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The ability of criminal law to produce gender equality: judicial discourses in the Swedish criminal legal system.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature98450
Source
Violence Against Women. 2010 Feb;16(2):173-88
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2010
Author
Monica Burman
Author Affiliation
Umeå University, Sweden. monica.burman@jus.umu.se
Source
Violence Against Women. 2010 Feb;16(2):173-88
Date
Feb-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Battered Women - legislation & jurisprudence
Community Networks - organization & administration
Crime Victims - legislation & jurisprudence
Criminal Law - legislation & jurisprudence
Female
Health Policy - legislation & jurisprudence
Humans
Interpersonal Relations
Male
Sex Factors
Spouse Abuse - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Sweden
Value of Life
Women's Rights - legislation & jurisprudence
Abstract
The main aim of the Swedish Women's Peace reform in 1998 was to enhance criminal legal protection for women exposed to violence in heterosexual relationships and to promote gender equality. However, these ambitions risk being contravened in a masculinist criminal legal system. One problem concerns how the victim is constructed in criminal legal cases. The author argues that moral balancing and discourses of responsibility and guilt in Swedish cases constrain the agency possible for women and suggest that a more comprehensive policy in Sweden must be developed to include violent men, their agency, and their responsibility for the violence.
PubMed ID
20053946 View in PubMed
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Abused women and child custody: the ongoing exposure to abusive ex-partners.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature202476
Source
J Adv Nurs. 1999 Feb;29(2):416-26
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1999
Author
C. Shalansky
J. Ericksen
A. Henderson
Author Affiliation
Burnaby Hospital, British Columbia, Canada.
Source
J Adv Nurs. 1999 Feb;29(2):416-26
Date
Feb-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Battered Women - psychology
British Columbia
Child
Child Custody - legislation & jurisprudence
Child, Preschool
Emotions
Female
Humans
Middle Aged
Safety
Social Support
Stress, Psychological
Abstract
Abuse of women in domestic relationships has become an epidemic. Research studies have documented that abuse does not end when a woman with children leaves the abuser but, in fact, the danger increases. A father's legal right to custody of and access to his children and the children's bond with their father prevent a woman from truly breaking free of her abuser. Theoretical literature has addressed how custody and access can serve as a means for an abuser to continue his abuse and expose his children to ongoing abuse and discord. Research on how custody and access issues are affecting abused women is limited. Key details about this phenomenon are not known. Hence, a research study using the qualitative methodology of phenomenology was conducted on abused women's experiences with custody and access and the ongoing exposure to abusive ex-partners. Six single mothers who had left abusive relationships and were at the time sharing custody of and/or access to their children with their abusive ex-partners participated in the study. Unstructured, non-directive interviews were conducted. Direction for analysis was taken from the specific steps outlined by Giorgi. Data analysis revealed that all of the women were living in great fear for their safety and that of their children. The ongoing danger and stress of living with the restrictions of the law took its toll on the women and ultimately affected their physical health and psychological well-being. The women described their experiences as having four components: (1) safety--living with ongoing danger; (2) stress--living with the restrictions of the law and the legal system; (3) coping--social support systems; and (4) to heal and move forward in life.
PubMed ID
10197942 View in PubMed
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Abused women's vulnerability in daily life and in contact with psychiatric care: In the light of a caring science perspective.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286928
Source
J Clin Nurs. 2017 Aug;26(15-16):2384-2391
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2017
Author
Karin Örmon
Ulrica Hörberg
Source
J Clin Nurs. 2017 Aug;26(15-16):2384-2391
Date
Aug-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult Survivors of Child Abuse - psychology
Battered Women - psychology
Behavioral Sciences
Clinical Studies as Topic
Female
Humans
Mental Disorders - nursing - psychology
Patient Acceptance of Health Care
Sweden
Vulnerable Populations - psychology
Women's health
Abstract
The aim of the study is to deepen the understanding of abused women's vulnerability in relation to how the abuse and encounters with health care professionals affect life. A further aim is to highlight abused women's vulnerability with a caring science perspective.
Experience of abuse has consequences for the mental health of women and girls. Abused women may experience health care as unsupportive, and as a result, often chose not to disclose their experiences of abuse.
The results of two qualitative empirical studies were analysed along with a phenomenological meaning analysis in accordance with the methodological principles of Reflective Lifeworld Research.
