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Addiction Research Centres and the Nurturing of Creativity. Substance abuse research in a modern health care centre: the case of the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature143386
Source
Addiction. 2011 Apr;106(4):689-97
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2011
Author
Jürgen Rehm
Norman Giesbrecht
Louis Gliksman
Kathryn Graham
Anh D Le
Robert E Mann
Robin Room
Brian Rush
Rachel F Tyndale
Samantha Wells
Author Affiliation
Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, Canada. jtrehm@aol.com
Source
Addiction. 2011 Apr;106(4):689-97
Date
Apr-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Academies and Institutes - organization & administration
Adolescent
Adult
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control
Behavior, Addictive - epidemiology
Comorbidity
Foundations - organization & administration
Health Services Research - organization & administration
Humans
Mental Health Services - organization & administration
Ontario
Organizational Objectives
Preventive Health Services - organization & administration
Public Policy
Research - organization & administration
Research Support as Topic
Substance Abuse Treatment Centers - organization & administration
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - prevention & control
Abstract
The Centre for Addiction and Mental Health is one of the premier centres for research related to substance use and addiction. This research began more than 50 years ago with the Addiction Research Foundation (ARF), an organization that contributed significantly to knowledge about the aetiology, treatment and prevention of substance use, addiction and related harm. After the merger of the ARF with three other institutions in 1998, research on substance use continued, with an additional focus on comorbid substance use and other mental health disorders. In the present paper, we describe the structure of funding and organization and selected current foci of research. We argue for the continuation of this successful model of integrating basic, epidemiological, clinical, health service and prevention research under the roof of a health centre.
PubMed ID
20491727 View in PubMed
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Adolescent gambling and coping within a generalized high-risk behavior framework.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature162924
Source
J Gambl Stud. 2007 Dec;23(4):377-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2007
Author
Anton van Hamel
Jeffrey Derevensky
Yoshio Takane
Laurie Dickson
Rina Gupta
Author Affiliation
International Centre for Youth Gambling Problems and High Risk Behaviors, McGill University, 3724 McTavish Street, Montreal, QC, Canada.
Source
J Gambl Stud. 2007 Dec;23(4):377-93
Date
Dec-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Anxiety
Behavior, Addictive - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Gambling - psychology
Humans
Male
Ontario - epidemiology
Peer Group
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Risk-Taking
Self Concept
Self-Assessment
Students - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Data were collected for 1998 middle/high-school students in Ontario to assess involvement in gambling, substance use, and generalized risky behavior. To predict these outcomes, measures for anxiety, family cohesion, and coping style were also administered. Three a-priori models were posited to account for the impact of risk factors, protective factors, and combined risk/protective factors on the development of risky behaviors. A high-risk cohort composed of subjects endorsing at least one risky behavior (gambling, substance use, or generalized risky behavior) within the clinical range was created to test an unobserved outcome variable created from all three measures of risky behavior, which was successfully predicted by two of the three a-priori models. Implications for the inclusion of gambling within a constellation of high-risk behaviors and recommendations for future prevention efforts are discussed.
PubMed ID
17577646 View in PubMed
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Affective and cognitive correlates of gambling behavior in university students.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature139012
Source
J Gambl Stud. 2011 Sep;27(3):401-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2011
Author
Antonio Pascual-Leone
Kevin Gomes
Emily S Orr
Kristen A Kaploun
Christopher A Abeare
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Avenue, Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, Canada. apl@uwindsor.ca
Source
J Gambl Stud. 2011 Sep;27(3):401-8
Date
Sep-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Behavior, Addictive - epidemiology - psychology
Canada - epidemiology
Cognition
Comorbidity
Depressive Disorder - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Gambling - epidemiology - psychology
Humans
Internal-External Control
Male
Motivation
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Risk-Taking
Self Concept
Social Environment
Students - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Universities
Young Adult
Abstract
The purpose of the following study was to explore certain affective and cognitive components and their relationships to gambling behavior in an undergraduate population. Specifically, the aim was to predict gambling severity using depression scores on the BDI-II, the dependency and self-criticism subscales on the DEQ, emotional awareness scores on the LEAS, cognitive flexibility scores from the STROOP, and a creativity subtests from the TTCT. Participants were 200 undergraduate students and 3.5-7.5% of individuals reported some level of problematic gambling behavior. Multiple regression analysis indicated that self-criticism and creative originality were significant predictors of gambling behavior, explaining 7.6% of the variance. Further analyses reveal a non-linear trend in the creative originality of those who gamble; only the at-risk gamblers were high in creativity whereas abstainers and problematic gamblers display similarly lower levels of creativity. Results are discussed in regards to Blaszczynski and Nower's Addiction 97:487-499 (2002) subtypes of gambling vulnerability.
