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4-Nonylphenol and bisphenol A in Swedish food and exposure in Swedish nursing women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature125631
Source
Environ Int. 2012 Aug;43:21-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2012
Author
Irina Gyllenhammar
Anders Glynn
Per Ola Darnerud
Sanna Lignell
Rob van Delft
Marie Aune
Author Affiliation
National Food Agency, P.O. Box 622, 75126 Uppsala, Sweden. irina.gyllenhammar@slv.se
Source
Environ Int. 2012 Aug;43:21-8
Date
Aug-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Animals
Benzhydryl Compounds
Breast Feeding - statistics & numerical data
Diet - statistics & numerical data
Endocrine Disruptors - analysis - blood - metabolism
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - blood - metabolism
Female
Food analysis
Food Contamination - statistics & numerical data
Fruit - chemistry
Humans
Maternal Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Meat - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Phenols - analysis - blood - metabolism
Sweden
Vegetables - chemistry
Young Adult
Abstract
4-Nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) are phenolic substances used in high volumes by the industry. Studies on cells and in experimental animals have shown that both these compounds can be classified as estrogenic hormone disrupters. Information about the exposure of humans to NP and BPA is still scarce, especially regarding levels in human blood. The first aim of this study was to investigate possible sources of NP and BPA exposure from food, by analyzing the levels of NP and BPA from a Swedish food market basket, based on the Swedish per capita food consumption. A second aim was to investigate blood serum levels of NP and BPA, as well as NP-ethoxylates, among young women in Sweden (n=100). Moreover, associations between food consumption and blood NP and BPA levels were studied. In food, NP was to some extent found at levels above limit of quantification (LOQ 20 ng/g fresh weight) in fruits, cereal products, vegetables, and potatoes. BPA levels above LOQ (2 ng/g fresh weight) were found in fish, meats, potatoes, and dairy products. The estimated mean intakes per capita were (medium bound) 27 µg NP/day and 3.9 µg BPA/day, showing that food is a source of BPA and NP in the general Swedish population. In blood serum, free NP above limit of detection (LOD 0.5 ng/g) was detected in 46% of the study participants while detectable levels of total NP (LOD 0.8 ng/g) were observed in 43%. The corresponding percentages for BPA were 25% and 22%, respectively. The results indicate that there is a continuous source of exposure to NP and BPA that is high enough for free NP and BPA to be detected in some consumers. Among the participants with quantifiable levels of free and total NP (n=38), 85% (median, range: 38-112%) of the NP was present as free NP. For BPA 76% (49-109%) was detected as free BPA (n=15). All women had levels of ethoxylates of NP below LOD (0.1-0.7 ng/g). A significantly higher total consumption of fruits and vegetables was reported in questionnaires by participants with NP levels at or above LOD than among women with levels below LOD. This result is supporting the market basket results of relatively high NP levels in these types of food.
PubMed ID
22466019 View in PubMed
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Adherence, persistence and switch rates for anticholinergic drugs used for overactive bladder in women: data from the Norwegian Prescription Database.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature113114
Source
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2013 Oct;92(10):1208-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2013
Author
Siri A Mauseth
Svetlana Skurtveit
Olav Spigset
Author Affiliation
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Children's and Women's Health, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
Source
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2013 Oct;92(10):1208-15
Date
Oct-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Benzhydryl Compounds - therapeutic use
Benzofurans - therapeutic use
Cholinergic Antagonists - therapeutic use
Cresols - therapeutic use
Databases, Pharmaceutical
Drug Substitution - statistics & numerical data
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Medication Adherence - statistics & numerical data
Middle Aged
Norway
Phenylpropanolamine - therapeutic use
Pyrrolidines - therapeutic use
Quinuclidines - therapeutic use
Tetrahydroisoquinolines - therapeutic use
Urinary Bladder, Overactive - drug therapy
Young Adult
Abstract
To investigate the pattern of use of anticholinergic drugs for overactive bladder among women in Norway with regard to persistence, adherence and switch rates.
Observational study.
Data from the Norwegian Prescription Database on prescriptions for tolterodine, solifenacin, darifenacin and fesoterodine filled in Norwegian pharmacies from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2010.
