Cognitive and receptive language development were examined in 135 60-month-old and 137 72-month-old children for whom prenatal exposure to marijuana, cigarettes, and alcohol had been ascertained. Discriminant Function analysis revealed an association between prenatal cigarette exposure and lower cognitive and receptive language scores at 60 and 72 months. This paralleled and extended observations made with this sample at annual assessments at 12 to 48 months of age. Unlike observations made at 48 months, prenatal exposure to marijuana was not associated with the cognitive and verbal outcomes. Relatively low levels of maternal alcohol consumption did not have significant relationships with the outcome variables. The importance of assessing subtle components rather than global cognitive and language skills to detect potential behavioral teratogenic effects of the drugs being examined is discussed.
Comment In: J Dev Behav Pediatr. 1992 Dec;13(6):425-81469111
Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is linked to weight gain and metabolic syndrome (MetS) components in children, but whether these associations are modified by excess weight and glucose tolerance status in children is not known.
The objective of this study was to examine the cross-sectional associations between SSB intake and MetS components among children above and below the 85th body mass index (BMI) percentile and those with and without impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).
Data were from the QUébec Adiposity and Lifestyle InvesTigation in Youth study (2005-2008). Caucasian children aged 8-10 years (n?=?632) were recruited from 1040 primary schools in Québec, Canada. SSB consumption was assessed by three 24-h dietary recalls, body fat mass by dual-energy absorptiometry, physical activity by 7-d accelerometer. Multivariate linear regressions were used, with age, sex, fat mass index and physical activity as covariates, including waist circumference (WC), systolic blood pressure (SBP), concentrations of triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) as outcome variables.
Among overweight children, a 100-mL higher SSB consumption was associated with a 0.1-unit higher HOMA-IR (P?=?0.009) and a 1.1-mm?Hg higher SBP (P?=?0.001). In children with IGT, a 100-mL higher SSB consumption was associated with a 1.4-mm?Hg higher SBP and a 4.0-cm higher WC (P?
Adulterated alcoholic beverages are legal alcoholic products that have been illicitly tampered with, for instance, by criminally diluting them with water, purposely putting them into new containers to conceal their true origin or adding toxic substances to manipulate the qualities of alcoholic beverages. The collection of cases at the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Iceland, which contains examples of each category of adulteration, is the basis of the present article. Especially noteworthy are cases involving the toxic substances methanol and/or ethylene glycol. Methanol has been added to legally produced wines to increase their "bite" and ethylene glycol to increase their sweetness. Adding these substances to wine has resulted in poisoning or death in other countries, but not in Iceland as far as is known.
The studies addressing the risk of development of cirrhosis of the liver in relation to alcohol consumption have been based on comparisons at the aggregate population level and at the individual level, on case-control studies and cohort studies, and on retrospective and prospective assessment of alcohol consumption. The ideal, but unfeasible, study design for estimation of the risk function is a prospective monitoring of alcohol consumption and recording of rate of development of cirrhosis per unit of time. Two recent studies, approaching this design, suggested that above a rather low, but not precisely determined, level of alcohol consumption, the risk of development of cirrhosis is not further influenced by the amount of alcohol consumed. A critical analysis of previous studies suggests that this risk function actually is compatible with their findings. The contention that alcohol abuse has a permissive rather than a dose-dependent role in the development of alcoholic liver injury encourages research into the additional factors that must act before the liver injury occurs.
This study aims to examine the causal effect of alcohol consumption on the risk of high blood pressure in Russia.
Using data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, we estimated the influence of alcohol consumption on high blood pressure, controlling for social and other factors related to alcohol use. To address the issue of causality, we instrumented alcohol consumption by the number of frequent alcohol drinkers in the household.
We found that frequent consumption of vodka and beer has an adverse impact on health. In particular, frequent vodka consumption increases the likelihood of high blood pressure by 2.88% while frequent beer consumption increases it by 2.06%. Controlling for the endogeneity of frequent alcohol consumption using the instrumental variable method produces an even larger effect for frequent vodka consumption, with a marginal effect of 7.23%.
Prevention policies as well as government programs aimed at treating alcohol-related health outcomes should take into consideration the significant adverse effect of alcohol consumption on high blood pressure. It is also recommended that policy interventions aimed to address alcohol addiction issues in Russia explicitly differentiate between vodka and beer drinkers.