PubMed ID
21113732 View in PubMed
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Age of first drinking and adult alcohol problems: systematic review of prospective cohort studies.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature256940
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2014 Mar;68(3):268-74
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2014
Author
Will Maimaris
Jim McCambridge
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Public Health & Policy, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, , London, UK.
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2014 Mar;68(3):268-74
Date
Mar-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age of Onset
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - psychology
Alcoholism - etiology - psychology
Behavior, Addictive - epidemiology - etiology
Bias (epidemiology)
Child
Cohort Studies
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Humans
Norway - epidemiology
Population Surveillance
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
United States - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Alcohol policies around the world seek to delay the initiation of drinking. This is partly based on the influential idea that earlier initiation is likely to cause adult alcohol problems. This study synthesises robust evidence for this proposition.
Systematic review of prospective cohort studies in which adolescent measurement of age of first drink in general population studies was separated by at least 3 years from adult alcohol outcomes. EMBASE, Medline, PsychINFO and Social Policy and Practice were searched for eligible studies, alongside standard non-database data collection activities. Data were extracted on included study methods and findings. Risk of bias and confounding was assessed for individual studies and a narrative synthesis of findings was performed.
The main finding was the meagre evidence base available. Only five studies were eligible for inclusion in this review. The existence of effects of age of first drink on adult drinking and related problems were supported, but not at all strongly, in some included studies, and not in others. Rigorous control for confounding markedly attenuates or eliminates any observed effects.
There is no strong evidence that starting drinking earlier leads to adult alcohol problems and more research is needed to address this important question. Policy makers should, therefore, reconsider the justification for delaying initiation as a strategy to address levels of adult alcohol problems in the general population, while also addressing the serious acute harms produced by early drinking.
Notes
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Cites: BMJ. 2009;339:b253519622551
Cites: J Psychiatr Res. 2009 Oct;43(15):1205-1219332346
Cites: PLoS Med. 2011;8(2):e100041321346802
Cites: J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2011 Mar;72(2):221-3121388595
Cites: Lancet. 2011 Jun 18;377(9783):2093-10221652063
Cites: Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011 Aug;35(8):1418-2521438885
Cites: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(9):CD00930721901732
Cites: J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2012 May;73(3):379-9022456243
Cites: Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2013 Jan;37 Suppl 1:E297-30422974121
PubMed ID
24249000 View in PubMed
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Are irrational beliefs and depressive mood more common among problem gamblers than non-gamblers? A survey study of Swedish problem gamblers and controls.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature93032
Source
J Gambl Stud. 2008 Dec;24(4):441-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2008
Author
Källmén Håkan
Andersson Patric
Andren Anders
Author Affiliation
STAD, Crafoords väg 6, 113 24, Stockholm, Sweden. hakan.kallmen@comhem.se
Source
J Gambl Stud. 2008 Dec;24(4):441-50
Date
Dec-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Analysis of Variance
Anxiety - epidemiology
Behavior, Addictive - epidemiology - psychology
Depression - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Gambling - psychology
Humans
Internal-External Control
Male
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Rationalization
Risk-Taking
Superstitions - psychology
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
This study tests the hypothesis that problem gamblers are more prone to have irrational beliefs and depressed mood than non-gamblers. Irrational beliefs refer to fallacious opinions about probabilities. Gamblers like to believe that chance games (i.e., roulette and lottery) can be controlled and that the outcome of such games is dependent on the patterns of previous outcomes. The empirical material consists of responses to a survey that 302 individuals have answered. Half of the respondents were deemed to be problem gamblers. The results showed that compared to the controls, the problem gamblers were more inclined to show illusion of control due to their skill and reported more depressive mood. The results are discussed in terms of difficulties to know the "hen and the egg" regarding depressive mood, and in terms of intermittent reinforcement to continue gambling.