Living one's life with experiences of abuse implies vulnerability, which can prevent abused women from achieving good health. This vulnerability results from insecurity regarding identity, along with the sense that one could have been a different individual if it were not for the abuse and thereby have a more fair chance in life. Being cared for within general psychiatric care could further increase this vulnerability. The healthcare professional's ability to care for the women who have experienced abuse leads to either an encounter of trust or else further suffering for the women.
A lifeworld-oriented caring science perspective as a foundation for care can contribute to care for abused women which reaches the existential dimensions of their vulnerability and vulnerable life situation.
It is evident that healthcare professionals should deepen their understanding of how abused women live, within a general psychiatric context. This study enables a deeper understanding of abused women's vulnerability in relation to how the abuse and encounters with healthcare professionals affect life.
PubMed ID
27349375 View in PubMed
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Actuarial assessment of violence risk in hospital-based partner assault clinics.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature152826
Source
Can J Nurs Res. 2008 Dec;40(4):56-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2008
Author
N Zoe Hilton
Grant T Harris
Norah Holder
Author Affiliation
Research Department, Mental Health Centre Penetanguishene, Ontario, Canada. zhilton@mhcp.on.ca
Source
Can J Nurs Res. 2008 Dec;40(4):56-70
Date
Dec-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Actuarial Analysis - methods - standards
Adolescent
Adult
Attitude to Health
Battered Women - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Middle Aged
Nursing Assessment - methods - standards
Nursing Evaluation Research
Ontario
Outpatient Clinics, Hospital
Pilot Projects
Predictive value of tests
Psychometrics
Questionnaires - standards
Recurrence
Risk Assessment - methods - standards
Risk factors
Severity of Illness Index
Spouse Abuse - diagnosis - prevention & control - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Stalking - psychology
Abstract
Hospital-based partner assault clinics are a relatively recent addition to the community response to partner violence. In this study, 66% of 111 women attending hospital clinics for partner assault were physically injured and 43% reported death threats. Few concurrently used other services (shelters or police) and most relied on female friends and relatives for help. Many participants who currently lived with the perpetrator were contemplating leaving but only a third had made plans to do so. Participants faced an unusually high risk of future assault, according to both victim interview using the ODARA actuarial risk assessment and their own perceptions. Findings imply an important role for partner assault clinics and the feasibility of the victim service sector's using the same actuarial risk assessments as the criminal justice system.
PubMed ID
19186785 View in PubMed
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Acute forensic medical procedures used following a sexual assault among treatment-seeking women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature175653
Source
Women Health. 2004;40(2):53-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
Author
Hester Dunlap
Paulette Brazeau
Lana Stermac
Mary Addison
Author Affiliation
University of Toronto at Sunnybrook and Women's College of Health Sciences Centre, Room 231, 7th Floor, 252 Bloor Street, West, Toronto, ON, M5S 1V6, Canada. hester_dunlap@camh.net
Source
Women Health. 2004;40(2):53-65
Date
2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Attitude to Health
Battered Women - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Crime Victims - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Emergency Service, Hospital - utilization
Female
Forensic Pathology - standards
Humans
Injury Severity Score
Middle Aged
Ontario - epidemiology
Patient Acceptance of Health Care - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Physical Examination
Rape - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Regression Analysis
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Social Perception
Socioeconomic Factors
Women's Health Services - standards
Abstract
Despite the negative physical and mental health outcomes of sexual assault, a minority of sexually assaulted women seek immediate post-assault medical and legal services. This study identified the number and types of acute forensic medical procedures used by women presenting at a hospital-based urgent care centre between 1997 and 2001 within 72 hours following a reported sexual assault. The study also examined assault and non-assault factors associated with the use of procedures. It was hypothesized that assault characteristics resembling the stereotype of rape would be associated with the use of more procedures. The multiple regression indicated that injury severity, coercion severity, homelessness, and delay in presentation were significantly associated with the number of procedures received. Findings provide partial support for the hypothesis that post-assault procedures would be associated with the stereotype of rape, and highlight homeless women as a group particularly at risk for not receiving adequate medical treatment following a sexual assault.
