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The Alaskan Eskimo: The Prevalence of disease and the sanitary conditions of the villages along the Arctic coast

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature100806
Source
American Journal of Public Health. 1914 Aug;4(8):643-648
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1914
  1 website  
Author
Watkins, JA
Author Affiliation
U.S. Public Health Service
Source
American Journal of Public Health. 1914 Aug;4(8):643-648
Date
Aug-1914
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Article
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Alaska
Arctic coast
Diomede Islands
Eskimo dwelling
Eskimo villages
King Island
North Bering Sea
St. Lawrence Island
U.S.S. Bear
Abstract
The Eskimos, like other aboriginal people, are peculiarly susceptible to the diseases of civilization, especially those we call children's diseases, and epidemics of these diseases have raged with disastrous results in several communities. In addition, the habits, customs and mode of living of these people are favorable to the spread of disease once it has been introduced.
Notes
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 561.
Cited in: Fortuine, Robert. 1968. The Health of the Eskimos: a bibliography 1857-1967. Dartmouth College Libraries. Citation number 464.
PubMed ID
18009074 View in PubMed
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Apportionment of genetic variation in contemporary Aleut and Eskimo populations of Alaska using anthropometrics and classical genetic markers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295955
Source
University of Kansas, Graduate Program in Anthropology. ix, 114 pp.
Publication Type
Dissertation
Date
2007
a close phylogenetic relationship among Aleuts and Eskimos. Anthropometrics reveal a close relationship between Savoonga, Gambell and St. Paul due to shared European admixture. Despite shared population history, St. George did not cluster with the other Bering Sea natives in the PCA, NJT, or
  1 document  
Author
Justice, Anne Elizabeth
Source
University of Kansas, Graduate Program in Anthropology. ix, 114 pp.
Date
2007
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Dissertation
File Size
5763864
Keywords
Aleut
Eskimo
Linguistics
Biology
Morphology
Genetic markers
Bering Sea
Abstract
This thesis attempts to answer: 1) How has history and evolution shaped the relationship of Aleut and Eskimo populations? and 2) What is the relationship of Aleuts and Eskimos to other Native American populations? Questions are addressed using anthropometric measurements and classical genetic markers. Relethford- Blangero method was applied to athropometrics of the study populations. Results were compared to Nei’s genetic distance matrix of classical genetic markers. Multivariate analyses were used to determine relationships among Aleuts, Eskimos and other American Indians. This study shows a close phylogenetic relationship among Aleuts and Eskimos. Anthropometrics reveal a close relationship between Savoonga, Gambell and St. Paul due to shared European admixture. Despite shared population history, St. George did not cluster with the other Bering Sea natives in the PCA, NJT, or unscaled R-matrices; highlighting affects of genetic drift on St. George. A close relationship between Aleuts, Eskimos, Northwest, and Northeast Natives was evident.
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Arctic sea ice decline: Projected changes in timing and extent of sea ice in the Bering and Chukchi seas

