Center for Life Course Health Research, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, 90014 Oulu, Finland; Unit of Primary Health Care, Oulu University Hospital, OYS, P.O. Box 20, 90029 Oulu, Finland. Electronic address: email@example.com.
We explored whether registered unemployment is associated with impaired glucose metabolism in general population.
Based on Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 at 46 years, we analyzed the oral glucose tolerance tests of 1970 men and 2544 women in relation to their preceding three-year employment records in three categories of unemployment exposure: no (employed), low (=1-year) and high exposure (>1-year).
Among men, pre-diabetes was found in 19.2% of those with no unemployment, 23.0% with low and 27.0% with high exposure, the corresponding figures for screen-detected type 2 diabetes were 3.8%, 3.8% and 9.2% (p
CommentIn: Prim Care Diabetes. 2018 Feb;12 (1):92 PMID 28807657
The recently established international cystatin C calibrator makes it possible to develop non-laboratory specific glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimating (eGFR) equations. This study compares the performance of the arithmetic mean of the revised Lund-Malmö creatinine and CAPA cystatin C equations (MEANLM-REV+CAPA), the arithmetic mean of the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation (CKD-EPI) creatinine and cystatin C equations (MEANCKD-EPI), and the composite CKD-EPI equation (CKD-EPICREA+CYSC) with the corresponding single marker equations using internationally standardized calibrators for both cystatin C and creatinine.
The study included 1200 examinations in 1112 adult Swedish patients referred for measurement of GFR (mGFR) 2008-2010 by plasma clearance of iohexol (median 51 mL/min/1.73 m2). Bias, precision (interquartile range, IQR) and accuracy (percentage of estimates ±30% of mGFR; P30) were compared.
Combined marker equations were unbiased and had higher precision and accuracy than single marker equations. Overall results of MEANLM-REV+CAPA/MEANCKD-EPI/CKD-EPICREA+CYSC were: median bias -2.2%/-0.5%/-1.6%, IQR 9.2/9.2/8.8 mL/min/1.73 m2, and P30 91.3%/91.0%/91.1%. The P30 figures were about 7-14 percentage points higher than the single marker equations. The combined equations also had a more stable performance across mGFR, age and BMI intervals, generally with P30 =90% and never
The Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project (STRIP) is a prospective infancy-onset randomized dietary intervention trial targeting dietary fat quality and cholesterol intake, and favoring consumption of vegetables, fruit, and whole-grains. Diet (food records) and circulating metabolites were studied at six time points between the ages of 9-19 years (n = 549-338). Dietary targets for this study were defined as (1) the ratio of saturated fat (SAFA) to monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA + PUFA)
To determine the value of molecular biomarkers (BMs) associated with tubular epithelial damage in developing and predicting acute kidney injury (AKI) after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).
The open-label observational prospective study enrolled 90 patients (46 males and 44 females) who had undergone HSCT. The concentrations of BMs (calbindin, clusterin, interleukin-18 (IL-18), kidney injury molecules-1 (KIM-1), glutathione S-transferase-p (GST-p), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were measured in urinary samples 7 days before HSCT (week 0) and at weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. Main clinical parameters were simultaneously monitored. AKI was diagnosed and stratified according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines.
At weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 after HSCT, the proportion of AKI cases was 7.8, 8.9, 12.5, 27.3, and 35.9%, respectively. The elevated urinary levels of BMs (above the median) were found to be substantially more common than AKI cases. The urinary excretion of the majority of BMs dramatically increased in the early HSCT period. The median number of simultaneously elevated BMs was 3 (2; 5) during the entire follow-up period. Clusterin, MCP-1 and KIM-1 positively and significantly correlated with serum creatinine at the week following the determination of BMs in the multivariate linear regression models adjusted for other confounders. The higher urinary KIM-1 and/or MCP-1 excretion regardless of other clinical indicators was associated with the higher relative risk (RR) of AKI, which increased by 2.3 times with a rise in one of these indicators and by 3.4 times with a rise in both indicators.
