To assess associations between the intake of different types of alcoholic beverages and the 32-year incidence of myocardial infarction, stroke, diabetes, and cancer, as well as mortality, in a middle-aged female population.
Gothenburg, Sweden, population about 430 000.
Representative sample of a general population of women (1462 in total) aged 38 to 60 years in 1968-1969, followed up to the ages of 70 to 92 years in 2000-2001.
Associations between alcohol intake and later risk of mortality and morbidity from myocardial infarction, stroke, diabetes, and cancer, studied longitudinally.
During the follow-up period, 185 women developed myocardial infarction, 162 developed stroke, 160 women became diabetic, and 345 developed cancer. Women who drank beer had a 30% lower risk (hazards ratio (HR) 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-0.95) of developing myocardial infarcion and almost half the risk (HR 0.51 CI 0.33-0.80). A significant association between increased risk of death from cancer and high spirits consumption was also shown (hazards ratio [HR] 1.47, CI 1.06-2.05).
Women with moderate consumption of beer had a reduced risk of developing myocardial infarction. High spirits consumption was associated with increased risk of cancer mortality.
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In Sweden, alcohol abstention has increased over the last 20 years and consumption has recently decreased after a peak in 2004. To understand the dynamics of these trends the present study aims at estimating age, period and cohort (APC) effects on trends in alcohol use prevalence as well as overall and beverage-specific volume of drinking over the last three decades.
APC analysis of seven cross-sectional surveys from 1979 to 2011 was conducted using cross-classified random effects models (CCREMs) by gender. The nationally representative samples comprised 77,598 respondents aged 16-80 years. Outcome measures were 30-day prevalence of alcohol use and overall as well as beverage-specific alcohol volume.
Trends in prevalence, overall and beverage-specific volume were significantly affected by APC. The period effects of prevalence and overall volume show a small decline after an increase up to the year 2005. Mean beer and wine volume levelled off after a peak in 2005 and volume of spirits drinking decreased constantly. Predicted alcohol prevalence rates in male cohorts (1945-1985) remained generally at the same level, while they declined in post-World War II female generations. Results point to high overall and beverage-specific consumption among cohorts born in the 1940s, 1950s and 1980s.
High consuming cohorts of the 1940-1950s were key in rising consumption up to 2005. Progression through the life course of these cohorts, a decrease in prevalence and drinking volume in successive cohorts seem to have contributed to the recent downward trend in alcohol use in Sweden.
The association between alcohol intake and colorectal cancer was examined in a population-based case-control study performed in Stockholm in 1986-88. The study included 352 cases of colon cancer, 217 cases of rectal cancer, and 512 controls. Relative risks, with 95% confidence intervals, were calculated for total alcohol intake and for different alcoholic beverages. Total alcohol intake (> or = 30 g 100% ethanol per day) was not associated with colon cancer (relative risk = 0.9, confidence intervals = 0.4-1.8) or rectal cancer (1.0, 0.4-2.1). There was no evidence supporting beverage specificity (for colorectal cancer and > or = 10 g 100% ethanol per day: beer 1.1, 0.6-2.0, wine 1.0, 0.4-2.7, spirits 1.0, 0.6-1.6). The associations did not vary according to gender or site within the large bowel. These analyses were adjusted for year of birth and gender (when appropriate). Further adjustments for diet, body mass or physical activity had little or no influence on the results. The present study does not support the hypothesis that alcohol plays an important role in the aetiology of cancer of the colon and rectum in a population with a relatively low alcohol intake.
A large number of prospective studies have observed an inverse relationship between a moderate intake of alcohol and coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality. Concerning death from all-causes, results are not unanimous. Alcohol intake was associated with a protection of all-cause mortality in England and USA physicians and the large study of the American Cancer Society. None of these studies separated the effects of different alcoholic beverages. In our prospective studies in France on 35 000 middle-aged men, we observed that only wine at moderate intake, was associated with a protective effect on all-cause mortality. The reason was that in addition to the known effect on cardiovascular diseases, a very moderate intake of wine, protected also from cancer and other causes as confirmed by Gronbaek in Denmark. Our recent results also indicate that the protective effect of a moderate intake of wine on all-cause mortality is observed at all levels of blood pressure and serum cholesterol.
The epidemiological evidence relating alcohol consumption and lung cancer is reviewed. Four correlation studies have shown a relationship between alcohol, particularly beer, consumption and lung cancer. Beer consumption was a risk factor in one case-control study. Eight out of ten prospective studies show alcoholics and high alcohol consumers to be at greater risk of lung cancer. Not all of the increased risk in these studies is explainable in terms of confounding by tobacco consumption. There is some animal evidence which supports the effects of alcohol on the likelihood of developing lung cancer.
To investigate to what extent alcohol consumption affects female fecundability.