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature276006
Source
USGS Open-File Report 2010-1176. iv, 32 p.
Publication Type
Report
Date
2010
..................................................................................................................................................... 12 References Cited ...................................................................................................................................................... 13 Figures Figure 1. Extent of the Chukchi Sea and Bering Sea study areas (green shade), spanning shelf waters greater
  1 document  
Author
Douglas, DC
Author Affiliation
U.S. Geological Survey
Source
USGS Open-File Report 2010-1176. iv, 32 p.
Date
2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Report
File Size
5008237
Keywords
Bering Sea
Chukchi Sea
GCMs
General circulation models
Satellite data
Sea ice
Abstract
The Arctic region is warming faster than most regions of the world due in part to increasing greenhouse gases and positive feedbacks associated with the loss of snow and ice cover. One consequence has been a rapid decline in Arctic sea ice over the past 3 decades—a decline that is projected to continue by state-of-the-art models. Many stakeholders are therefore interested in how global warming may change the timing and extent of sea ice Arctic-wide, and for specific regions. To inform the public and decision makers of anticipated environmental changes, scientists are striving to better understand how sea ice influences ecosystem structure, local weather, and global climate. Here, projected changes in the Bering and Chukchi Seas are examined because sea ice influences the presence of, or accessibility to, a variety of local resources of commercial and cultural value. In this study, 21st century sea ice conditions in the Bering and Chukchi Seas are based on projections by 18 general circulation models (GCMs) prepared for the fourth reporting period by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2007. Sea ice projections are analyzed for each of two IPCC greenhouse gas forcing scenarios: the A1B ‘business as usual’ scenario and the A2 scenario that is somewhat more aggressive in its CO2 emissions during the second half of the century. A large spread of uncertainty among projections by all 18 models was constrained by creating model subsets that excluded GCMs that poorly simulated the 1979–2008 satellite record of ice extent and seasonality.
At the end of the 21st century (2090–2099), median sea ice projections among all combinations of model ensemble and forcing scenario were qualitatively similar. June is projected to experience the least amount of sea ice loss among all months. For the Chukchi Sea, projections show extensive ice melt during July and ice-free conditions during August, September, and October by the end of the century, with high agreement among models. High agreement also accompanies projections that the Chukchi Sea will be completely ice covered during February, March, and April at the end of the century. Large uncertainties, however, are associated with the timing and amount of partial ice cover during the intervening periods of melt and freeze. For the Bering Sea, median March ice extent is projected to be about 25 percent less than the 1979–1988 average by mid-century and 60 percent less by the end of the century. The ice-free season in the Bering Sea is projected to increase from its contemporary average of 5.5 months to a median of about 8.5 months by the end of the century. A 3-month longer ice- free season in the Bering Sea is attained by a 1-month advance in melt and a 2-month delay in freeze, meaning the ice edge typically will pass through the Bering Strait in May and January at the end of the century rather than June and November as presently observed.
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Assessing the Risk of Non-Native Marine Species in the Bering Sea. NPRB Project 1523.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294078
Source
Alaska Center for Conservation Science. University of Alaska Anchorage. 39 p.
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
Date
2017
ASSESSING THE RISK OF NON-NATIVE MARINE SPECIES IN THE BERING SEA November 2017 Marine Invasive Species Risk Assessment Assessing the Risk of Non-Native Marine Species in the Bering Sea Jesika Reimer1, Amanda Droghini1, Anthony Fischbach2, Jordan
  1 document  
Author
Reimer J
Droghini A
Fischbach A
Watson J
Bernard B
Poe A
Source
Alaska Center for Conservation Science. University of Alaska Anchorage. 39 p.
Date
2017
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
File Size
2399670
Keywords
Alaska
Bering Sea
Species ranking
Habitat suitability
Animals
Documents

Reimeretal2017_FinalReport.pdf

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Assessing the Vulnerability of Marine Mammal Subsistence Species in the Bering Sea to Climate Change.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297000
Source
University of Washington. School of Marine and Environmental Affairs, College of the Environment.
Publication Type
Dissertation
Date
2017
Assessing the Vulnerability of Marine Mammal Subsistence Species in the Bering Sea to Climate Change Grace A. Ferrara A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Marine Affairs University of Washington
  1 document  
Author
Ferrara, Grace A.
Source
University of Washington. School of Marine and Environmental Affairs, College of the Environment.
Date
2017
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Dissertation
File Size
1604269
Keywords
Alaska
Bering Sea
Marine mammals
Climate change
Abstract
The Bering Sea is a highly productive region of the Pacific Arctic. Native Alaskan communities rely heavily on the marine resources of the Bering Sea for survival. The timing of the formation and thaw of sea ice each year has a significant impact on the structure of the Bering Sea ecosystem. In its current state, the northern Bering Sea is a benthic-dominated ecosystem that supports many species of marine invertebrates, fish, birds, and mammals. Eight of these mammal species are relied on heavily by Native Alaskans for subsistence. However, this region is already experiencing the effects of climate change in ways that threaten the persistence of these communities as a result of changes in the timing of sea ice advance and retreat. As these changes progress, understanding the ways in which the ecosystem is vulnerable to climate change will be essential for resource managers and local communities to prepare to adapt. Climate change vulnerability analyses (CCVAs) provide a framework for quantifying vulnerability that can be useful for developing, implementing, and monitoring management solutions to reduce vulnerability. This study uses a CCVA to quantify the vulnerability of eight species of marine mammals in the Bering Sea as a first step in understanding how the communities that rely on them for subsistence are also vulnerable. Although some species are more vulnerable than others, this method allows managers to pinpoint sources of vulnerability for each one to develop strategies for reducing their vulnerability.
Documents