PubMed ID
18543088 View in PubMed
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Are occasional smokers a heterogeneous group? An exploratory study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature139794
Source
Nicotine Tob Res. 2010 Dec;12(12):1195-202
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2010
Author
Sarah A Edwards
Susan J Bondy
Matthew Kowgier
Paul W McDonald
Joanna E Cohen
Author Affiliation
Ontario Tobacco Research Unit, Toronto, Canada. sarah.edwards@utoronto.ca
Source
Nicotine Tob Res. 2010 Dec;12(12):1195-202
Date
Dec-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Attitude to Health
Behavior, Addictive - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Health Behavior
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario - epidemiology
Periodicity
Prevalence
Risk-Taking
Sex Factors
Smoking - epidemiology - psychology
Smoking Cessation - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Social Environment
Young Adult
Abstract
Occasional smokers represent an important segment of all smokers and have been described to be a heterogeneous group in terms of past experience and likelihood of maintaining nondaily smoking behavior.
In the prospective Ontario Tobacco Survey, 408 occasional smokers were followed for a year. Characteristics of subgroups of occasional smokers, as suggested by previous literature, were studied for personal and smoking behavior group differences. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering was also used to empirically identify subgroups of occasional smokers using average linkage. Smoking status at 1-year follow-up was examined overall and by the identified subgroups to determine if any were useful predictors of persistent status as nondaily smoking and likelihood of smoking cessation.
Significant differences were seen among the subgroups of occasional smokers suggested in previous studies including the number of quit attempts, setting a firm quit date, and whether or not participants cared others knew they smoked in descriptive analyses. Exploratory cluster analysis suggested 4 clusters of occasional smokers based on differences in age, perceived addiction, and history of daily smoking. Subgroups based on participants' history of smoking, self-reported addiction level, and empirically identified cluster subgroups resulted in significant differences of smoking status at 1-year follow-up.
This study suggests that occasional smokers may be a heterogeneous group with different subgroups characterized by age, accumulated smoking experience and smoking pattern, as well as factors associated with the likelihood of quitting altogether, over time, and perceived addiction.
PubMed ID
20978108 View in PubMed
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[Association between personality disorders and criminal behavior in young drug-addicted men].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136727
Source
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2011;111(2):25-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
E V Cherepkova
I A Gribacheva
Source
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2011;111(2):25-8
Date
2011
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Antisocial Personality Disorder - epidemiology
Behavior, Addictive - epidemiology
Child
Humans
Male
Personality Disorders - epidemiology
Russia - epidemiology
Social Behavior Disorders - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
An association between psychoactive agents and different types of personality disorders and criminal behavior was studied in 240 men aged 10-33 years. Based on the data of a clinical-psychopathological method used in the combination with statistical data analysis adjusted for the age of patients, the authors conclude that a personality disorder is a strong predictor of addiction and criminal behavior.
PubMed ID
21350419 View in PubMed
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Associations between problematic gaming and psychiatric symptoms among adolescents in two samples.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature288191
Source
Addict Behav. 2016 10;61:8-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
10-2016
Author
Sofia Vadlin
Cecilia Åslund
Charlotta Hellström
Kent W Nilsson
Source
Addict Behav. 2016 10;61:8-15
Date
10-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Anxiety Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - epidemiology - psychology
Behavior, Addictive - epidemiology - psychology
Comorbidity
Depressive Disorder - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Video Games - psychology
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to investigate associations between problematic gaming and psychiatric symptoms among adolescents. Data from adolescents in the SALVe cohort, including adolescents in Västmanland who were born in 1997 and 1999 (N=1868; 1034 girls), and data from consecutive adolescent psychiatric outpatients in Västmanland (N=242; 169 girls) were analyzed. Adolescents self-rated on the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT), Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Adolescent version (ASRS-A), Depression Self-Rating Scale Adolescent version (DSRS-A), Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS), and psychotic-like experiences (PLEs). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed, and adjusted for sex, age, study population, school bullying, family maltreatment, and interactions by sex, with two-way interactions between psychiatric measurements. Boys had higher self-rated problematic gaming in both samples, whereas girls self-rated higher in all psychiatric domains. Boys had more than eight times the probability, odds ratio (OR), of having problematic gaming. Symptoms of ADHD, depression and anxiety were associated with ORs of 2.43 (95% CI 1.44-4.11), 2.47 (95% CI 1.44-4.25), and 2.06 (95% CI 1.27-3.33), respectively, in relation to coexisting problematic gaming. Problematic gaming was associated with psychiatric symptoms in adolescents; when problematic gaming is considered, the probability of coexisting psychiatric symptoms should also be considered, and vice versa.
