Skip header and navigation

Refine By

189 records – page 1 of 19.

Adaptive divergence in flowering time among natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana: Estimates of selection and QTL mapping.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286139
Source
Evolution. 2017 Mar;71(3):550-564
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2017
Author
Jon Ågren
Christopher G Oakley
Sverre Lundemo
Douglas W Schemske
Source
Evolution. 2017 Mar;71(3):550-564
Date
Mar-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arabidopsis - genetics - physiology
Biological Evolution
Ecotype
Flowers - growth & development
Italy
Quantitative Trait Loci
Reproduction
Seasons
Selection, Genetic
Sweden
Abstract
To identify the ecological and genetic mechanisms of local adaptation requires estimating selection on traits, identifying their genetic basis, and evaluating whether divergence in adaptive traits is due to conditional neutrality or genetic trade-offs. To this end, we conducted field experiments for three years using recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from two ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana (Italy, Sweden), and at each parental site examined selection on flowering time and mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL). There was strong selection for early flowering in Italy, but weak selection in Sweden. Eleven distinct flowering time QTL were detected, and for each the Italian genotype caused earlier flowering. Twenty-seven candidate genes were identified, two of which (FLC and VIN3) appear under major flowering time QTL in Italy. Seven of eight QTL in Italy with narrow credible intervals colocalized with previously reported fitness QTL, in comparison to three of four in Sweden. The results demonstrate that the magnitude of selection on flowering time differs strikingly between our study populations, that the genetic basis of flowering time variation is multigenic with some QTL of large effect, and suggest that divergence in flowering time between ecotypes is due mainly to conditional neutrality.
PubMed ID
27859214 View in PubMed
Less detail

Adaptive reasons for variation in sex ratios.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature119788
Source
CMAJ. 2012 Oct 16;184(15):1715
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-16-2012
Author
João Alpedrinha
Geoff Wild
Source
CMAJ. 2012 Oct 16;184(15):1715
Date
Oct-16-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Biological - physiology
Biological Evolution
Female
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Male
Ontario
Sex ratio
Notes
Cites: CMAJ. 2012 Jun 12;184(9):E492-622508977
Cites: Am Nat. 2007 Nov;170(5):E112-2817926288
PubMed ID
23073675 View in PubMed
Less detail

Advances in the dental search for Native American origins.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature241352
Source
Acta Anthropogenet. 1984;8(1-2):23-78
Publication Type
Article
Date
1984
Author
C G Turner
Source
Acta Anthropogenet. 1984;8(1-2):23-78
Date
1984
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Americas
Anthropology, Physical
Asia - ethnology
Asian Continental Ancestry Group
Biological Evolution
Humans
Indians, North American
Indians, South American
Paleodontology
Population Dynamics
Tooth - anatomy & histology
Abstract
The Sinodont dental morphology pattern of NE Asia is today more complex and was so by 20,000 years ago, than the simplified Sundadonty of SE Asia-Oceania, and the very simplified pattern that evolved greater than 20,000 B.P. All Native Americans are Sinodonts. Intra--and inter-hemispheric statistical analyses of 28 dental traits in greater than 6000 N & S American and greater than 1100 NE Asian crania reveal three temporally stable American sub-patterns, suggesting prior evolution in Sino-Siberia. The hypothesized biocultural associations and migration episodes are: (1) "Upper Cave" Sinodonts with the generalized Chinese Microlithic Tradition reach the Arctic steppe via the Lena basin to become Paleo--and most later Indians. (2) Smaller-game-hunting Siberian Diuktaians cross to Alaska at forest-forming terminal land bridge times to become Paleo-Arctic and subsequent Na-Dene-speaking NW forest Indians. (3) Lower Amur basin-N Japan blade-makingfolk evolve a coastal culture on the way to the land bridge's SE terminus at Anangula-Umnak where the oldest skeletons of the dentally distinctive but variable Aleut-Eskimos have been found.
PubMed ID
6085675 View in PubMed
Less detail

