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Abstract profiles of structural stability point to universal tendencies, family-specific factors, and ancient connections between languages.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature120224
Source
PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e45198
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Dan Dediu
Stephen C Levinson
Author Affiliation
Language and Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Dan.Dediu@mpi.nl
Source
PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e45198
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Americas
Asia
Australia
Bayes Theorem
Cultural Evolution - history
Europe
History, 21st Century
History, Ancient
History, Medieval
Humans
Language - history
Linguistics - statistics & numerical data - trends
Phylogeny
Siberia
Abstract
Language is the best example of a cultural evolutionary system, able to retain a phylogenetic signal over many thousands of years. The temporal stability (conservatism) of basic vocabulary is relatively well understood, but the stability of the structural properties of language (phonology, morphology, syntax) is still unclear. Here we report an extensive Bayesian phylogenetic investigation of the structural stability of numerous features across many language families and we introduce a novel method for analyzing the relationships between the "stability profiles" of language families. We found that there is a strong universal component across language families, suggesting the existence of universal linguistic, cognitive and genetic constraints. Against this background, however, each language family has a distinct stability profile, and these profiles cluster by geographic area and likely deep genealogical relationships. These stability profiles seem to show, for example, the ancient historical relationships between the Siberian and American language families, presumed to be separated by at least 12,000 years, and possible connections between the Eurasian families. We also found preliminary support for the punctuated evolution of structural features of language across families, types of features and geographic areas. Thus, such higher-level properties of language seen as an evolutionary system might allow the investigation of ancient connections between languages and shed light on the peopling of the world.
Notes
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Erratum In: PLoS One.2012;7(10). doi: 10.1371/annotation/ceff8775-a4e3-45cb-b6c9-dd62d9179d59
PubMed ID
23028843 View in PubMed
Less detail

Accident prediction models with random corridor parameters.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature149229
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 2009 Sep;41(5):1118-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2009
Author
Karim El-Basyouny
Tarek Sayed
Author Affiliation
Dept. of Civil Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4. basyouny@civil.ubc.ca
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 2009 Sep;41(5):1118-23
Date
Sep-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - statistics & numerical data
Analysis of Variance
Bayes Theorem
British Columbia
Humans
Markov Chains
Models, Statistical
Models, Theoretical
Poisson Distribution
Risk assessment
Statistics as Topic
Abstract
Recent research advocates the use of count models with random parameters as an alternative method for analyzing accident frequencies. In this paper a dataset composed of urban arterials in Vancouver, British Columbia, is considered where the 392 segments were clustered into 58 corridors. The main objective is to assess the corridor effects with alternate specifications. The proposed models were estimated in a Full Bayes context via Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation and were compared in terms of their goodness of fit and inference. A variety of covariates were found to significantly influence accident frequencies. However, these covariates resulted in random parameters and thereby their effects on accident frequency were found to vary significantly across corridors. Further, a Poisson-lognormal (PLN) model with random parameters for each corridor provided the best fit. Apart from the improvement in goodness of fit, such an approach is useful in gaining new insights into how accident frequencies are influenced by the covariates, and in accounting for heterogeneity due to unobserved road geometrics, traffic characteristics, environmental factors and driver behavior. The inclusion of corridor effects in the mean function could also explain enough variation that some of the model covariates would be rendered non-significant and thereby affecting model inference.
