The (90)Sr activity concentrations released from a radioactive fallout have been determined in a range of samples of mushrooms collected in Poland, Belarus, China, and Sweden in 1996-2013. Measurement of (90)Sr in pooled samples of mushrooms was carried out with radiochemical procedure aimed to pre-isolate the analyte from the fungal materials before it was determined using the Low-Level Beta Counter. Interestingly, the Purple Bolete Imperator rhodopurpureus collected from Yunnan in south-western China in 2012 showed (90)Sr activity concentration at around 10 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass, which was greater when compared to other mushrooms in this study. The King Bolete Boletus edulis from China showed the (90)Sr activity in caps at around 1.5 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass (whole fruiting bodies) in 2012 and for specimens from Poland activity was well lower than 1.0 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass in 1998-2010. A sample of Sarcodonimbricatus collected in 1998 from the north-eastern region of Poland impacted by Chernobyl fallout showed (90)Sr in caps at around 5 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass. Concentration of (90)Sr in Bay Bolete Royoporus (Xerocomus or Boletus) badius from affected region of Gomel in Belarus was in 2010 at 2.1 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass. In several other species from Poland (90)Sr was at
This paper discusses activity concentrations of (210)Po, (210)Pb, (40)K and (137)Cs in edible wild berries and mushrooms collected from Øvre Dividalen national park, Northern Norway and derives committed effective ingestion doses to man based on high consumption rates of these wild foods. Edible wild berries and mushrooms accumulated similar levels of (210)Pb, but mushrooms accumulated higher levels of (210)Po and (40)K than berries. There appears to be a clear difference in the ability of Leccinum spp. of fungi to accumulate (210)Po and/or translocate (210)Po to mushrooms compared to Russula spp. of fungi. Activity concentrations of (137)Cs in edible wild berries and mushrooms from Øvre Dividalen national park reflected the lower levels of fallout of this radionuclide in Northern Norway compared to more central areas following the Chernobyl accident. For mushrooms, ingestion doses are dominated by (210)Po, while for berries, (40)K is typically the main contributor to dose. Based on high consumption rates, ingestion doses arising from the combination of (210)Po, (210)Pb and (40)K were up to 0.05 mSv/a for berries and 0.50 mSv/a for mushrooms. Consumption of such wild foods may result in a significant contribution to total annual doses when consumed in large quantities, particularly when selecting mushrooms species that accumulate high activity concentrations of (210)Po.
The use for hallucinogenic purposes of an indigenous mushroom, Psilocybe semilanceata indigenous to Britain is reported in three patients. Typical psychedelic, transient psychotic and more prolonged schizophrenia-like states were seen, with sympathomimetic signs noted in two cases, in one being prolonged. Enquiry about such mushroom abuse should be considered in individuals presenting to medical or psychiatric emergency clinics.
Five arthroconidium-producing yeast strains representing a novel Trichosporon-like species were independently isolated from the UK, Hungary and Norway. Two strains (Bio4T and Bio21) were isolated from biogas reactors used for processing grass silage, with a third strain (S8) was isolated from soil collected at the same UK site. Two additional strains were isolated in mainland Europe, one from soil in Norway (NCAIM Y.02175) and the other from sewage in Hungary (NCAIM Y.02176). Sequence analyses of the D1/D2 domains of the LSU rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region indicated that the novel species belongs to the recently reinstated genus Apiotrichum and is most closely related to Apiotrichum scarabaeorum, a beetle-associated species first found in South Africa. Despite having similar physiological characteristics, the two species can be readily distinguished from one another by ITS sequencing. The species name Apiotrichum terrigenum sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these strains, with Bio4T (=CBS 11373T=NCYC 3540T) designated as the type strain. The Mycobank deposit number is MB817431.
