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[A comparative analysis of the Salmonella typhi strains isolated from patients and bacterial carriers]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature70360
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 1989 Dec;(12):8-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1989
Author
L E Riabchenko
L A Riapis
L M Sladkova
E I Vostrova
Iu V Kravtsov
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 1989 Dec;(12):8-11
Date
Dec-1989
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology
Antigens, Bacterial - analysis
Bacteriophage Typing
Carrier State - microbiology
Comparative Study
Drug Resistance, Microbial
English Abstract
Humans
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Molecular Weight
Plasmids - genetics
Salmonella typhi - classification - genetics - immunology - isolation & purification - pathogenicity
Typhoid Fever - microbiology
Ukraine
Virulence
Abstract
The comparative analysis of 133 S. typhi clinical strains isolated from patients and carriers in Dnepropetrovsk Province in 1978-1987 was carried out. As shown by this analysis, 10 Vi phage types were represented in the set of strains under study, phage types A and F1 being the most numerous ones. Phage type F1 occurred less frequently among the strains isolated from carriers. 31.1% of the strains were found to contain plasmids with different molecular weight ranging from 96 to 0.5 MD. The occurrence of plasmid-containing strains remained at the same level during the whole period under study. Low-molecular plasmids occurred more frequently in the strains isolated from carriers. The minimal suppressive concentrations of a number of antibiotics, such as penicillin, ampicillin, monomycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, rifampicin and streptomycin, were determined. 7% of the strains were resistant to penicillin, 9% to monomycin, 15%--to tetracycline and 2.6% to chloramphenicol. The correlation between penicillin and monomycin resistance of the strains and the presence of the plasmid with a molecular weight of 60 MD in these strains was established. All strains were shown to be highly variable in the degree of their virulence: from 10(2) to 10(8). The strains isolated from patients possessed greater virulence.
PubMed ID
2629429 View in PubMed
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An international outbreak of salmonellosis associated with raw almonds contaminated with a rare phage type of Salmonella enteritidis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature176326
Source
J Food Prot. 2005 Jan;68(1):191-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2005
Author
S. Isaacs
J. Aramini
B. Ciebin
J A Farrar
R. Ahmed
D. Middleton
A U Chandran
L J Harris
M. Howes
E. Chan
A S Pichette
K. Campbell
A. Gupta
L Y Lior
M. Pearce
C. Clark
F. Rodgers
F. Jamieson
I. Brophy
A. Ellis
Author Affiliation
Centre for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Health Canada, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 5B2. sandy_isaacs@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
J Food Prot. 2005 Jan;68(1):191-8
Date
Jan-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Bacteriophage Typing
Canada - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Child
Child, Preschool
Confidence Intervals
Disease Outbreaks
Equipment Contamination
Female
Food Contamination
Food Industry - standards
Humans
Infant
Male
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Prunus - microbiology
Risk factors
Salmonella Food Poisoning - epidemiology
Salmonella Phages - classification - isolation & purification
Salmonella enteritidis - isolation & purification
Abstract
During the winter of 2000 to 2001, an outbreak due to Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) phage type 30 (PT30), a rare strain, was detected in Canada. The ensuing investigation involved Canadian and American public health and food regulatory agencies and an academic research laboratory. Enhanced laboratory surveillance, including phage typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, was used to identify cases. Case questionnaires were administered to collect information about food and environmental exposures. A case-control study with 16 matched case-control pairs was conducted to test the hypothesis of an association between raw whole almond consumption and infection. Almond samples were collected from case homes, retail outlets, and the implicated processor, and environmental samples were collected from processing equipment and associated farms for microbiological testing. One hundred sixty-eight laboratory-confirmed cases of SE PT30 infection (157 in Canada, 11 in the United States) were identified between October 2000 and July 2001. The case-control study identified raw whole almonds as the source of infection (odds ration, 21.1; 95% confidence interval, 3.6 to infinity). SE PT30 was detected in raw whole natural almonds collected from home, retail, distribution, and warehouse sources and from environmental swabs of processing equipment and associated farmers' orchards. The frequent and prolonged recovery of this specific organism from a large agricultural area was an unexpected finding and may indicate significant diffuse contamination on these farms. Identification of almonds as the source of a foodborne outbreak is a previously undocumented finding, leading to a North American recall of this product and a review of current industry practices.