Multiple renal toxic effects after HSCT result in a substantial and simultaneous elevation of urinary excretion of BMs for tubular damage. Among the BMs studied, KIM-1 and MCP-1 seem to be the most suitable molecules for assessing the risk of AKI in this cohort of patient within the predictive diagnostic approach.
To investigate the diagnostic potential of the concentrations of acute-phase proteins serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), and fibrinogen in blood and peritoneal fluid (PF) for differentiating horses with inflammatory colic (entero-colitis and peritonitis) from those with surgical colic.
Prospective observational multicenter study.
Two university referral hospitals.
Horses referred for severe acute abdominal pain to Hospital 1 (n = 148) or Hospital 2 (n = 78).
Blood and PF samples collected at admission were used for acute-phase protein concentration measurement.
A multivariable logistic model including clinical parameters (lethargy, rectal temperature >38°C [100.4°F], normal rectal examination findings, and gastric reflux of 5-10 L) recorded at admission was constructed from Hospital 1 data. The ability of the model to correctly differentiate inflammatory from surgical colic was 86% determined as area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Adding blood parameters (WBC, PCV, total plasma protein, lactate, SAA, Hp, and fibrinogen concentrations) to the logistic model based on clinical parameters revealed that only WBC and SAA and fibrinogen concentrations improved the model. With SAA included in the model no additional blood parameters improved the model, and the final model had an area under the curve of 90%. Addition of PF parameters (hemolysis, total protein concentration, WBC, SAA, or Hp concentrations) did not improve the model. When validated in Hospital 2 data, the models had good integrity and diagnostic performance.
Evaluation of SAA in serum improved the ability to differentiate horses with acute inflammatory colic requiring medical treatment from horses with colic requiring surgery, as it allowed an additional 4% of horses to be correctly classified into medical and surgical cases. Improved differentiation of these 2 groups of horses with colic may minimize the risk of unnecessary or delayed surgery.
There is a paucity of data regarding prognosis in patients with acute versus chronic myocardial injury for long-term outcomes. We hypothesised that patients with chronic myocardial injury have a similar long-term prognosis as patients with acute myocardial injury.
In an observational cohort study of 22?589 patients who had high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) measured in the emergency department during 2011-2014, we identified all patients with level >14?ng/L and categorised them as acute myocardial injury, type 1 myocardial infarction (T1MI), type 2 myocardial infarction (T2MI) or chronic myocardial injury through adjudication. We estimated adjusted HRs with 95% CIs for the primary outcome all-cause mortality and secondary outcomes MI, and heart failure in patients with acute myocardial injury, T1MI and T2MI compared with chronic myocardial injury.
In total, 3853 patients were included. During 3.9 (±2) years of follow-up, 48%, 24%, 44% and 49% of patients with acute myocardial injury, T1MI, T2MI and chronic myocardial injury died, respectively. Patients with acute myocardial injury had higher adjusted risks of death (1.21, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.36) and heart failure (1.24, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.43), but a similar risk for myocardial infarction (MI) compared with the reference group. Patients with T1MI had a lower adjusted risk of death (0.86, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.00) and higher risk of MI (2.09, 95% CI 1.62 to 2.68), but a similar risk of heart failure. Patients with T2MI had a higher adjusted risk of death (1.46, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.80) and heart failure (1.30, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.69) compared with patients with chronic myocardial injury.
Absolute long-term risks for death are similar, and adjusted risks are slightly higher, among patients with acute myocardial injury and T2MI, respectively, compared with chronic myocardial injury. The lowest risk of long-term mortality was found in patients with T1MI. Both acute and chronic myocardial injury are associated with very high risks of adverse outcomes.