Alexei Sewertzoff and Adolf Naef: revising Haeckel's biogenetic law.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264417
Source
Hist Philos Life Sci. 2015;36(3):357-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Georgy S Levit
Uwe Hossfeld
Lennart Olsson
Source
Hist Philos Life Sci. 2015;36(3):357-70
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biological Evolution
Developmental Biology - history
History, 19th Century
History, 20th Century
Phylogeny
Russia
Switzerland
Abstract
Ernst Haeckel formulated his biogenetic law, famously stating that ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny, in 1872. The Russian evolutionist Alexei Sewertzoff, and the Swiss-born zoologist Adolf Naef were among those who revised Haeckel's law, thus changing the course of evolutionary theory and of developmental biology. Although Sewertzoff and Naef approached the problem in a similar way and formulated similar hypotheses at a purely descriptive level, their theoretical viewpoints were crucially different. While Sewertzoff laid the foundations for a Darwinian evolutionary morphology and is regarded as a forerunner of the modern synthesis, Naef was one of the most important figures in "idealistic morphology", which is usually seen as a type of anti-Darwinism. Both Naef and Sewertzoff aimed to revise Haeckel's biogenetic law and came to comparable conclusions at the empirical level. This paper is an attempt to explain how their fundamentally different theoretical backgrounds influenced their views on the relationship between ontogeny and phylogeny.
PubMed ID
26013194 View in PubMed
Less detail

Ancient genomes from Iceland reveal the making of a human population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294280
Source
Science. 2018 06 01; 360(6392):1028-1032
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
06-01-2018
Author
S Sunna Ebenesersdóttir
Marcela Sandoval-Velasco
Ellen D Gunnarsdóttir
Anuradha Jagadeesan
Valdís B Guðmundsdóttir
Elísabet L Thordardóttir
Margrét S Einarsdóttir
Kristjan H S Moore
Ásgeir Sigurðsson
Droplaug N Magnúsdóttir
Hákon Jónsson
Steinunn Snorradóttir
Eivind Hovig
Pål Møller
Ingrid Kockum
Tomas Olsson
Lars Alfredsson
Thomas F Hansen
Thomas Werge
Gianpiero L Cavalleri
Edmund Gilbert
Carles Lalueza-Fox
Joe W Walser
Steinunn Kristjánsdóttir
Shyam Gopalakrishnan
Lilja Árnadóttir
Ólafur Þ Magnússon
M Thomas P Gilbert
Kári Stefánsson
Agnar Helgason
Author Affiliation
deCODE Genetics/AMGEN, Inc., Reykjavik Iceland. sunna@decode.is kstefan@deocde.is agnar@decode.is.
Source
Science. 2018 06 01; 360(6392):1028-1032
Date
06-01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Biological Evolution
DNA, Ancient
Female
Founder Effect
Gene Pool
Genetic Drift
Genome, Human
Genotype
Humans
Iceland
Male
Phenotype
Population - genetics
Abstract
Opportunities to directly study the founding of a human population and its subsequent evolutionary history are rare. Using genome sequence data from 27 ancient Icelanders, we demonstrate that they are a combination of Norse, Gaelic, and admixed individuals. We further show that these ancient Icelanders are markedly more similar to their source populations in Scandinavia and the British-Irish Isles than to contemporary Icelanders, who have been shaped by 1100 years of extensive genetic drift. Finally, we report evidence of unequal contributions from the ancient founders to the contemporary Icelandic gene pool. These results provide detailed insights into the making of a human population that has proven extraordinarily useful for the discovery of genotype-phenotype associations.
Notes
CommentIn: Science. 2018 Jun 1;360(6392):964-965 PMID 29853673
PubMed ID
29853688 View in PubMed
Less detail