PubMed ID
15690826 View in PubMed
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Application of Molecular Typing Results in Source Attribution Models: The Case of Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) of Salmonella Isolates Obtained from Integrated Surveillance in Denmark.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature278946
Source
Risk Anal. 2016 Mar;36(3):571-88
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2016
Author
Leonardo V de Knegt
Sara M Pires
Charlotta Löfström
Gitte Sørensen
Karl Pedersen
Mia Torpdahl
Eva M Nielsen
Tine Hald
Source
Risk Anal. 2016 Mar;36(3):571-88
Date
Mar-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Artifacts
Bacteriophage Typing
Chickens
Denmark
Disease Outbreaks
Ducks
Food Safety
Humans
Meat
Minisatellite Repeats
Models, Statistical
Multilocus Sequence Typing - methods
Salmonella Food Poisoning - diagnosis - microbiology
Salmonella Infections
Salmonella enteritidis - isolation & purification
Salmonella typhimurium - isolation & purification
Swine
Turkeys
Abstract
Salmonella is an important cause of bacterial foodborne infections in Denmark. To identify the main animal-food sources of human salmonellosis, risk managers have relied on a routine application of a microbial subtyping-based source attribution model since 1995. In 2013, multiple locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) substituted phage typing as the subtyping method for surveillance of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium isolated from animals, food, and humans in Denmark. The purpose of this study was to develop a modeling approach applying a combination of serovars, MLVA types, and antibiotic resistance profiles for the Salmonella source attribution, and assess the utility of the results for the food safety decisionmakers. Full and simplified MLVA schemes from surveillance data were tested, and model fit and consistency of results were assessed using statistical measures. We conclude that loci schemes STTR5/STTR10/STTR3 for S. Typhimurium and SE9/SE5/SE2/SE1/SE3 for S. Enteritidis can be used in microbial subtyping-based source attribution models. Based on the results, we discuss that an adjustment of the discriminatory level of the subtyping method applied often will be required to fit the purpose of the study and the available data. The issues discussed are also considered highly relevant when applying, e.g., extended multi-locus sequence typing or next-generation sequencing techniques.
PubMed ID
27002674 View in PubMed
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Association between handling of pet treats and infection with Salmonella enterica serotype newport expressing the AmpC beta-lactamase, CMY-2.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature183391
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 2003 Oct;41(10):4578-82
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2003
Author
Johann D D Pitout
Mark D Reisbig
Mike Mulvey
Linda Chui
Marie Louie
Larry Crowe
Deirdre L Church
Sameer Elsayed
Dan Gregson
Rafiq Ahmed
Peter Tilley
Nancy D Hanson
Author Affiliation
Division of Microbiology, Calgary Laboratory Services and Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. johann.pitout@cls.ab.ca
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 2003 Oct;41(10):4578-82
Date
Oct-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alberta - epidemiology
Animal Feed - microbiology
Animals
Animals, Domestic
Bacteriophage Typing
Cattle
Cattle Diseases - microbiology
Cefoxitin - pharmacology
Ceftazidime - pharmacology
Cephalosporin Resistance
Cephalosporins - pharmacology
Child, Preschool
Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field
Female
Humans
Infant
Male
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Middle Aged
Population Surveillance
Salmonella Infections - epidemiology - microbiology - transmission
Salmonella Infections, Animal - microbiology
Salmonella enterica - classification - drug effects - enzymology - genetics
Serotyping
beta-Lactamases - metabolism
Abstract
Resistance to the extended-spectrum cephalosporins can occur in Salmonella species via the production of extended-spectrum and AmpC beta-lactamases. We describe human infections with Salmonella enterica serotype Newport phage type 14 strains resistant to ceftazidime (CAZ) and cefoxitin (FOX) related to the handling of pet treats containing dried beef. These strains were isolated from five patients in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, during 2002 and were compared to a strain cultured from a commercial pet treat present at the property of one of the patients. The strains were resistant to FOX, CAZ, cefpodoxime, ampicillin, and chloramphenicol; intermediate resistant to ceftriaxone and cefotaxime; and sensitive to the aminoglycosides, ciprofloxacin, cefepime, and imipenem. Isoelectric focusing, multiplex PCR, and sequencing of the amplicons showed that all strains produced the plasmid-encoded AmpC beta-lactamase, CMY-2. Restriction analysis of plasmid DNA following transformation demonstrated that bla(CMY-2) was encoded on an approximately 140-kb plasmid. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed the human and pet treat Salmonella strains to be highly related. This study is the first to implicate the transfer of multidrug-resistant Salmonella species through the handling of commercial pet treats containing animal products. In addition to documenting the first cases of human infection caused by CMY-2-producing S. enterica serotype Newport strains in Canada, this study illustrates the necessity of rapid and accurate laboratory-based surveillance in the identification of novel types of antimicrobial resistance.
