Biological therapy for ankylosing spondylitis (AS) has led to improved disease control beyond that of conventional treatments. International recommendations encourage clinicians prescribing biological treatments to register patients in national registers to collect information on outcome and toxicity. Patients with AS (n = 229) from the Register of Biological Treatment in Finland (ROB-FIN) with severe disease of long duration were followed-up for up to 24 months. Due to an active disease, one or more concomitant disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) were used by 86% at commencement of biological therapy. This add-on strategy with infliximab led to a rapid pain relief and improvement of patient's and physician's global assessments, C-reactive protein/erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and swollen and tender joint counts within 6 weeks. Concomitant use of NSAID and oral corticosteroid was reduced. Corresponding results were documented at 3 months with etanercept, which was more recently approved for the treatment of spondyloarthropathies. Seventy-nine percent of the patients were ASAS 20 responders. A subgroup of AS patients with only axial involvement (n = 46) responded correspondingly. The first biological drug was discontinued in only 7% due to lack of efficacy and in 6% due to adverse events. Anti-TNF agents, often used in combination with DMARDs, appeared to have persistent effectiveness and limited toxicity in a real-life clinical setting in a cohort of Finnish AS patients with severe disease and long disease duration.
Biological drugs are used in the treatment of active inflammatory athritides refractory to conventional treatment. Data from the Finnish registry of biological treatment (ROB-FIN) indicates that the effectiveness of the biologicals in clinical practice corresponds to or even excels that of randomized controlled clinical trials, and seems to endure in patients continuing treatment. About one-fifth of rheumatoid arthritis patients discontinue treatment due to lack of effectiveness, and one-tenth due to adverse events. Serious adverse events were seen in 2.5% of all patients. In the future electronic follow-up, pharmacogenetics, and biomarker research may help to better optimize treatment individually.
The authors defined epidemiological efficacy and safety of the use of bacteriophages(streptococcal, staphylococcal, piobakferiophage multipartial) and bitsillin-5 to reduce tonsillitis morbidityand other respiratory diseases with bacterial etiology in groups of servicemen during their formationagainst increase of seasonal morbidity. The results of the use of these preventive agents were evaluatedby a comparative analysis of this disease in experimental and control groups. In total 510 healthy conscriptswere involved into the study. The effectiveness of prophylactic use of bacteriophages and bitsillin-5, whichprovided a reduction in the incidence of respiratory infections of bacterial ethiology, tonsillitis, and otherrespiratory diseases is showed. Recommendations on the choice of drugsfor the prevention of these infections,methods and organization of their application in organized groups are given.
N.N. Burdenko surgery clinic have an experience of treatment of 342 patients with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Original algorithms of diagnosis, complex treatment and postoperative management were applied. We achieved 100% five-year survival rate after radical surgery and reduced postoperative complications 1.6 times.
Clostridium difficile infection is one of the most common nosocomial infections. Among other alternatives to standard treatment with vancomycin for recurrent infection are faecal microbiota transplantation and rectal bacteriotherapy with a fixed mixture of intestinal bacterial strains isolated from faeces of healthy persons to mimic a theoretical normal microflora. Developed by Dr. Tvede and Dr. Rask-Madsen, the latter method has been in use for selected patients during the last 25 years in Denmark. In this study we reviewed the medical records of patients treated with rectal bacteriotherapy for relapsing C. difficile in Denmark, 2000-2012. The primary end point was recurrent diarrhoea within 30 days after treatment. A total of 55 patients were included in this case series. Thirty-five patients (64%) had no recurrence within 30 days of bacteriotherapy. Patients with recurrence tended to be older (75.8 years vs. 61.3 years; p 0.26), and more often have preexisting gastrointestinal illness and longer duration of time from the first CDI to bacteriotherapy (221.6 days vs. 175.3 days; p 0.18). Treatment success was 80% in the subgroup of patients with no known gastrointestinal illness and first C. difficile episode less than 6 months before bacteriotherapy. The most common adverse events were abdominal pain (10.9%) and worsening diarrhoea (4.3%). One patient was hospitalized 10 days after treatment with appendicitis, fever, and Escherichia coli bacteremia. The results from this study indicate that rectal bacteriotherapy is a viable alternative to faecal microbiota transplantation in patients with relapsing C. difficile-associated diarrhoea.
Antibiotic-associated infection with the bacterial pathogen Clostridium difficile is a major cause of morbidity and increased health care costs. C difficile infection follows disruption of the indigenous gut microbiota by antibiotics. Antibiotics create an environment within the intestine that promotes C difficile spore germination, vegetative growth, and toxin production, leading to epithelial damage and colitis. Studies of patients with C difficile infection and animal models have shown that the indigenous microbiota can inhibit expansion and persistence of C difficile. Although the specific mechanisms of these processes are not known, they are likely to interfere with key aspects of the pathogen's physiology, including spore germination and competitive growth. Increasing our understanding of how the intestinal microbiota manage C difficile could lead to better means of controlling this important nosocomial pathogen.
Peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) contributes to decreased exercise tolerance, poor balance, impaired proprioception, muscle atrophy and weakness, with advanced cases resulting in critical limb ischemia (CLI) where the viability of the limb is threatened. Patients with a diagnosis of CLI have a poor life expectancy due to concomitant cardio and cerebrovascular diseases. The current treatment options to avoid major amputation by re-establishing a blood supply to the limb generally have poor outcomes. Human skeletal muscle contains both multipotent stem cells and progenitor cells and thus has a capacity for regeneration. Phase I and II studies involving transplantation of bone marrow-derived progenitor cells into CLI limbs show positive effects on wound healing and angiogenesis; the increase in quiescent satellite cell numbers observed in CLI muscle may also provide a sufficient in vivo source of resident stem cells. These indigenous cells have been shown to be capable of forming multiple mesodermal cell lineages aiding the repair and regeneration of chronically ischemic muscle. They may also serve as a repository for autologous transplantation. The behavior and responses of the stem cell population in CLI is poorly understood and this review tries to elucidate the potential of these cells and their future role in the management of CLI.
We have reviewed the issues surrounding the advent of biosimilars in the rheumatoid arthritis biologic field. Our proposals emphasize the need to focus primarily on patient safety and to assess the outcomes of therapy both in the short and longer term.