University Central Hospital. These tumors were analyzed by flow cytometry and 100 (84%) were found to be diploid, 12 (10%) near-diploid and 7 (6%) aneuploid with DNA indexes > 1.15. The mean proliferation rate measured as a percentage of cells in the S-phase fraction was 2.5 +/- 1.6%. The histological slides were then blindly reclassified according to current World Health Organization classification. As a result histological classification was changed in 3 tumors: malignant cells were found in 2 aneuploid tumors and 1 diploid neoplasm. Preoperative cytological fine-needle aspiration biopsy had been considered as possibly malignant in 2 of these cases. Among all case material 10 specimens were recurrent tumors; although the tendency to recur depended on the extent and adequacy of the surgery performed, multiple recurrences were associated with non-diploid tumors.
We evaluated a new automated biopsy device for percutaneous renal biopsies under ultrasound guidance, which was recently introduced in Japan for prostate biopsies. This device (Biopty-Gun: Bard Biopty Instrument Uppsala, Sweden) employs a Tru-Cut type smaller needle (18 gauge). We were able to obtain one or two renal tissues in all 57 cases with great ease and in little time. The length of specimen was sufficient (5-17 mm), but the width was thinner than the samples with the Vim-Silverman or Tru-Cut needles. We could achieve a definitive pathological diagnosis in 54 of 57 cases (94.7%), but now, we try to obtain two pieces of tissue for taking more adequate tissue. Only three patients had perirenal hematomas noted by computerized tomography or ultrasonography. We believe that this new automated technique offers a safer and more effective means of obtaining renal tissue.
The aim of this study was to determine antibiotic susceptibility of Propionibacterium acnes isolates from prostate. Prostate-derived P. acnes isolates (n = 24, Umeå & Örebro, Sweden, 2007-2010) and a panel of control strains (n = 25, Sweden) collected from skin and deep infections were assessed for resistance to penicillin G, piperacillin-tazobactam, imipenem, gentamicin, azithromycin, erythromycin, vancomycin, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, tetracycline, tigecycline, fusidic acid, clindamycin, rifampicin, linezolid, daptomycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and metronidazole. In addition, the isolates were tested for inducible clindamycin resistance. All prostate derived P. acnes isolates displayed wild-type distribution of MIC-values, without evidence of acquired resistance. In the reference panel, 5 of 25 isolates had acquired macrolide resistance with cross-resistance to azithromycin, clindamycin, and erythromycin. In addition, one of these isolates was resistant to tetracycline.
Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Unit of Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Anticoagulant treatment might enhance the natural defense against tumor cell dissemination caused by diagnostic needle biopsy by counteracting thrombocyte coating of such cells. To clarify whether women using anticoagulant treatment at the time of biopsy have a lower occurrence of lymph node metastasis, we conducted a nationwide Swedish cohort study of 26,528 female incident breast cancer patients in 2006-2011. Point risk ratio (RR) of risk of lymph node metastasis among users of anticoagulant treatment adjusted for age, T-stage, socioeconomic factors, and concomitant medication was RR?=?0.94, (95% CI: 0.87-1.03), and lower in younger women (RR?=?0.80, 95% CI 0.50-1.29). Although nonsignificant, these associations may underestimate a true negative association since women using anticoagulant treatment are likely to have more concomitant diseases, lead an unhealthier lifestyle, and have lower participation in mammography screening. These findings provide some support for the hypothesis that anticoagulant medications might counteract breast cancer spread caused by needle biopsy.