PubMed ID
19664455 View in PubMed
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The accuracy of Genomic Selection in Norwegian red cattle assessed by cross-validation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature98928
Source
Genetics. 2009 Nov;183(3):1119-26
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2009
Author
Tu Luan
John A Woolliams
Sigbjørn Lien
Matthew Kent
Morten Svendsen
Theo H E Meuwissen
Author Affiliation
Department of Animal and Aquacultural Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Box 5003, N-1432 As, Norway. tu.luan@umb.no
Source
Genetics. 2009 Nov;183(3):1119-26
Date
Nov-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Algorithms
Animal Husbandry - methods
Animals
Bayes Theorem
Breeding - methods
Cattle - genetics - metabolism
Female
Genome - genetics
Genome-Wide Association Study
Genotype
Male
Milk - metabolism - standards
Norway
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide - genetics
Quantitative Trait Loci - genetics
Reproducibility of Results
Selection, Genetic
Abstract
Genomic Selection (GS) is a newly developed tool for the estimation of breeding values for quantitative traits through the use of dense markers covering the whole genome. For a successful application of GS, accuracy of the prediction of genomewide breeding value (GW-EBV) is a key issue to consider. Here we investigated the accuracy and possible bias of GW-EBV prediction, using real bovine SNP genotyping (18,991 SNPs) and phenotypic data of 500 Norwegian Red bulls. The study was performed on milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, first lactation mastitis traits, and calving ease. Three methods, best linear unbiased prediction (G-BLUP), Bayesian statistics (BayesB), and a mixture model approach (MIXTURE), were used to estimate marker effects, and their accuracy and bias were estimated by using cross-validation. The accuracies of the GW-EBV prediction were found to vary widely between 0.12 and 0.62. G-BLUP gave overall the highest accuracy. We observed a strong relationship between the accuracy of the prediction and the heritability of the trait. GW-EBV prediction for production traits with high heritability achieved higher accuracy and also lower bias than health traits with low heritability. To achieve a similar accuracy for the health traits probably more records will be needed.
PubMed ID
19704013 View in PubMed
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Accuracy of the Third Molar Eruption Predictor in predicting eruption.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature194372
Source
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2001 Jun;91(6):638-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2001
Author
I. Ventä
S. Schou
Author Affiliation
Department of Oral Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland. irja.venta@helsinki.fi
Source
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2001 Jun;91(6):638-42
Date
Jun-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Bayes Theorem
Calibration
Denmark
False Negative Reactions
False Positive Reactions
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Forecasting - methods
Humans
Male
Molar - radiography
Molar, Third - physiology - radiography
Observer Variation
Odontometry
Probability
Radiography, Panoramic
Retrospective Studies
Sensitivity and specificity
Tooth Crown - radiography
Tooth Eruption
Tooth, Impacted - physiopathology
Tooth, Unerupted - physiopathology - radiography
Abstract
To evaluate the possibility of applying the Third Molar Eruption Predictor to all panoramic radiographs.
Panoramic radiographs were retrospectively analyzed from a 4-year follow-up study of third molars carried out at the University of Copenhagen, Denmark. The radiographs, taken at a mean age of 20.6 years, included 45 unerupted or partially erupted mandibular third molars in 28 subjects. Because the device was calibrated both with simple proportions and by use of the methods of Bayes' Decision Theory, the separation point of the device was therefore adjusted at 12 mm from the distal surface of the second molar.
The predictions of future eruption or impaction made with the calibrated device and the actual clinical outcome 4 years later were in conformity for 80% of the mandibular third molars.
The Third Molar Eruption Predictor may be applied to all panoramic radiographs, but it seems to require calibration before use.
PubMed ID
11402274 View in PubMed
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The acute abdomen in emergency with Hypercard.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature227531
Source
Proc Annu Symp Comput Appl Med Care. 1991;:156-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
1991
Author
A C Harvey
P F Moodie
J E Reda
N J Childs
D. Gray
M. Samimi
D P Thorlakson
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Misericordia Hospital, Winnipeg.
Source
Proc Annu Symp Comput Appl Med Care. 1991;:156-9
Date
1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abdomen, Acute - etiology
Bayes Theorem
Consumer Satisfaction
Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted - utilization
Emergency Service, Hospital
Hospitals, Community
Humans
Manitoba
Microcomputers
Software
Abstract
A non-sequential Bayesian program for diagnosing acute abdominal pain was developed using an Amdahl mainframe accessed by a Texas Instrument remote terminal. Transferring the program to a MacIntosh SE/30 using hypercard was attended by increased utilisation from 15 to 44%.
Notes
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PubMed ID
1807577 View in PubMed
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Acute middle ear infection in small children: a Bayesian analysis using multiple time scales.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature33815
Source
Lifetime Data Anal. 1998;4(2):121-37
Publication Type
Article
Date
1998
Author
A. Andreev
E. Arjas
Author Affiliation
Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Oulu, Finland.