Data from the database were analysed at an individual level, and drug persistence, discontinuation rates and switch rates during a follow-up period of 365 days after the first prescription were calculated.
Overall 1-year persistence for new users was 38.0%. Within the same period, a total of 10.3% switched from the index drug to another drug in the same group, whereas 51.7% discontinued without switching. Users of solifenacin and tolterodine were somewhat more persistent than users of darifenacin and fesoterodine. Persistence was lowest (20.9%) in the age group 18-39 years, increased with age and was highest in the age groups 70-79 years and 80 years and above (43.5 and 43.3%, respectively). In total, 31.9% filled only one prescription of the drug and, of these, only one of four women switched to another drug. The proportion who were adherent during treatment was 60.4%.
The discontinuation rate for anticholinergic drugs for overactive bladder in women is high. The reasons why patients stop using them remain obscure but could be related both to a limited clinical effect and an unacceptable adverse effect burden.
PubMed ID
23763552 View in PubMed
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An investigation of the co-variation in circulating levels of a large number of environmental contaminants.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123494
Source
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2012 Sep;22(5):476-82
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2012
Author
Erik Lampa
Lars Lind
Anna Bornefalk Hermansson
Samira Salihovic
Bert van Bavel
P Monica Lind
Author Affiliation
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. erik.lampa@medsci.uu.se
Source
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2012 Sep;22(5):476-82
Date
Sep-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Benzhydryl Compounds
Biological Markers - blood
Child
Chlorine Compounds - blood
Cluster analysis
Environmental Exposure - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Environmental pollutants - blood
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Nutrition Surveys
Pesticides - blood
Phenols - blood
Phthalic Acids - blood
Polychlorinated biphenyls - blood
Principal Component Analysis
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
United States - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
We are daily exposed to many different environmental contaminants. Mixtures of these contaminants could act together to induce more pronounced effects than the sum of the individual contaminants. To evaluate the effects of such mixtures, it is of importance to assess the co-variance amongst the contaminants. Thirty-seven environmental contaminants representing different classes were measured in blood samples from 1016 individuals aged 70 years. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were used to assess the co-variation among the contaminants. Within each identified cluster, possible marker contaminants were sought for. We validated our findings using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004 study. Two large clusters could be identified, one representing low/medium chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (=6 chlorine atoms), as well as two pesticides and one representing medium/high chlorinated PCBs (=6 chlorine atoms). PCBs 118 and 153 could be used as markers for the low/medium chlorinated cluster and PCBs 170 and 209 could be used as markers for the medium/high chlorinated cluster. This pattern was similar to data from the NHANES study. Apart from the PCBs, little co-variation was seen among the contaminants. Thus, a large number of chemicals have to be measured to adequately identify mixtures of environmental contaminants.
PubMed ID
22692364 View in PubMed
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Anticholinergic drug use for overactive bladder in Sweden: a nationwide pharmacoepidemiological study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature149465
Source
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2009 Nov;20(11):1285-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2009
Author
Daniel Altman
Fredrik Granath
Anders Mattiasson
Christian Falconer
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. daniel.altman@ki.se
Source
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2009 Nov;20(11):1285-91
Date
Nov-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Benzhydryl Compounds - economics - therapeutic use
Benzofurans - economics - therapeutic use
Cholinergic Antagonists - economics - therapeutic use
Cresols - economics - therapeutic use
Female
Health Care Costs
Humans
Muscarinic Antagonists - economics - therapeutic use
Pharmacoepidemiology - statistics & numerical data
Phenylpropanolamine - economics - therapeutic use
Pyrrolidines - economics - therapeutic use
Quinuclidines - economics - therapeutic use
Registries
Retrospective Studies
Sweden
Tetrahydroisoquinolines - economics - therapeutic use
Urinary Bladder, Overactive - drug therapy - economics
Abstract
Nationwide use and costs of anticholinergic drug for overactive bladder are unknown.
We performed a nationwide study based on the Swedish Register on Prescribed Pharmaceuticals.