Ferrara_washington_0250O_17629.pdf

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Distribution of blood groups among the Eskimos, Indians, and whites of western Alaska

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature1924
Source
American Journal of Human Genetics. 1953 Sep;5(3):252-256
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1953
  1 website  
Author
Pauls, F.P.
Victors, B.B.
Dodson, M.W.
Author Affiliation
Alaska Department of Health
Source
American Journal of Human Genetics. 1953 Sep;5(3):252-256
Date
Sep-1953
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Article
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Alaska
Bering Sea
Blood groups, ABO
Blood groups, MN
Blood groups, Rh
Eskimos
Indians
Interior Alaska
Kotzebue Sound
Kuskokwim Basin
Lower Yukon
Norton Sound
Nushagak Bay
Abstract
The object of this paper is to present some preliminary findings pertaining to blood variations among the Eskimos, Whites, and Indians of Western Alaska. Previous studies on these peoples have been limited to those made by W. S. Laughlin in 1949 on the Aleuts; V. E. Levine in 1938 and 1944 on Eskimos in the Barrow and Nome areas; and G. A. Matson in 1947 on the Eskimos of theKuskokwim Basin. The present study covers a large group of Eskimos along the Bering Sea and Arctic Ocean coasts and Indians of the Interior. We wish to stress here that the materials presented in this paper are preliminary. They are presented now only because the full study will require another two or three years for final completion, and because it seems probable that a preliminary report at this time may be of some interest and value to others.The present material covers the results on a total of 5,205 individuals from villages in the Kotzebue Sound, Norton Sound, Lower Yukon, Kuskokwim Basin, Nushagak Bay, and Bering Sea areas, and in Interior Alaska. For comparative purposes data on Whites were obtained from areas covered in theBCG program and the community-typing programs in Fairbanks and Palmer, Alaska.
Notes
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citaion number 1316.
Cited in: Fortuine, Robert. 1968. The Health of the Eskimos: a bibliography 1857-1967. Dartmouth College Libraries. Citation number 348.
PubMed ID
13080250 View in PubMed
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Source
Alaska State Library - Historical Collections, ASL MS 197, folders 1-5. As transcribed by the Kawerak Social Science Program, Nome, AK. 520 p.
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
Date
1937, 1940
. Alaska State Library - Historical Collections, ASL MS 197, folders 1-5. As transcribed by the Kawerak Social Science Program, Nome, AK.                       First Book of Bering Sea and Arctic Coast Eskimo history. As Told by Michael Francis Kazingnuk
  1 document  
Author
Kazingnuk, Michael Francis
Source
Alaska State Library - Historical Collections, ASL MS 197, folders 1-5. As transcribed by the Kawerak Social Science Program, Nome, AK. 520 p.
Date
1937, 1940
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
File Size
1979804
Keywords
Alaska
Diomede
Bering Sea
History
Biography
Documents

Michael-Francis-Kazingnuks-The-Eskimo-History-Story-transcribed.pdf

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Ethnographic summary: The Aleutian-Pribilof Islands region

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature102056
Source
Social Transition in the North, Working Papers, Vol. 1, No. 3
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1993
, and all the islands of the Aleutian Archipelago, including the Near Islands in the west. In post-contact time, two Bering Sea island groups, the Pribilof Islands in the United States, and the Commandor Islands (Komandorskie ostrova) in Russia were settled by Aleuts and are incorporated today in
  1 document  
Author
Black, LT
Author Affiliation
Social Research Institute, Anchorage, AK
Source
Social Transition in the North, Working Papers, Vol. 1, No. 3
Date
May-1993
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Aleutian region
Aleuts
Bering Sea
Commandor Islands
Cultural divisions
Dialects
Diseases
Ecological knowledge
Economy
Ethnohistory
Fur hunters
Indigenous societies
Kinship
Language
Near Islands
Orthodox Christianity
Pathology
Polities
Precontact rituals
Russians
Social structure
Warfare
Abstract
The term Aleutian Region refers to the habitat of the Unangan (Aleut) speakers. In pre-contact times this area encompassed, from east to west, the Shumagin Island to the south of the Alaska Peninsula, the area of the Alaska Peninsula west of Port Moller, and all the islands of the Aleutian Archipelago, including the Near Islands in the west. In post-contact time, two Bering Sea island groups, the Pribilof Islands in the United States and the Commandor Islands (Komandorskie ostrova) in Russia, were settled by Aleuts and are incorporated today in the Aleutian Region.
Notes
The entire collection of working papers from the Social Transition in the North project is available at UAA Archives & Special Collections in the Consortium Library.
Documents