Medical history, physical examination and laboratory testing are not optimal for the assessment of volume status in heart failure (HF) patients. We aimed to study the clinical influence of focused ultrasound of the pleural cavities and inferior vena cava (IVC) performed by specialised nurses to assess volume status in HF patients at an outpatient clinic.
HF outpatients were prospectively included and underwent laboratory testing, history recording and clinical examination by two nurses with and without an ultrasound examination of the pleural cavities and IVC using a pocket-size imaging device, in random order. Each nurse worked in a team with a cardiologist. The influence of the different diagnostic tests on diuretic dosing was assessed descriptively and in linear regression analyses.
Sixty-two patients were included and 119 examinations were performed. Mean±SD age was 74±12 years, EF was 34±14%, and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) value was 3761±3072 ng/L. Dosing of diuretics differed between the teams in 31 out of 119 consultations. Weight change and volume status assessed clinically with and without ultrasound predicted dose adjustment of diuretics at follow-up (p
Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with substantial costs due to over-triage of patients to computed tomography (CT) scanning, despite validated decision rules. Serum biomarker S100B has shown promise for safely omitting CT scans but the economic impact from clinical use has never been reported. In 2007, S100B was adapted into the existing Scandinavian management guidelines in Halmstad, Sweden, in an attempt to reduce CT scans and save costs.
Consecutive adult patients with mild TBI (GCS 14-15, loss of consciousness and/or amnesia), managed with the aid of S100B, were prospectively included in this study. Patients were followed up after 3 months with a standardized questionnaire. Theoretical and actual cost differences were calculated.
Seven hundred twenty-six patients were included and 29 (4.7 %) showed traumatic abnormalities on CT. No further significant intracranial complications were discovered on follow-up. Two hundred twenty-nine patients (27 %) had normal S100B levels and 497 patients (73 %) showed elevated S100B levels. Over-triage occurred in 73 patients (32 %) and under-triage occurred in 39 patients (7 %). No significant intracranial complications were missed. The introduction of S100B could save 71 € per patient if guidelines were strictly followed. As compliance to the guidelines was not perfect, the actual cost saving was 39 € per patient.
Adding S100B to existing guidelines for mild TBI seems to reduce CT usage and costs, especially if guideline compliance could be increased.
Cardiometabolic complications in obesity may be linked to white adipose tissue (WAT) dysfunction. Transcriptomic studies of Sc WAT have reported that CCL18, encoding the CC chemokine ligand 18 (CCL18), is increased in obesity/insulin resistance but its functional role is unknown.
Our objectives were to determine if CCL18 is secreted from Sc WAT and if secreted and/or serum levels associate with metabolic phenotypes. We also planned to define the primary cellular source and if CCL18 exerts effects on adipocytes.
This is a cohort study.
The study took place in an outpatient academic clinic.
A total of 130 obese women scheduled for bariatric surgery and 35 nonobese controls were included.
Insulin sensitivity was assessed by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp or homeostasis model assessment. CCL18 was analyzed in serum/WAT incubates by ELISA. Effects of recombinant CCL18 was determined in cultures of primary human adipocytes and the monocyte cell line THP-1 differentiated into M0/M1/M2 macrophages.
Association with metabolic risk factors was measured.
CCL18 was secreted from WAT and the levels correlated positively with insulin resistance, Adult Treatment Panel III risk score and plasma triglycerides, independent of body mass index and better than other established adipocytokines. In 80 obese women, S-CCL18 levels were significantly higher in insulin resistant compared with insulin sensitive subjects. In WAT CCL18 mRNA was expressed in macrophages and correlated positively with immune-related genes, particularly those enriched in M2 macrophages. While CCL18 increased cyto-/chemokine expression in M0/M2-THP-1 cells, human adipocytes showed no responses in vitro.
Circulating and WAT-secreted CCL18 correlates with insulin resistance and metabolic risk score. Because CCL18 is macrophage-specific and associates with adipose immune gene expression, it may constitute a marker of WAT inflammation.