PubMed ID
15778138 View in PubMed
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"A fool to keep staying": battered women labeling themselves stupid as an expression of gendered shame.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature98680
Source
Violence Against Women. 2010 Jan;16(1):5-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2010
Author
Viveka Enander
Author Affiliation
University of Gothenburg, SE 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden. aqut@hotmail.com
Source
Violence Against Women. 2010 Jan;16(1):5-31
Date
Jan-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Battered Women - psychology
Domestic Violence - psychology
Female
Gender Identity
Humans
Intelligence
Interpersonal Relations
Interviews as Topic
Male
Middle Aged
Self Concept
Shame
Sweden
Young Adult
Abstract
In this qualitative study with women who have left abusive heterosexual relationships, the informants labeling themselves stupid is investigated. Several different meanings ascribed to stupidity were found, with feeling stupid for allowing oneself to be mistreated and for staying in the abusive relationship as main themes. Four frames for interpreting the findings are presented: abusive relationship dynamics, gendered shame, the gender-equality-oriented Nordic context, and leaving processes. It is proposed that feeling- and labeling oneself-stupid is an expression of gendered shame or, more explicitly, of battered shame.
PubMed ID
19949227 View in PubMed
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Alcohol misuse, drinking contexts and intimate partner violence in St. Petersburg, Russia: results from a cross-sectional study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature132414
Source
BMC Public Health. 2011;11:629
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Weihai Zhan
Alla V Shaboltas
Roman V Skochilov
Andrei P Kozlov
Tatiana V Krasnoselskikh
Nadia Abdala
Author Affiliation
Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.
Source
BMC Public Health. 2011;11:629
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects - epidemiology
Battered Women
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Interpersonal Relations
Logistic Models
Male
Questionnaires
Russia - epidemiology
Sexual Partners
Young Adult
Abstract
Alcohol misuse has been linked to intimate partner violence (IPV). However, this association is not usually examined in Russia. Moreover, more investigation is required as to whether specific drinking contexts are also associated with IPV. The objectives of this study are: to investigate whether alcohol misuse is associated with IPV and to further examine whether specific drinking contexts among drinkers are associated with IPV.
A questionnaire was used to collect information on demographics, health status, alcohol use, and violence involving sexual partners among 440 participants who were recruited from an STI (sexually transmitted infection) clinic center in St. Petersburg, Russia for a cross-sectional study from 2008 to 2009. Multivariate logistic regression was used for analysis.
Overall, 47.0% participants were classified as misusing alcohol and 7.2% participants perpetrated IPV in the past three months. Participants with alcohol misuse were 3.28 times (OR: 3.28; 95% CI: 1.34-8.04) as likely as those without alcohol misuse to perpetrate IPV. Among participants who had consumed alcohol in the past three months, those who usually drank on the streets or in parks (OR: 5.62; 95% CI: 1.67-18.90) were more likely to perpetrate IPV.
Both alcohol misuse and certain drinking contexts (e.g., drinking on the streets or at parks) were associated with IPV. The association between drinking contexts and IPV needs further investigation, as do the underlying mechanisms for this association. IPV prevention initiatives might benefit from reducing alcohol misuse. Drinking contexts such as drinking on the streets or at parks as well as the factors related to the use of alcohol in these contexts may also need to be addressed.
Notes
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Cites: Psychol Bull. 2000 Sep;126(5):651-8010989615
PubMed ID
21819570 View in PubMed
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Application of the Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) and WAST-short in the family practice setting.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature196814
Source
J Fam Pract. 2000 Oct;49(10):896-903
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2000
Author
J B Brown
B. Lent
G. Schmidt
G. Sas
Author Affiliation
Centre for Studies in Family Medicine, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada. jbbrown@julian.uwo.ca
Source
J Fam Pract. 2000 Oct;49(10):896-903
Date
Oct-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Battered Women - statistics & numerical data
Family Practice
Female
Humans
Income
Marital status
Middle Aged
Ontario
Questionnaires
Reproducibility of Results
Rural Population
Urban Population
Abstract
Our study objectives were to assess the validity and reliability of the Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) in the general population within the family practice setting; to determine the comfort levels of family physicians administering the WAST, their perceptions of its ability to help them identify abused women, and their willingness to continue using it in practice; and to determine the self-reported comfort of patients being asked the WAST questions by their family physicians.
We included a stratified random sample of 20 physicians practicing in both urban and rural settings drawn from 400 family physicians in London, Ontario, Canada, and the surrounding area. These physicians administered the WAST to 10 to 15 eligible and consenting patients during the course of regular care. Following the physician-patient encounter, patients were asked to complete both a measure about their comfort in being asked each of the WAST questions and the Abuse Risk Inventory (ARI).
