Currents efforts in marine biodiscovery have essentially focused on temperate to tropical shallow water organisms. With more than 6000 species of marine plants and animals, the Kosterfjord area has the richest marine biodiversity in Swedish waters, but it remains understudied. The overall objective of our marine pharmacognosy research is to explore and reveal the pharmacological potential of organisms from this poorly explored region. More generally, we wish to understand aspects of structure-activity relationships of chemical interactions in cold-water marine environment (shallow and deep). Our strategy is based on ecologically guided search for compounds through studies of physiology and organism interactions coupled to identification of bioactive molecules guided by especially in vivo assays. The research programme originated in the beginning of the 1980s with a broad screening of Swedish marine organisms using both in vitro and in vivo assays, resulting in isolation and identification of several different bioactive molecules. Two congenerous cyclopeptides, i.e. barettin and 8,9-dihydrobarettin, were isolated from the deep-sea sponge Geodia barretti, and structurally elucidated, guided by their antifouling activity and their affinity to a selection of human serotonin receptors. To optimize the activity a number of analogues of barettin were synthezised and tested for antifouling activity. Within the EU project BlueGenics, two larger homologous peptides, barrettides A and B, were isolated from G. baretti. Also, metabolic fingerprinting combined with sponge systematics was used to further study deep-sea natural product diversity in the genus Geodia. Finally, the chemical property space model 'ChemGPS-NP' has been developed and used in our research group, enabling a more efficient use of obtained compounds and exploration of possible biological activities and targets. Another approach is the broad application of phylogenetic frameworks, which can be used in prediction of where-in which organisms-to search for novel molecules or better sources of known molecules in marine organisms. In a further perspective, the deeper understanding of evolution and development of life on Earth can also provide answers to why marine organisms produce specific molecules.
In the article there are designated the state and actual hygiene tasks on the issue of environmental pollution and its effects on health of the population. There was emphasized the growing importance of chemical contamination of various objects of environment--air water, soil, and living environment. There is presented the analysis of data on different types of treatment of municipal waste in selected countries. There were shown the significance of the developed Guidance on risk assessmentfor public health as a toolfor making sound management decisions, prospects of using of the methodology of epidemiological mapping based on geoinformational technology (GIS technology). There was marked an important role of the younger generation of hygienists and health officers in further work on both preservation and improvement the health of the population in their countries, harmonization of scientific and practical solutions of actual problems of hygiene.
The present article reviews pertinent contributions from the Montreal Heart Institute, Montreal, Quebec, to the understanding of the mechanisms and treatment of atrial fibrillation. The article discusses the usefulness of anticoagulant therapy, antiarrhythmic drug therapy for sinus rhythm maintenance, the electrophysiological basis of atrial fibrillation and the investigation of new energy sources for catheter ablation. Future directions at the Montreal Heart Institute are also briefly addressed.
Climate change and environmental pollution have become pressing concerns for the peoples in the Arctic region. Some researchers link climate change, transformations of living conditions and human health. A number of studies have also provided data on differentiating effects of climate change on women's and men's well-being and health.
To show how the issues of climate and environment change, human health and gender are addressed in current research in the Arctic. The main purpose of this article is not to give a full review but to draw attention to the gaps in knowledge and challenges in the Arctic research trends on climate change, human health and gender.
A broad literature search was undertaken using a variety of sources from natural, medical, social science and humanities. The focus was on the keywords.
Despite the evidence provided by many researchers on differentiating effects of climate change on well-being and health of women and men, gender perspective remains of marginal interest in climate change, environmental and health studies. At the same time, social sciences and humanities, and gender studies in particular, show little interest towards climate change impacts on human health in the Arctic. As a result, we still observe the division of labour between disciplines, the disciplinary-bound pictures of human development in the Arctic and terminology confusion.
Efforts to bring in a gender perspective in the Arctic research will be successful only when different disciplines would work together. Multidisciplinary research is a way to challenge academic/disciplinary homogeneity and their boundaries, to take advantage of the diversity of approaches and methods in production of new integrated knowledge. Cooperation and dialogue across disciplines will help to develop adequate indicators for monitoring human health and elaborating efficient policies and strategies to the benefit of both women and men in the Arctic.
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2007 Feb;66(1):51-6117451134
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2007 Apr;66(2):113-2817515251
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2007 Jun;66(3):199-21417655061
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2008 Feb;67(1):8-2618468256
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2009 Feb;68(1):84-9119331244
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2010 Feb;69(1):99-10520167160
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2010 Sep;69(4):383-9320719108
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2005 Dec;64(5):442-5016440606
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2005 Dec;64(5):459-6716440608
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2005 Dec;64(5):478-8616440610
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2005 Dec;64(5):487-9716440611
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2005 Dec;64(5):498-50816440612
The Breast Cancer Site Group (BCSG) of the National Cancer Institute of Canada (NCIC) Clinical Trials Group (CTG) has conducted a wide variety of clinical trials focussing on large phase III trials of adjuvant chemotherapy, adjuvant hormonal therapy, and optimal delivery of adjuvant radiation therapy. The Group has also fostered, together with the NCIC CTG Investigational New Drug (IND) Program, a series of phase II and phase I/II studies which will be carried through if possible, into the phase III setting.
Cites: Lancet. 2002 Jun 22;359(9324):2131-912090977
Cites: Cancer. 2003 Nov 1;98(9):1802-1014584060
Cites: N Engl J Med. 2003 Nov 6;349(19):1793-80214551341
Cites: Int J Cancer. 1999 Sep 9;82(6):893-90010446459
Cites: J Clin Oncol. 1996 Feb;14(2):422-88636752
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1997 Oct 2;337(14):949-559395428
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1997 Oct 2;337(14):956-629309100
Cites: N Engl J Med. 2004 Mar 11;350(11):1081-9215014181
An analysis of the chapter "Medical help for the substance abuses, clinic, treatment of the abusers, biological studies of the abuses' in the Proceedings of the last two Russian congresses of psychiatrists (XIII in 2000 and XIV in 2005) reveals the vast multiplicity of topics. The majority of topics featured in the XIII Congress does not provide any follow-up information in the materials of the XIV Congress thus not allowing to figure out the tendencies or consequences in the field of addiction studies. There is no uniformity in the vocabulary used in the chapter analyzed. The dominant topics such as alcoholism and opiate abuse make up a small part of the total amount of papers.