PubMed ID
27203825 View in PubMed
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Attached to the web--harmful use of the Internet and its correlates.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature150058
Source
Eur Psychiatry. 2010 May;25(4):236-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2010
Author
J. Korkeila
S. Kaarlas
M. Jääskeläinen
T. Vahlberg
T. Taiminen
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, University of Turku, Kunnallissairaalantie 20, 20700 Turku, Finland. jyrki.korkeila@utu.fi
Source
Eur Psychiatry. 2010 May;25(4):236-41
Date
May-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Behavior, Addictive - epidemiology - psychology
Confidence Intervals
Factor Analysis, Statistical
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Internet
Male
Marijuana Abuse - epidemiology - psychology
Odds Ratio
Questionnaires
Reproducibility of Results
Risk factors
Social Support
Stress, Psychological - epidemiology - psychology
Students - psychology
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Young Adult
Abstract
The aim of this study was to test the validity of the Finnish version of the Internet Addiction Test and the correlates of harmful use of the Internet.
One thousand eight hundred and twenty-five students (45.5% men and 54.5% women, mean age 24.7 years, S.D.=5.7) filled in a web-based questionnaire including IAT, reasons for use of the Internet, distress, social support, and substance use.
Men had a statistically significantly higher mean score on the IAT than women. Subjects with self-reported use of cannabis had higher mean score on the IAT compared to non-users (39.5 [11.3] vs 35.8 [10.8]). The total IAT score was associated with "adult entertainment" (OR=1.07, 95%CI: 1.06-1.08, P
PubMed ID
19556111 View in PubMed
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Attitudes towards gambling, gambling participation, and gambling-related harm: cross-sectional Finnish population studies in 2011 and 2015.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285534
Source
BMC Public Health. 2017 Jan 26;17(1):122
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-26-2017
Author
Anne H Salonen
Hannu Alho
Sari Castrén
Source
BMC Public Health. 2017 Jan 26;17(1):122
Date
Jan-26-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Attitude to Health
Behavior, Addictive - epidemiology - psychology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Gambling - epidemiology - psychology
Humans
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Public Opinion
Sex Distribution
Socioeconomic Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Information about public gambling attitudes and gambling participation is crucial for the effective prevention of gambling-related harm. This study investigates female and male attitudes towards gambling, gambling participation, and gambling-related harm in the Finnish population aged 15-74.
Cross-sectional random sample data were collected in 2011 (n?=?4484) and 2015 (n?=?4515). The data were weighted based on gender, age and region of residence. Attitudes were measured using the Attitudes Towards Gambling Scale (ATGS-8). Gambling-related harms were studied using the Problem Gambling Severity Index and the South Oaks Gambling Screen.
Attitudes towards gambling became more positive from 2011 to 2015. Female attitudes were generally negative, but nonetheless moved in a positive direction except in age groups under 25. Occasional gambling increased among women aged 18-24. Women aged 18-24 and 45-54 experienced more harms in 2015 than in 2011. Both land and online gambling increased among women aged 65-74. Male attitudes towards gambling were generally positive, and became more positive from 2011 to 2015 in all age groups except 15-17. Weekly gambling decreased among males aged 15-17. Gambling overall increased among males aged 18-24. Gambling several times a week decreased among men aged 35-44 and 45-54, and gambling 1-3 times a month increased in the latter age group. Online gambling increased only among men aged 55-64.
Attitudes towards gambling became more positive in all except the youngest age groups. Under-age male gambling continued to decrease. We need to make decision-makers better aware of the continuing growth of online gambling among older people and women's increasing experiences of gambling-related harm. This is vital to ensure more effective prevention.
Notes
Cites: Am J Psychiatry. 1987 Sep;144(9):1184-83631315
Cites: Addiction. 2011 Mar;106(3):490-821210880
Cites: PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e4978723209599
Cites: J Gambl Stud. 2008 Jun;24(2):247-5617899328
Cites: BMC Public Health. 2014 Sep 20;14:98225240625
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Cites: J Gambl Stud. 2016 Mar;32(1):243-5925700668
PubMed ID
28122531 View in PubMed
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