Scores on the WAST correlated well with those on the ARI. The reliability of the WAST among this sample was demonstrated by a coefficient alpha of 0.75. With the WAST-Short (the first 2 questions of the WAST), 26 of the 307 patients screened (8.5%) were identified as experiencing abuse. The physicians were comfortable administering the WAST to their women patients, and 91% of the patients reported being comfortable or very comfortable when asked the WAST questions by their family physician.
The WAST was found to be a reliable and valid measure of abuse in the family practice setting, with both patients and family physicians reporting comfort with it being part of the clinical encounter.
Notes
Comment In: J Fam Pract. 2000 Oct;49(10):904-611052162
PubMed ID
11052161 View in PubMed
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Are sociodemographic and regional and sample factors associated with prevalence of abuse?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature71122
Source
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2004 Mar;83(3):276-88
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2004
Author
Katarina Swahnberg
Barbro Wijma
Berit Schei
Malene Hilden
Kirstine Irminger
Gun B Wingren
Author Affiliation
Division of Women's Health, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Sweden. katsw@imk.liu.se
Source
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2004 Mar;83(3):276-88
Date
Mar-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Attitude of Health Personnel
Battered Women - statistics & numerical data
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Gynecology
Humans
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Prevalence
Probability
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk assessment
Rural Population
Sampling Studies
Sex Offenses - statistics & numerical data
Socioeconomic Factors
Spouse Abuse - statistics & numerical data
Statistics, nonparametric
Sweden - epidemiology
Urban Population
Abstract
BACKGROUND: The aims of the present study were: 1) to estimate the prevalence of emotional, physical and sexual abuse and abuse in the health care system, and 2) to study the associations between prevalence of abuse and sociodemographic and sample variables. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used a validated postal questionnaire in four Swedish samples; patients at three gynecologic clinics with different character and in different regions (n = 2439) and women in one randomized population sample (n = 1168). RESULTS: Any lifetime emotional abuse was reported by 16.8-21.4% of the women; physical abuse by 32.1-37.5%; sexual abuse by 15.9-17.0%; and abuse in the health care system by 14.0-19.7%. For 7-8% abuse had included life threats and 9-20% of all women in the study currently suffered from their experiences of abuse. Most women had not disclosed their background of abuse to the gynecologist. There were differences in sociodemographic variables between the four samples. Generally, in the multivariate analyses we found associations between prevalence of abuse and age, educational level, civil status and occupation, but no consistent association between prevalence of abuse and sample variables. CONCLUSION: Lifetime prevalence rates of the four kinds of abuse were high in all samples as measured by the NorVold Abuse Questionnaire (NorAQ), and 1/10-1/5 women in the study suffered currently from abusive experiences. In multivariate analyses prevalence of abuse was consistently associated with sociodemographic but not to sample variables.
PubMed ID
14995925 View in PubMed
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The association between disordered eating and substance use and abuse in women: a community-based investigation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature165986
Source
Women Health. 2006;44(1):1-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Niva Piran
Shannon Robinson
Author Affiliation
Department of Adult Education and Counseling Psychology, OISE/University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. npiran@oise.utoronto.ca
Source
Women Health. 2006;44(1):1-20
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Battered Women - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Eating Disorders - complications - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Ontario - epidemiology
Questionnaires
Socioeconomic Factors
Spouse Abuse
Substance-Related Disorders - complications - epidemiology
Women's health
Women's Health Services - organization & administration
Abstract
A behavioral analysis was conducted of various eating disorder behaviors and their relationship with the lifetime use of different substances in a community-based sample of young adult women, aged 18-25 years. Women with particular eating disorder behaviors were selected from the 517 women who completed the Women's Health Survey. Analyses compared the frequencies of lifetime use of a range of licit and illicit substances as well as the abuse of prescription medications between each of the eating disorder groups and the normal control group. Results showed that as eating disorder behaviors became more severe, or were clustered together, the number of substance classes used, increased. Severe bingeing was consistently associated with alcohol use. Dieting and purging, with or without bingeing, was associated with the use of stimulants/ amphetamines and the abuse of sleeping pills. The results of this study suggest that the co-occurrence between subclinical levels of eating disorders and the use and abuse of a wide range of substances should inform assessment and treatment planning for adult women.
PubMed ID
17182524 View in PubMed
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148 records – page 1 of 15.