From 2000 to 2007, there was a 68.8% increase in dispensed anticholinergic drugs in a population of 9 million. More than 93 million DDDs (calculated average maintenance dose per day) of anticholinergic drugs were dispensed corresponding to an overall DDD/TID (DDD per 1,000 inhabitants per day) of 3.5 per 1,000 persons per year. Approximately two thirds of anticholinergic drugs were prescribed to women, regardless of drug type. In 2007, the cost for anticholinergic drugs was 22 million of which tolterodine comprised 70.8%. Solifenacin and darifenacin steadily increased their DDD/TIDs after market introduction.
In this nationwide study, there was a 70% increased rate of expedited prescriptions of anticholinergic drugs for the treatment of overactive bladder in a relatively stable population.
PubMed ID
19636490 View in PubMed
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Antiestrogenicity and estrogenicity in leachates from solid waste deposits.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature147046
Source
Environ Toxicol. 2011 Jun;26(3):233-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2011
Author
Anders Svenson
Sofia Sjöholm
Ann-Sofie Allard
Lennart Kaj
Author Affiliation
IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Ltd, P. O. Box 210 60, S-100 31 Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Environ Toxicol. 2011 Jun;26(3):233-9
Date
Jun-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Benzhydryl Compounds
Endocrine Disruptors - toxicity
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Estradiol - toxicity
Estrogen Receptor Modulators - toxicity
Estrogen Receptor alpha - metabolism
Estrogens - toxicity
Ethinyl Estradiol - toxicity
Humans
Phenols - toxicity
Refuse Disposal
Saccharomyces cerevisiae - drug effects
Seasons
Sewage - chemistry
Sweden
Water Pollutants, Chemical - toxicity
Water Pollution, Chemical - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
A great deal of effort has been devoted to developing new in vitro and in vivo methods to identify and classify endocrine disrupting chemicals that have been identified in environmental samples. In this study an in vitro test based on recombinant yeast strains transfected with genes for the human estrogen receptor a was adapted to examine the presence of estrogenic and antiestrogenic substances in six Swedish landfill leachates. Antiestrogenic effects were measured as inhibition of the estradiol induced response with the human estrogen receptor a, and quantified by comparison with the corresponding inhibitory effects of a known antiestrogen, hydroxytamoxifen. The estrogenicity was within the range of that determined in domestic sewage effluents, from below the limit of detection to 29 ng estradiol units L(-1). Antiestrogenicity was detected in some of the investigated landfill leachates, ranging between
PubMed ID
19950219 View in PubMed
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Assessment of Occupational Exposure to Bisphenol A in Five Different Production Companies in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature287240
Source
Ann Work Expo Health. 2017 Jan 01;61(1):44-55
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-01-2017
Author
Milla Heinälä
Katriina Ylinen
Tapani Tuomi
Tiina Santonen
Simo P Porras
Source
Ann Work Expo Health. 2017 Jan 01;61(1):44-55
Date
Jan-01-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Air Pollutants, Occupational - analysis - urine
Benzhydryl Compounds - analysis
Dust - analysis
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure - analysis
Occupations - statistics & numerical data
Paint - analysis
Paper
Phenols - analysis
Time Factors
Abstract
The aim of the study was to assess occupational exposure to bisphenol A in Finland. Five companies took part in the research project: two paint factories (liquid and powder paints), a composite product factory, a thermal paper factory, and a tractor factory. Exposure was assessed by measuring total bisphenol A excretion (free and conjugated) from urine samples, and its concentrations in the air. The results revealed the specific work tasks in two of five companies in which significant occupational exposure to bisphenol A may occur. In the manufacturing of liquid paint hardener, urine samples collected after the working day showed bisphenol A levels of up to 100-170 µg l-1. Workers in thermal paper manufacturing were also exposed to bisphenol A, especially those working in the manufacture of coating material and operating coating machines. Median concentrations of the post-shift urine samples of coating machine workers were in the range of 130-250 µg l-1. The highest bisphenol A concentrations were in the range of 1000-1500 µg l-1. Recommendations for more effective personal protection resulted in decreased exposure, particularly among coating machine operators. In the rest of the companies, urinary bisphenol A levels were typically in the range of those of the general population. Bisphenol A concentrations in air samples were typically low (
PubMed ID
28395312 View in PubMed