Source
Lifetime Data Anal. 1998;4(2):121-37
Date
1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Algorithms
Bayes Theorem
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Likelihood Functions
Male
Markov Chains
Mathematical Computing
Models, Statistical
Otitis Media - epidemiology
Prospective Studies
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Abstract
The study is based on a sample of 965 children living in Oulu region (Finland), who were monitored for acute middle ear infections from birth to the age of two years. We introduce a nonparametrically defined intensity model for ear infections, which involves both fixed and time dependent covariates, such as calendar time, current age, length of breast-feeding time until present, or current type of day care. Unmeasured heterogeneity, which manifests itself in frequent infections in some children and rare in others and which cannot be explained in terms of the known covariates, is modelled by using individual frailty parameters. A Bayesian approach is proposed to solve the inferential problem. The numerical work is carried out by Monte Carlo integration (Metropolis-Hastings algorithm).
PubMed ID
9658771 View in PubMed
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Aging of the population may not lead to an increase in the numbers of acute coronary events: a community surveillance study and modelled forecast of the future.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114624
Source
Heart. 2013 Jul;99(13):954-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2013
Author
Veikko Salomaa
Aki S Havulinna
Heli Koukkunen
Päivi Kärjä-Koskenkari
Arto Pietilä
Juha Mustonen
Matti Ketonen
Aapo Lehtonen
Pirjo Immonen-Räihä
Seppo Lehto
Juhani Airaksinen
Y Antero Kesäniemi
Author Affiliation
Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, THL-National Institute for Health and Welfare, PO Box 30, Helsinki FI-00271, Finland. veikko.salomaa@thl.fi
Source
Heart. 2013 Jul;99(13):954-9
Date
Jul-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Coronary Syndrome - epidemiology - mortality
Age Factors
Age of Onset
Aged
Aging
Bayes Theorem
Comorbidity
Computer simulation
Epidemiology - trends
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Forecasting
Humans
Incidence
Logistic Models
Male
Markov Chains
Middle Aged
Models, Statistical
Monte Carlo Method
Registries
Survivors - statistics & numerical data
Time Factors
Abstract
To examine the incidence, mortality and case fatality of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in Finland during 1993-2007 and to create forecasts of the absolute numbers of ACS cases in the future, taking into account the aging of the population.
Community surveillance study and modelled forecasts of the future.
Two sets of population-based coronary event register data from Finland (FINAMI and the National Cardiovascular Disease Register (CVDR)). Bayesian age-period-cohort (APC) modelling.
24 905 observed ACS events in the FINAMI register and 364 137 in CVDR.
Observed trends of ACS events during 1993-2007, forecasted numbers of ACS cases, and the prevalence of ACS survivors until the year 2050.
In the FINAMI register, the average annual declines in age-standardised incidence of ACS were 1.6% (p
PubMed ID
23598542 View in PubMed
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Alopecia associated with treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature81812
Source
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2006 Oct;15(10):719-25
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2006
Author
Hedenmalm Karin
Sundström Anders
Spigset Olav
Author Affiliation
Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. karin.hedenmalm@mpa.se
Source
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2006 Oct;15(10):719-25
Date
Oct-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alopecia - chemically induced - epidemiology
Bayes Theorem
Citalopram - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Pharmacoepidemiology
Retrospective Studies
Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors - adverse effects
Sertraline - adverse effects
Sweden - epidemiology
World Health Organization
Abstract
PURPOSE: To study the association between alopecia and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) by estimating reporting rates and by making association comparisons within databases of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). METHODS: All reports of alopecia with marketed SSRIs until the end of 2004 were identified in SWEDIS, the national Swedish database for spontaneously reported ADRs, and in Vigibase, the international ADR database of the World Health Organization. Total SSRI sales volumes in Sweden until the end of 2004 were obtained from the National Corporation of Swedish Pharmacies. The Bayes' Confidence Propagation Neural Network (BCPNN) method was used to estimate associations between alopecia and each of the SSRIs within the two databases. RESULTS: A total of 27 reports of alopecia were identified in SWEDIS. As two reports concerned the use of two SSRIs, there was a total of 29 drug-ADR combinations. All except three reports concerned women (88.9%). The reporting rate of alopecia in Sweden was significantly higher with sertraline compared with citalopram; 20.1 (95%CI 10.7-34.4) reports per million patient-years versus 4.5 (95%CI 1.8-9.3) reports per million patient-years. No significant differences in reporting rates were noted for the remaining SSRIs. Sertraline also showed a statistically significant association with alopecia in both SWEDIS and Vigibase. Citalopram was significantly associated with alopecia in Vigibase, but not in SWEDIS. No statistically significant associations were found for any of the other SSRIs. CONCLUSIONS: Alopecia appears to be a rare ADR to SSRIs. The risk of alopecia seems to vary between the different SSRIs, and might be higher in women than in men.
