Comparative neurohormonal responses in patients with preserved and impaired left ventricular ejection fraction: results of the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) Registry. The SOLVD Investigators.
The aim of this study was to determine the differences in neurohumoral responses between patients with pulmonary congestion with and without impaired left ventricular ejection fraction.
Previous studies have established the presence of neurohumoral activation in patients with congestive heart failure. It is not known whether the activation of these neurohumoral mechanisms is related to the impairment in systolic contractility.
The 898 patients recruited into the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) Registry substudy were examined to identify those patients with pulmonary congestion on chest X-ray film who had either impaired ( 45%, group II) left ventricular ejection fraction. Plasma norepinephrine, plasma renin activity, arginine vasopressin and atrial natriuretic peptide levels were measured in these two groups of patients and compared with values in matched control subjects.
Distribution of the New York Heart Association symptom classification was the same in the two groups of patients. Compared with control subjects, patients in group II with pulmonary congestion and preserved ejection fraction had no activation of the neurohumoral mechanisms, except for a small but statistically significant increase in arginine vasopressin and plasma renin activity. Compared with patients in group II, those in group I with pulmonary congestion and impaired ejection fraction had significant increases in plasma norepinephrine (p
A total of 6,273 consecutive relatively unselected patients with heart failure or left ventricular dysfunction, or both (mean age 62 +/- 12 years, mean ejection fraction 31 +/- 9%), were enrolled in the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) Registry over a period of 14 months. All patients were followed up for vital status and hospital admissions at 1 year. Ischemic heart disease was the underlying cause of failure or dysfunction in approximately 70% of patients, whereas hypertensive heart disease was considered to be primarily involved in only 7%. There were striking differences in the etiology of heart failure among blacks and whites: 73% of whites had an ischemic etiology of failure versus only 36% of blacks; 32% of blacks had a hypertensive condition versus only 4% of whites. The total 1-year mortality rate was 18%; 19% of patients had hospital admissions for heart failure and 27% either died or had a hospital admission for congestive heart failure during the 1st year of follow-up. Factors related to 1-year mortality or hospital admission for congestive heart failure included age, ejection fraction, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation and female gender. There was no difference in mortality associated with congestive heart failure among blacks and whites, but hospital admissions for heart failure were more frequent in blacks. Digitalis and diuretic agents were the drugs most often used in these patients, who were often taking many medications in relation to severity of congestive heart failure symptoms and ejection fraction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)