Animal evolution and atmospheric pO2: is there a link between gradual animal adaptation to terrain elevation due to Ural orogeny and survival of subsequent hypoxic periods?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267416
Source
Theor Biol Med Model. 2014;11:47
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Sven Kurbel
Source
Theor Biol Med Model. 2014;11:47
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Physiological
Altitude
Animals
Anoxia - physiopathology
Biological Evolution
Oxygen - analysis
Russia
Abstract
Considering evolution of terrestrial animals as something happening only on flat continental plains seems wrong. Many mountains have arisen and disappeared over the geologic time scale, so in all periods some areas of high altitude existed, with reduced oxygen pressure (pO2) and increased aridity. During orogeny, animal species of the raising terrain can slowly adapt to reduced oxygen levels.This review proposes that animal evolution was often driven by atmospheric oxygen availability. Transitions of insect ancestors and amphibians out of water are here interpreted as events forced by the lack of oxygen in shallow and warm water during Devonian. Hyperoxia during early Carboniferous allowed giant insects to be predators of lowlands, forcing small amphibians to move to higher terrains, unsuitable to large insects due to reduced pO2. In arid mountainous habitats, ascended animals evolved in early reptiles with more efficient lungs and improved circulation. Animals with alveolar lungs became the mammalian ancestors, while those with respiratory duct lungs developed in archosaurs. In this interpretation, limb precursors of wings and pneumatised bones might have been adaptations for moving on steep slopes.Ural mountains have risen to an estimated height of 3000 m between 318 and 251 Mya. The earliest archosaurs have been found on the European Ural side, estimated 275 Myr old. It is proposed that Ural orogeny slowly elevated several highland habitats within the modern Ural region to heights above 2500 m. Since this process took near 60 Myr, animals in these habitats fully to adapted to hypoxia.The protracted P-Tr hypoxic extinction event killed many aquatic and terrestrial animals. Devastated lowland areas were repopulated by mammaliaformes that came down from mountainous areas. Archosaurs were better adapted to very low pO2, so they were forced to descend to the sea level later when the lack of oxygen became severe. During the Triassic period, when the relative content of O2 reduced to near 12%, archosaurs prevailed as only animals that could cope with profound hypoxia at the sea level. Their diverse descendants has become dominant terrestrial animals, until the K-Pg extinction due to meteor impact.
Notes
Cites: J Theor Biol. 2014 Jan 7;340:232-724080235
Cites: News Physiol Sci. 2002 Dec;17:241-512433978
Cites: Nature. 2005 Sep 1;437(7055):137-4016136143
Cites: JAMA. 2005 Oct 12;294(14):1761-216219878
Cites: Nature. 2005 Dec 22;438(7071):1145-716372007
Cites: Nature. 2006 Apr 6;440(7085):747-916598240
Cites: Nature. 2006 Apr 6;440(7085):757-6316598249
Cites: Nature. 2006 Apr 6;440(7085):764-7116598250
Cites: Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2006 Jun 29;361(1470):903-1516754606
Cites: Nature. 2006 Nov 9;444(7116):199-20217051154
Cites: Science. 2007 Apr 27;316(5824):557-817463279
Cites: Curr Biol. 2009 Jul 28;19(14):R575-8319640496
Cites: Science. 2010 Jan 15;327(5963):338-4020075253
Cites: Science. 2012 Jun 29;336(6089):1715-922745431
Cites: Fertil Steril. 2004 Apr;81(4):954-6415066448
Cites: J Exp Biol. 1998 Apr;201(Pt 8):1043-509510518
PubMed ID
25335870 View in PubMed
Less detail

An integrated transcriptomic and comparative genomic analysis of differential gene expression in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) following seawater exposure.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264847
Source
J Exp Biol. 2014 Nov 15;217(Pt 22):4029-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-15-2014
Author
Joseph D Norman
Moira M Ferguson
Roy G Danzmann
Source
J Exp Biol. 2014 Nov 15;217(Pt 22):4029-42
Date
Nov-15-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Base Sequence
Biological Evolution
Gene Expression Profiling
Gene Ontology
Genomics
Molecular Sequence Data
Osmoregulation - genetics
Salinity
Salt-Tolerance
Seawater
Sequence Analysis, RNA
Transcriptome
Trout - genetics - metabolism
Water-Electrolyte Balance
Abstract
High-throughput RNA sequencing was used to compare expression profiles in two Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) families post-seawater exposure to identify genes and biological processes involved in hypo-osmoregulation and regulation of salinity tolerance. To further understand the genetic architecture of hypo-osmoregulation, the genomic organization of differentially expressed (DE) genes was also analysed. Using a de novo gill transcriptome assembly we found over 2300 contigs to be DE. Major transporters from the seawater mitochondrion-rich cell (MRC) complex were up-regulated in seawater. Expression ratios for 257 differentially expressed contigs were highly correlated between families, suggesting they are strictly regulated. Based on expression profiles and known molecular pathways we inferred that seawater exposure induced changes in methylation states and elevated peroxynitrite formation in gill. We hypothesized that concomitance between DE immune genes and the transition to a hypo-osmoregulatory state could be related to Cl(-) sequestration by antimicrobial defence mechanisms. Gene ontology analysis revealed that cell division genes were up-regulated, which could reflect the proliferation of ATP1a1b-type seawater MRCs. Comparative genomics analyses suggest that hypo-osmoregulation is influenced by the relative proximities among a contingent of genes on Arctic charr linkage groups AC-4 and AC-12 that exhibit homologous affinities with a region on stickleback chromosome Ga-I. This supports the hypothesis that relative gene location along a chromosome is a property of the genetic architecture of hypo-osmoregulation. Evidence of non-random structure between hypo-osmoregulation candidate genes was found on AC-1/11 and AC-28, suggesting that interchromosomal rearrangements played a role in the evolution of hypo-osmoregulation in Arctic charr.
PubMed ID
25278466 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Anniversary of Marina Vladimirovna Kholodova].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263965
Source
Izv Akad Nauk Ser Biol. 2015 Mar-Apr;(2):220
Publication Type
Article