This study examined inter-beverage differences in the relationship between alcohol consumption and health status as reported by 17 249 respondents to the Canada Health Survey. Self-reported morbidity rates (bed-days, activity loss, doctor visits) were computed for consumers of beer, wine, liquor and for those with no specific beverage preference. These rates were compared with the level of expected morbidity based on each group's demographic attributes. Subsequently, dose-response relationships were described relating frequency and quantity of consumption to a standardized morbidity rate for each beverage-preference group. In general, the results supported the importance of inter-beverage differences as an intervening variable in the relationship of consumption to morbidity. Overall morbidity rates and both frequency and quantity dimensions of the dose-response relationship varied markedly as a function of type of beverage consumed. Beer drinkers, in particular, varied from other consumers they had significantly lower rates of morbidity than expected. Increases in frequency of beer drinking were associated with reductions in morbidity, but mildly deleterious effects were associated with excessive consumption.
Although high alcohol consumption has been associated with increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), the role of light to moderate drinking remains unclear.
The study sought to investigate the association between alcohol consumption and AF risk in a prospective study of Swedish men and women and to conduct a meta-analysis of prospective studies to summarize available evidence.
We followed 79,019 men and women who, at baseline, were free from AF and had completed a questionnaire about alcohol consumption and other risk factors for chronic diseases. Incident AF cases were ascertained by linkage to the Swedish Inpatient Register. For the meta-analysis, studies were identified by searching PubMed through January 10, 2014, and by reviewing references of pertinent publications. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) were combined using a random effects model.
Over 859,420 person-years of follow-up (1998 to 2009), 7,245 incident AF cases were identified in our own cohort study. The association between alcohol consumption and AF did not differ by sex (p for interaction = 0.74). Compared with current drinkers of 21 drinks/week. Results were similar after excluding binge drinkers. In a meta-analysis of 7 prospective studies, including 12,554 AF cases, the RRs were 1.08 (95% CI: 1.06 to 1.10) for 1 drink/day, 1.17 (95% CI: 1.13 to 1.21) for 2 drinks/day, 1.26 (95% CI: 1.19 to 1.33) for 3 drinks/day, 1.36 (95% CI: 1.27 to 1.46) for 4 drinks/day, and 1.47 (95% CI: 1.34 to 1.61) for 5 drinks/day, compared with nondrinkers.
These findings indicate that alcohol consumption, even at moderate intakes, is a risk factor for atrial fibrillation.
Comment In: J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 Jul 22;64(3):290-225034066
To investigate the association between patterns of alcohol consumption and self-reported physical and mental health in a population with a high prevalence of hazardous drinking.
Cross-sectional study of an age-stratified random sample of a population register. SETTING : The city of Izhevsk, The Russian Federation, 2008-09.
A total of 1031 men aged 25-60 years (68% response rate). MEASUREMENTS : Self-reported health was evaluated with the SF12 physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) component summaries. Measures of hazardous drinking (based on frequency of adverse effects of alcohol intake including hangover, excessive drunkenness and extended episodes of intoxication lasting 2 or more days) were used in addition to frequency of alcohol consumption and total volume of beverage ethanol per year. Information on smoking and socio-demographic factors were obtained. FINDINGS : Compared with abstainers, those drinking 10-19?litres of beverage ethanol per year had a PCS score 2.66 [95% confidence interval (CI)?=?0.76; 4.56] higher. Hazardous beverage drinking was associated with a lower PCS score [mean diff: -2.95 (95% CI?=?-5.28; -0.62)] and even more strongly with a lower MCS score [mean diff: -4.29 (95% CI?=?-6.87; -1.70)] compared to non-hazardous drinkers, with frequent non-beverage alcohol drinking being associated with a particularly low MCS score [-7.23 (95% CI?=?-11.16; -3.29)]. Adjustment for smoking and socio-demographic factors attenuated these associations slightly, but the same patterns persisted. Adjustment for employment status attenuated the associations with PCS considerably. CONCLUSION : Among working-aged male adults in Russia, hazardous patterns of alcohol drinking are associated with poorer self-reported physical health, and even more strongly with poorer self-reported mental health. Physical health appears to be lower in those reporting complete abstinence from alcohol compared with those drinking 10-19?litres per year.
Cites: Bull World Health Organ. 2005 Nov;83(11):812-916302037