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Bisphenol A alternatives in thermal paper from the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and Norway. Screening and potential toxicity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291893
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2017 Dec 01; 601-602:210-221
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Dec-01-2017
Author
Maria K Björnsdotter
Willem Jonker
Jessica Legradi
Jeroen Kool
Ana Ballesteros-Gómez
Author Affiliation
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Environment and Health, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Fine Chemistry and Nanochemistry, Marie Curie Building (Annex), Campus of Rabanales, University of Córdoba, 14071 Córdoba, Spain.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2017 Dec 01; 601-602:210-221
Date
Dec-01-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Benzhydryl Compounds - analysis
Cell Line, Tumor
Humans
Netherlands
Norway
Paper
Phenols - analysis
Spain
Sweden
Toxicity Tests
Zebrafish
Abstract
Thermal paper contains potentially toxic additives, such as bisphenol A (BPA), as a common color developer. Because of its known endocrine disrupting effects, structural analogues to BPA, such as bisphenol S (BPS), D-8 and Pergafast 201, have been used as alternatives, but little is known about the presence and toxicological effects of alternatives other than BPS. In this study, thermal paper is screened by direct probe ambient mass spectrometry (rapid pre-screening method not requiring sample preparation) and by liquid chromatography (LC) with high resolution time-of flight (TOF-MS) mass spectrometry. Cash receipts and other thermal paper products (cinema tickets, boarding passes and luggage tags) were analyzed. Besides BPA and BPS, other developers only recently reported (Pergafast 201, D-8) or to the best of our knowledge not reported before (D-90, TGSA, BPS-MAE) were frequently found as well as some related unreported impurities (2,4-BPS that is a BPS related impurity and a TGSA related impurity). To gain some insight into the potential estrogenicity of the detected developers, a selection of extracts was further analyzed using a LC-nanofractionation platform in combination with cell-based bioassay testing. These preliminary results seems to indicate very low or absence of estrogenic activity for Pergafast 201, D-8, D-90, TGSA and BPS-MAE in comparison to BPA and BPS, although further dose-response tests with authentic standards are required to confirm these results. Compounds for which standards were available were also tested for developmental toxicity and neurotoxicity using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. TGSA and D-8 induced similar teratogenic effects as BPA in zebrafish embryos. BPS and 2,4-BPS did not induce any developmental effects but 2,4-BPS did alter the locomotor activity at the tested concentration. Our findings suggest that the alternatives used as alternatives to BPA (except BPS) might not be estrogenic. However, TGSA and D-8 showed abnormal developmental effects similar to BPA.
PubMed ID
28551540 View in PubMed
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Bisphenol A and its structural analogues in household waste paper.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273917
Source
Waste Manag. 2015 Oct;44:39-47
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2015
Author
K. Pivnenko
G A Pedersen
E. Eriksson
T F Astrup
Source
Waste Manag. 2015 Oct;44:39-47
Date
Oct-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Benzhydryl Compounds - analysis
Denmark
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollutants - analysis
Paper
Phenols - analysis
Solid Waste - analysis
Abstract
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical produced in large volumes. Its main use is associated with polycarbonate plastic, epoxy resins and thermal paper. In contrast to other applications, thermal paper contains BPA in its un-reacted form as an additive, which is subjected to migration. Receiving a significant amount of attention from the scientific community and beyond, due to its controversial endocrine-disrupting effects, the industry is attempting to substitute BPA in variety of applications. Alternative phenolic compounds have been proposed for use in thermal paper; however, information to what extent BPA alternatives have been used in paper is sparse. The aim of the present work was to quantify BPA and its alternatives (bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol E (BPE), bisphenol B (BPB), 4-cumylphenol (HPP) and bisphenol F (BPF)) in waste paper and board from Danish households, thermal paper receipts, non-carbon copy paper and conventional printer paper. BPA was found in all waste paper samples analysed, while BPS was identified in 73% of them. Only BPB was not identified in any of the samples. BPA and BPS were found in the majority of the receipts, which contained no measurable concentrations of the remaining alternatives. Although receipts showed the highest concentrations of BPA and BPS, office paper, flyers and corrugated boxes, together with receipts, represented the major flux of the two compounds in waste paper streams.