Antibiotic susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes in Denmark 1958-2001.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature176428
Source
APMIS. 2005 Jan;113(1):31-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2005
Author
Joanna M Hansen
Peter Gerner-Smidt
Brita Bruun
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Microbiology, Hillerød Hospital, Hillerød, Denmark. jmh07@dadlnet.dk
Source
APMIS. 2005 Jan;113(1):31-6
Date
Jan-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biological Evolution
Denmark
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Humans
Listeria monocytogenes - drug effects
Listeriosis - drug therapy - epidemiology
Retrospective Studies
Abstract
In order to see whether the susceptibility of Danish Listeria monocytogenes strains has changed over the years we examined a collection of human isolates from the period 1958-2001. We, furthermore, wanted to compare L. monocytogenes susceptibility testing using a disc diffusion assay with MIC measurements performed by the E-test. 106 strains isolated predominantly from blood cultures and cerebrospinal fluids were examined together with three reference strains. Susceptibility to the following antibiotics was tested by the E-test and by Oxoid discs using Iso-sensitest agar: penicillin G, ampicillin, meropenem, gentamicin, sulphamethoxazole, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, vancomycin, linezolid, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. The strains were in the main sensitive to all antibiotics examined using both methods, except for ciprofloxacin, where the strains were intermediate sensitive. However, for penicillin, ampicillin and sulphamethoxazole, while the disc diffusion assay found the strains to be sensitive, MIC measurements generally placed the strains one dilution above the breakpoint for sensitivity in the intermediate sensitive group. Based on the MIC measurements, the antibiotic susceptibility of L. monocytogenes has not changed in Denmark from 1958 to 2001, and the multiresistant strains found in human infections elsewhere have not been found in Denmark.
PubMed ID
15676012 View in PubMed
Less detail

Aposematism and crypsis combined as a result of distance dependence: functional versatility of the colour pattern in the swallowtail butterfly larva.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature173933
Source
Proc Biol Sci. 2005 Jul 7;272(1570):1315-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-7-2005
Author
Birgitta S Tullberg
Sami Merilaita
Christer Wiklund
Author Affiliation
Department of Zoology, University of Stockholm, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden. birgitta.tullberg@zoologi.su.se
Source
Proc Biol Sci. 2005 Jul 7;272(1570):1315-21
Date
Jul-7-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Biological
Adult
Analysis of Variance
Animals
Biological Evolution
Butterflies - physiology
Environment
Humans
Larva - physiology
Pattern Recognition, Visual - physiology
Photography
Pigmentation - physiology
Sweden
Time Factors
Abstract
The idea that an aposematic prey combines crypsis at a distance with conspicuousness close up was tested in an experiment using human subjects. We estimated detectability of the aposematic larva of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio machaon, in two habitats, by presenting, on a touch screen, photographs taken at four different distances and measuring the time elapsed to discovery. The detectability of larvae in these images was compared with images that were manipulated, using existing colours either to increase or decrease conspicuousness. Detection time increased with distance for all colourations. However, at the closest distance, detection time was longer for the larvae manipulated to be more cryptic than for the natural and more conspicuous forms. This indicates that the natural colouration is not maximally cryptic at a short distance. Further, smaller increments in distance were needed to increase detection time for the natural than for the conspicuous larva. This indicates that the natural colouration is not maximally conspicuous at longer distances. Taken together, we present the first empirical support for the idea that some colour patterns may combine warning colouration at a close range with crypsis at a longer range. The implications of this result for the evolution of aposematism are discussed.
Notes
Cites: Naturwissenschaften. 2003 Oct;90(10):460-314564405
Cites: Evolution. 2003 Jun;57(6):1248-5412894933
Cites: Mol Biol Evol. 2003 Jun;20(6):855-6112716987
Cites: Evolution. 2002 Feb;56(2):342-811926502
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Jul 31;98(16):9181-411459937
Cites: Prog Retin Eye Res. 2001 Sep;20(5):675-70311470455
Cites: Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2000 Sep 29;355(1401):1243-811079407
Cites: Evolution. 2000 Jun;54(3):751-6310937250
Cites: Am Nat. 2003 Oct;162(4):377-8914582002
Cites: Am Nat. 2004 Apr;163(4):532-4715122501
Cites: Proc Biol Sci. 1996 Oct 22;263(1375):1329-348914330
Cites: Evolution. 2005 Jan;59(1):38-4515792225
PubMed ID
16006332 View in PubMed
Less detail

189 records – page 1 of 19.