Prospective cohort study.
Denmark, 1 June 2007 to 5 January 2016.
6120 female Danish residents, aged 21-45 years, in a stable relationship with a male partner, who were trying to conceive and not receiving fertility treatment.
Alcohol consumption was self reported as beer (330 mL bottles), red or white wine (120 mL glasses), dessert wine (50 mL glasses), and spirits (20 mL) and categorized in standard servings per week (none, 1-3, 4-7, 8-13, and =14). Participants contributed menstrual cycles at risk until the report of pregnancy, start of fertility treatment, loss to follow-up, or end of observation (maximum 12 menstrual cycles). A proportional probability regression model was used to estimate fecundability ratios (cycle specific probability of conception among exposed women divided by that among unexposed women).
4210 (69%) participants achieved a pregnancy during follow-up. Median alcohol intake was 2.0 (interquartile range 0-3.5) servings per week. Compared with no alcohol consumption, the adjusted fecundability ratios for alcohol consumption of 1-3, 4-7, 8-13, and 14 or more servings per week were 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.91 to 1.03), 1.01 (0.93 to 1.10), 1.01 (0.87 to 1.16) and 0.82 (0.60 to 1.12), respectively. Compared with no alcohol intake, the adjusted fecundability ratios for women who consumed only wine (=3 servings), beer (=3 servings), or spirits (=2 servings) were 1.05 (0.91 to1.21), 0.92 (0.65 to 1.29), and 0.85 (0.61 to 1.17), respectively. The data did not distinguish between regular and binge drinking, which may be important if large amounts of alcohol are consumed during the fertile window.
Consumption of less than 14 servings of alcohol per week seemed to have no discernible effect on fertility. No appreciable difference in fecundability was observed by level of consumption of beer and wine.
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The objectives were to study alcohol consumption per capita and liver cirrhosis mortality in the population of Iceland.
The Statistic Iceland website supplied alcohol sales figures and death rates.
The alcohol consumption increased 30% during the study period 1982-2009, because of increase in beer and wine, and decrease in spirits consumption. Chronic liver cirrhosis mortality increased significantly for men when comparing the 1982-88 rates (before beer ban was lifted) with the rates for 2003-09.
The findings do not support the suggestion that spirits consumption rather than the total alcohol consumption affect the cirrhosis mortality.
Alcohol is a potential risk factor of Type 2 diabetes. However, more detailed information on effects of alcohol types and early phases of Type 2 diabetes development seems warranted. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of alcohol consumption and specific alcoholic beverages on the risk of developing pre-diabetes and Type 2 diabetes in middle-aged Swedish men and women.
Subjects, who at baseline had normal glucose tolerance (2070 men and 3058 women) or pre-diabetes (70 men and 41 women), aged 35-56 years, were evaluated in this cohort study. Logistic regression was performed to estimate the risk [odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI)] to develop pre-diabetes and Type 2 diabetes at 8-10 years follow-up, in relation to self-reported alcohol intake at baseline. Adjustment was performed for several risk factors.
Total alcohol consumption and binge drinking increased the risk of pre-diabetes and Type 2 diabetes in men (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.00-2.03 and OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.11-2.50, respectively), while low consumption decreased diabetes risk in women (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.22-0.79). Men showed higher risk of pre-diabetes with high beer consumption (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.13-3.01) and of Type 2 diabetes with high consumption of spirits (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.27-3.24). Women showed a reduced risk of pre-diabetes with high wine intake (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.43-0.99) and of Type 2 diabetes with medium intake of both wine and spirits (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.24-0.88 and OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.31-0.97, respectively), whereas high consumption of spirits increased the pre-diabetes risk(OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.47-3.96).
High alcohol consumption increases the risk of abnormal glucose regulation in men. In women the associations are more complex: decreased risk with low or medium intake and increased risk with high alcohol intake.
Alcohol consumption becomes an important social and health problem among youth in many countries. Analysis of data on alcohol consumption behavior from World Health Organization Cross-National Study on Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) is presented in the article. This survey is carried out in majority of European countries including Lithuania. Aim of this study was to analyze features and trends of alcohol consumption among representative sample of 11, 13 and 15-year-old school children and to compare results with international data. METHODS: Patterns and trends of alcohol consumption were analyzed in three cross sectional questionnaire surveys of the representative sample of Lithuanian secondary school student's aged 11, 13 and 15 years in 1994, 1998 and 2002. Respectively, 5428, 4513 and 5645 respondents have filled in the questionnaires anonymously in the classroom according the methodology of international HBSC study. RESULTS: Boys were using alcohol on the regular basis (once a week or more often) more frequently than girls. Prevalence of regular alcohol consumption has increased from 9.4 to 13.6% in boys and from 4.2% to 6.5% in girls (p