[2nd place in the contest for young scientists on gastroenterology in the 17th Congress "Man and Medicine" (April 2010, Moscow). Erosive esophagitis in children: characteristics of 24-hour pH monitoring in the the esophagus].
Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) has been proposed as a primary method of managing patients with dysplasia- or mucosal-based cancers of the esophagus.
To evaluate the use of EMR for the treatment of Barrett's esophagus with dysplasia or early adenocarcinoma, assessing efficacy, complication rates and long-term outcomes.
All patients who underwent EMR at St Paul's Hospital (Vancouver, British Columbia) were reviewed. Eligible patients were assessed with aggressive biopsy protocols. Detected cancers were staged with both endoscopic ultrasound imaging and computed tomography. Appropriate patients were offered EMR using a commercially available mucosectomy device. EMR was repeated at six- to eight-week intervals until complete. Patients with less than one year of follow-up or who were undergoing other ablative methods were excluded.
Twenty-two patients (all men) with a mean (+/- SD) age of 67+/-10.6 years were identified. The mean duration of gastroesophageal reflux disease was 17 years (range four to 40 years) and all were receiving proton pump inhibitor therapy. The mean length of Barrett's esophagus was 5.5+/-3.5 cm. One patient had no dysplasia (isolated nodule), three had low-grade dysplasia, 15 had high-grade dysplasia (HGD) and three had adenocarcinoma. A mean of 1.7+/-0.83 endoscopic sessions were performed, with a mean of 6+/-5.4 sections removed. Following EMR, three patients developed strictures; two of these patients had pre-existing strictures and the third required two dilations, which resolved his symptoms. There were no other complications. Three patients underwent esophagectomy. Two had adenocarcinoma or HGD in a pre-existing stricture. The third patient had an adenocarcinoma not amenable to EMR. One patient with a long segment of Barrett's esophagus underwent radiofrequency ablation. At a median follow-up of two years (range one to three years), the remaining 18 patients (82%) had no evidence of HGD or cancer.
Most patients with esophageal dysplasia can be managed with EMR. Individuals with pre-existing strictures require other endoscopic andor surgical methods to manage their dysplasia or adenocarcinoma.
BACKGROUND: Adenocarcinoma limited to the esophagus (ACE) arises in Barrett's esophagus (BE). The incidence of ACE is therefore restricted to this BE subpopulation, whose size is unknown and which is for 95% unidentified. AIMS: To determine the age- and gender-specific incidence rates of ACE, limited to the BE subpopulation, within a defined geographical area and to compare them with those of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (SCC), which can affect the entire population. METHODS: The age- and gender-specific incidence rates for ACE and adenocarcinoma of the cardia (AGC) were calculated after an expert panel classified 87% of all cases of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus reported to the Danish Cancer Registry over a 6-yr period as ACE or AGC. RESULTS: The age-specific incidence rates of ACE for males rose from 0.09/10(5) (30-34 yr) to 14.14/10(5) (80-84 yr), falling to 7.2/10(5) (85+ yr), for females from 0.19/10(5) (45-49 yr) to 2.79/10(5) (80-84 yr), falling to 2.43/10(5) (85+ yr) and yielding a gender ratio of 5.9:1; AGC demonstrated a similar pattern and a gender ratio of 4.26:1. However, the incidence rates of SCC continued rising after the age of 80 yr, with a gender ratio of 2.46:1. CONCLUSIONS: The continuing rise in the SCC incidence rates in the elderly demonstrated that the unexpected decline and fall in the incidence rates of ACE over the age of 80 yr did not result from underdiagnosis but were most probably caused by a declining prevalence rate of BE, restricting the elderly BE subpopulation at risk of developing ACE.
The issue of whether to screen individuals for Barrett's esophagus (BE) to prevent esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is highly controversial. Important considerations are that BE is not highly prevalent in the general population and that not many patients with BE develop or die from EAC. Studies that suggest an improved prognosis from surveillance programs are susceptible to lead-time bias. Most of the principles for effective screening, as outlined by the World Health Organization, are not met by endoscopic screening and surveillance protocols. The diagnosis of BE (and dysplasia) is often unclear. Most patients with BE are not identified by screening, and few deaths would be prevented by surveillance. A decision analysis found that the most cost effective screening protocol would be every five years, but the costs associated with prolongation of life are very high, even if a group at high risk for EAC could be identified.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Barrett's esophagus (BE) is associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma, the incidence of which has been increasing dramatically. The prevalence of BE in the general population is uncertain because upper endoscopy is required for diagnosis. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of BE and possible associated risk factors in an adult Swedish population. METHODS: A random sample (n = 3000) of the adult population (n = 21,610) in 2 municipalities was surveyed using a validated gastrointestinal symptom questionnaire (response rate, 74%); a random subsample (n = 1000; mean age, 53.5 years; 51% female) underwent upper endoscopy. Endoscopic signs suggestive of columnar-lined esophagus (CLE) were defined as mucosal tongues or an upward shift of the squamocolumnar junction. BE was diagnosed when specialized intestinal metaplasia was detected histologically in suspected CLE. RESULTS: BE was present in 16 subjects (1.6%; 95% confidence interval, 0.8-2.4): 5 with a long segment and 11 with a short segment. Overall, 40% reported reflux symptoms and 15.5% showed esophagitis; 103 (10%) had suspected CLE, and 12 (1.2%) had a visible segment > or = 2 cm. The prevalence of BE in those with reflux symptoms was 2.3% and in those without reflux symptoms was 1.2% (P = .18). In those with esophagitis, the prevalence was 2.6%; in those without, the prevalence was 1.4% (P = .32). Alcohol (P = .04) and smoking (P = .047) were independent risk factors for BE. CONCLUSIONS: BE was found in 1.6% of the general Swedish population. Alcohol and smoking were significant risk factors.
Comment On: Gastroenterology. 2005 Dec;129(6):2101-316344076
To study the prevalence and clinical aspects of Barrett's esophagus (BE) in natives and newcomers in East Siberia.
Clinical examinations and esophagogastroduodenoscopy were performed in 12975 Caucasoids and 1489 Khakases in Abakan (Khakasia), 1861 Caucasoids and 5829 Tuvinians in Kyzyl (Republic of Tuva), and 1177 Caucasoids in Dudinka (Taimyr). The diagnosis of BE was verified by morphological study.
Among the Caucasoids, the total prevalence of BE was 1.6% (2.4% in men and 0.8% in women; odds ratio (OR) was 3.21 with 95% CI 2.40-4.29; p