PubMed ID
26194879 View in PubMed
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Bisphenol A exposure via thermal paper receipts.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258746
Source
Toxicol Lett. 2014 Nov 4;230(3):413-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-4-2014
Author
Simo P Porras
Milla Heinälä
Tiina Santonen
Source
Toxicol Lett. 2014 Nov 4;230(3):413-20
Date
Nov-4-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Benzhydryl Compounds - urine
Environmental Exposure - analysis
European Continental Ancestry Group
Female
Finland
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Healthy Volunteers
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure - analysis
Paper
Phenols - urine
Reference Values
Reproducibility of Results
Skin - drug effects
Young Adult
Abstract
Bisphenol A (BPA) has one of the highest production volumes of all chemicals worldwide. It has been widely studied because of its endocrine modulating activity. In addition to dietary intake, absorption of BPA via the skin from handling thermal papers is believed to be a relevant route of exposure. We studied BPA exposure via thermal paper receipts in simulation experiments performed by three volunteers, and examined urinary excretion of BPA. We also evaluated background BPA excretion among the Finnish working-age population. The geometric mean BPA excretion among non-occupationally exposed working-age Finns (n=121) was 2.6 µg/l, the range being 0.8-18.9 µg/l. The 95th percentile of the non-occupationally exposed people was 8 µg/l, and this was set as the reference limit for the non-occupationally exposed population. In the first simulation experiment, which was conducted under conditions representing the most likely exposure, i.e., the work of a cashier in a supermarket, BPA excretion remained below the reference limit in all participants. In the second simulation experiment, with more intensive, short-time handling of thermal paper (three times 5 min), urinary excretion also remained at or below background levels (highest value being 10.3 µg/l). The calculated maximum BPA excretion per day after handling thermal paper was less than 0.2 µg/kg of body weight, suggesting a total daily intake over 25 times lower than the European Food Safety Authority's (EFSA's) proposal for a temporary tolerable daily intake (temporary TDI) (5 µg/kg/day).
PubMed ID
25175590 View in PubMed
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Bisphenol a in baby food products in glass jars with metal lids from Canadian markets.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature150825
Source
J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Jun 24;57(12):5345-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-24-2009
Author
Xu-Liang Cao
Jeannette Corriveau
Svetlana Popovic
Genevieve Clement
Franca Beraldin
Guy Dufresne
Author Affiliation
Food Research Division, Bureau of Chemical Safety, Food Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. xu-liang_cao@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Jun 24;57(12):5345-51
Date
Jun-24-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Benzhydryl Compounds
Canada
Food contamination - analysis
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry - methods
Humans
Infant Food - analysis
Phenols - analysis
Sensitivity and specificity
Abstract
A method based on solid phase extraction and derivatization with acetic anhydride followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was validated for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA) in baby foods. The average method detection limit (MDL) was 0.18 ng/g for a 5 g sample. Method repeatability was demonstrated with the replicate analyses of various different types of baby foods; relative standard deviations (RSD) ranged from 1.2 to 16.1% with an average of 8.7%. Extraction recoveries ranged from 93.5 to 102.5% for different types of baby foods spiked at levels of 1-8 ng/g. This method was used to analyze 122 baby food products of 7 brands in glass jars with metal lids for BPA. The presence of BPA could not be confirmed and quantified for 23 of the 122 products due to interference from sample matrices. For the other 99 products, 15% had BPA levels of less than the average MDL, about 70% had BPA levels of less than 1 ng/g, and the average BPA levels in all 99 products was 1.1 ng/g. The average BPA level in the baby food products from brand E (3.9 ng/g) is higher than the average BPA levels in the products from the other brands (0.54-1.1 ng/g). The highest level of BPA, 7.2 ng/g, was found in two products from brand E as well. The average BPA level in the fruit products from all brands (0.60 ng/g) is lower than those in the mixed-dish products (1.1 ng/g) and the vegetable products (1.2 ng/g).
PubMed ID
19459630 View in PubMed
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65 records – page 1 of 7.