PubMed ID
16783834 View in PubMed
Less detail

Altered growth trajectory of head circumference during infancy and schizophrenia in a National Birth Cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature288069
Source
Schizophr Res. 2017 04;182:115-119
Publication Type
Article
Date
04-2017
Author
Alan S Brown
David Gyllenberg
Susanna Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki
Andre Sourander
Ian W McKeague
Source
Schizophr Res. 2017 04;182:115-119
Date
04-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Bayes Theorem
Birth weight
Body Height
Body Weight
Case-Control Studies
Cephalometry
Cohort Studies
Female
Finland
Gestational Age
Head - abnormalities - growth & development
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Male
Psychotic Disorders - epidemiology - pathology
Schizophrenia - epidemiology - pathology
Sex Factors
Abstract
Identification of abnormalities in the developmental trajectory during infancy of future schizophrenia cases offers the potential to reveal pathogenic mechanisms of this disorder. Previous studies of head circumference in pre-schizophrenia were limited to measures at birth. The use of growth acceleration of head circumference (defined as the rate of change in head circumference) provides a more informative representation of the maturational landscape of this measure compared to studies based on static head circumference measures. To date, however, no study has examined whether HC growth acceleration differs between pre-schizophrenia cases and controls. In the present study, we employed a nested case control design of a national birth cohort in Finland. Cases with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (N=375) and controls (N=375) drawn from the birth cohort were matched 1:1 on date of birth (within 1month), sex, and residence in Finland at case diagnosis. Longitudinal data were obtained on head circumference from birth through age 1. Data were analyzed using a new nonparametric Bayesian inversion method which allows for a detailed understanding of growth dynamics. Adjusting for growth velocity of height and weight, and gestational age, there was significantly accelerated growth of head circumference in females with schizophrenia from birth to 2months; the findings remained significant following Bonferroni correction (p
Notes
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PubMed ID
27818077 View in PubMed
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Analysing the length of care episode after hip fracture: a nonparametric and a parametric Bayesian approach.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature142186
Source
Health Care Manag Sci. 2010 Jun;13(2):170-81
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2010
Author
Jaakko Riihimäki
Reijo Sund
Aki Vehtari
Author Affiliation
Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, Helsinki University of Technology-TKK, P.O. Box 2200, 02015 Helsinki, Finland. jaakko.riihimaki@tkk.fi
Source
Health Care Manag Sci. 2010 Jun;13(2):170-81
Date
Jun-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bayes Theorem
Episode of Care
Finland
Hip Fractures
Humans
Length of Stay
Models, Statistical
Registries
Abstract
Effective utilisation of limited resources is a challenge for health care providers. Accurate and relevant information extracted from the length of stay distributions is useful for management purposes. Patient care episodes can be reconstructed from the comprehensive health registers, and in this paper we develop a Bayesian approach to analyse the length of care episode after a fractured hip. We model the large scale data with a flexible nonparametric multilayer perceptron network and with a parametric Weibull mixture model. To assess the performances of the models, we estimate expected utilities using predictive density as a utility measure. Since the model parameters cannot be directly compared, we focus on observables, and estimate the relevances of patient explanatory variables in predicting the length of stay. To demonstrate how the use of the nonparametric flexible model is advantageous for this complex health care data, we also study joint effects of variables in predictions, and visualise nonlinearities and interactions found in the data.
PubMed ID
20629418 View in PubMed
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388 records – page 1 of 39.