STN_Vol 1_No 3_Ethnographic Summary_Aleutian-Pribilof Isla.pdf

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Ethnographic summary: The Kamchatka region

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature102058
Source
Social Transition in the North, Working Papers, Vol. 1, No. 5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1993
districts are divided by the Sredinny Mountain Ridge. This ridge descends towards the isthmus of the Kam- chatka Peninsula and becomes a watershed (made up by rivers flowing into the Okhotsky and Bering Sea). Between the Tagilsky and Bystritsky Districts, there is the Ichinsky volcano (3,621 m
  1 document  
Author
Mourashko, OA
Pika, AI
Bogoyavlenski, DD
Author Affiliation
Social Research Institute, Anchorage, AK
Source
Social Transition in the North, Working Papers, Vol. 1, No. 5
Date
Aug-1993
Language
English
Geographic Location
Russia
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Bering Sea
Communication
Demographic behavior
Economy
Ethnic composition
Evens
Fish harvests
Indigenous populations
Itelmens
Kamchadals
Kamchatka Peninsula
Mortality
Orthodox Church
Reindeer
Settlement
Shamanism
Social structure
Subsistence
Traditional use
Abstract
The Kamchatka Administrative Region is made up of the Tigilsky, Karaginsky, and Bystrinsky districts. These districts share common boundaries, which extend from latitude 55°45' to 60°45'north to longitude 153°45' to 165° east. Together, they cover 108,300 square kilometers, with the Tigilsky District spreading out over 68,200 square kilometers, the Karaginsky District spanning 29,500 square kilometers, and the Bystrinsky District occupying 20,600 square kilometers. From south to north, the boundaries between the districts are divided by the Sredinny Mountain Ridge. This ridge descends towards the isthmus of the Kamchatka Peninsula and becomes a watershed (made by rivers flowing into the Okhotsky and Bering seas). Between the Tigilsky and Bystrinsky districts, there is the Ichinsky volcano (3,621 meters), which is extinct. To the west of the Sredinny Ridge lies the West Kamchatka Lowland. This lowland makes up a major part of the Tigilsky District; but because it is so badly bogged it keeps the development of land traffic and communications in the Tigilsky District greatly hindered. It is only in the coastal area that there are still old pathways linking separate villages, and trails which lead up to the passes over the Sredinny Ridge. The northern part of the Tigilsky District and the entire Karaginsky District are located in the southern edge of the Eternal Congelation Zone. Located in this zone are the villages of Tigil, Sedanka, Elovka, and Uka. Farther north, in the narrowest part of the neck where the valleys of the Anapka and Pustaya rivers meet, is Parapolsky Dol.the southern edge of the Eternal Congelation Zone. Located in this zone are the villages of Tigil, Sedanka, Elovka, and Uka. Fuirther north, in the narrowest part of the neck where the valleys of the Anapka and Pustay rivers meet, is Parapoolsky Dol.
Notes
The entire collection of working papers from the Social Transition in the North project is available at UAA Archives & Special Collections in the Consortium Library.
Documents

STN_Vol 1_No 5_Ethnographic Summary_Kamchatka Region_Aug 1993.pdf

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On the biology and systematic position of Microtus abbreviatus Miller, a vole endemic to the St. Matthew Islands, Bering Sea

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature293156
Source
Zeitschrift fur Saugetierkunde 1968 Vol.33 No.2 pp.65-99
Publication Type
Article
Date
1968
Author
Rausch, R.L.
Rausch, V.R.
Source
Zeitschrift fur Saugetierkunde 1968 Vol.33 No.2 pp.65-99
Date
1968
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Microtus
Voles
Parasitic worms
Bering Sea
Abstract
In a general survey of the biology of Microtusabbreviatus on the St. Matthew Islands, Bering Sea, the helminth fauna was found to include only species regularly found in Microtus spp. at higher latitudes. Those recorded are listed with their rates of incidence and some information is given on their general biology.
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14 records – page 1 of 2.