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Apr;85(8):2444-83162770
The authors carried out a time-series study to determine whether short-term increases in the concentrations of spores were associated with emergency department visits from asthma among children 0 to 9 years of age in Montreal, 1994-2004. Concentrations of spores were obtained from one sampling monitor. The authors used parametric Poisson models to model the association between daily admissions to emergency rooms for asthma and ambient exposures to a variety of spores, adjusting for secular trends, changes in weather, and chemical pollutants. For first admissions and exposures to Basidiomycetes, the authors found positive associations at all lags but the concurrent day. For Deuteromycetes and Cladosporium, risks were positive starting at lag 3 days and diminished at lag 6 days. There was little evidence of associations for readmissions, except for Basidiomycetes. The results indicate that Basidiomycetes and Cladosporium spores may be implicated in the exacerbation of asthma among children, most notably in the case of first-time visits to emergency departments, and that the effects appear to be delayed by several days.
We studied the defense reactions of 33-year-old susceptible and resistant clones of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) to the major root-rot fungus Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. and determined if tissue cultures can be used as a model system for studying defense responses of mature trees at the molecular level. Quantitative PCR analysis of genomic DNA obtained from samples taken at different times along the lesion length in living bark indicated that the fungus was present in higher amounts and extended further into the host tissue in the susceptible clone than in the resistant clone. In protein extracts from the same lesion samples, there were differences in temporal and spatial changes in host chitinase isoform profiles between the resistant and susceptible clones. Host chitinase isoforms with pI values approximately 4.8, 4.4 and 3.7 increased more during the first 7 days after wounding and inoculation and extended further along the lesion length in the resistant clone than in the susceptible clone. These results suggest that the time from wounding and infection to induction of defense-related expression is shorter in the resistant clone indicating a more efficient host defense response than in the susceptible clone. Tissue cultures from the same clones were not resistant to H. annosum and showed no difference in the timing of the increase in chitinase isoforms in response to the pathogen. However, tissue cultures from both clones showed an increase in chitinase isoforms within 6 to 24 h past inoculation, indicating that increased chitinase expression in response to the pathogen is part of a general defense response common to both mature clones and tissue cultures.
Pathogens are a significant component of all plant communities. In recent years, the potential for existing and emerging pathogens of agricultural crops to cause increased yield losses as a consequence of changing climatic patterns has raised considerable concern. In contrast, the response of naturally occurring, endemic pathogens to a warming climate has received little attention. Here, we report on the impact of a signature variable of global climate change - increasing temperature - on the long-term epidemiology of a natural host-pathogen association involving the rust pathogen Triphragmium ulmariae and its host plant Filipendula ulmaria. In a host-pathogen metapopulation involving approximately 230 host populations growing on an archipelago of islands in the Gulf of Bothnia we assessed changes in host population size and pathogen epidemiological measures over a 25-year period. We show how the incidence of disease and its severity declines over that period and most importantly demonstrate a positive association between a long-term trend of increasing extinction rates in individual pathogen populations of the metapopulation and increasing temperature. Our results are highly suggestive that changing climatic patterns, particularly mean monthly growing season (April-November) temperature, are markedly influencing the epidemiology of plant disease in this host-pathogen association. Given the important role plant pathogens have in shaping the structure of communities, changes in the epidemiology of pathogens have potentially far-reaching impacts on ecological and evolutionary processes. For these reasons, it is essential to increase understanding of pathogen epidemiology, its response to warming, and to invoke these responses in forecasts for the future.
Demonstrating that the detected microbial diversity in nonaseptically drilled deep ice cores is truly indigenous is challenging because of potential contamination with exogenous microbial cells. The NEEM Greenland ice core project provided a first-time opportunity to determine the origin and extent of contamination throughout drilling. We performed multiple parallel cultivation and culture-independent analyses of five decontaminated ice core samples from different depths (100-2051 m), the drilling fluid and its components Estisol and Coasol, and the drilling chips collected during drilling. We created a collection of diverse bacterial and fungal isolates (84 from the drilling fluid and its components, 45 from decontaminated ice, and 66 from drilling chips). Their categorization as contaminants or intrinsic glacial ice microorganisms was based on several criteria, including phylogenetic analyses, genomic fingerprinting, phenotypic characteristics, and presence in drilling fluid, chips, and/or ice. Firmicutes and fungi comprised the dominant group of contaminants among isolates and cloned rRNA genes. Conversely, most Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria originating from the ice were identified as intrinsic. This study provides a database of potential contaminants useful for future studies of NEEM cores and can contribute toward developing standardized protocols for contamination detection and ensuring the authenticity of the microbial diversity in deep glacial ice.