Notes
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PubMed ID
14532185 View in PubMed
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Babies and bacteria: phage typing, bacteriologists, and the birth of infection control.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature165516
Source
Bull Hist Med. 2006;80(4):733-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Kathryn Hillier
Author Affiliation
Unit for History and Philosophy of Science, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia. k.hillier@science.usyd.edu.au
Source
Bull Hist Med. 2006;80(4):733-61
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Australasia
Bacteriophage Typing - history
Canada - epidemiology
Cross Infection - history - microbiology
Great Britain - epidemiology
History, 20th Century
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Infection Control - history - methods
Nurseries, Hospital - history - statistics & numerical data
Staphylococcal Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Staphylococcus aureus - isolation & purification
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
During the 1950s, Staphylococcus aureus became a major source of hospital infections and death, particularly in neonates. This situation was further complicated by the fact that Staphylococcus quickly gained resistance to most antibiotics. Controlling these infections was a pressing concern for hospital workers, especially bacteriologists who tackled it through the use of a new epidemiologic tool: phage typing. This article argues that during the mid- to late 1950s a series of staphylococcal hospital and nursery epidemics united phage typers, brought international recognition to the usefulness of their technique, and, in the process, contributed to the establishment of the new field of infection control. Through the use of this new tool, phage typers established themselves as experts in infection control and, in some places, became essential members of newly formed infection-control committees. The nursery epidemics represent a particularly important test for phage typing and infection control, for this staphylococcal strain (80/81) was especially virulent and spread rapidly beyond the hospital to the wider community. The epidemiologic information provided by phage typers was vital for devising practical advice on how to control this deadly strain of Staphylococcus and also for transforming the role of the hospital bacteriologist from mere technician into infection-control expert.
PubMed ID
17242553 View in PubMed
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Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis isolated in a gastroenteritis outbreak investigation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature214618
Source
Lett Appl Microbiol. 1995 Aug;21(2):103-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1995
Author
S G Jackson
R B Goodbrand
R. Ahmed
S. Kasatiya
Author Affiliation
Ontario Ministry of Health, Hamilton Public Health Laboratory, Canada.
Source
Lett Appl Microbiol. 1995 Aug;21(2):103-5
Date
Aug-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bacillaceae Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Bacillus cereus - isolation & purification
Bacillus thuringiensis - isolation & purification
Bacteriophage Typing
Caliciviridae Infections - virology
Cross Infection - microbiology - virology
Cytotoxins - toxicity
Disease Outbreaks
Enterotoxins - toxicity
Feces - microbiology
Gastroenteritis - epidemiology - microbiology - virology
Humans
Norwalk virus - isolation & purification
Ontario - epidemiology
Spices - microbiology
Abstract
During investigation of a gastroenteritis outbreak in a chronic care institution, Norwalk virus was found in stool specimens from two individuals and bacterial isolates presumptively identified as Bacillus cereus were isolated from four individuals (including one with Norwalk virus) and spice. Phage typing confirmed all Bacillus clinical isolates were phage type 2. All clinical isolates were subsequently identified as B. thuringiensis when tested as a result of a related study (L. Leroux, personal communication). Eight of 10 spice isolates were phage type 4. All B. cereus and B. thuringiensis isolates showed cytotoxic effects characteristic of enterotoxin-producing B. cereus. An additional 20 isolates each of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis from other sources were tested for cytotoxicity. With the exception of one B. cereus, all showed characteristic cytotoxic patterns.
PubMed ID
7639990 View in PubMed
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Bacillus cereus phage typing as an epidemiological tool in outbreaks of food poisoning.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature215729
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 1995 Mar;33(3):636-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1995
Author
R. Ahmed
P. Sankar-Mistry
S. Jackson
H W Ackermann
S S Kasatiya
Author Affiliation
Ontario Public Health Laboratory, Ottawa, Canada.
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 1995 Mar;33(3):636-40
Date
Mar-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bacillus Phages - ultrastructure
Bacillus cereus - classification
Bacillus thuringiensis - classification
Bacteriophage Typing
Disease Outbreaks
Feces - microbiology
Food Microbiology
Foodborne Diseases - epidemiology - microbiology
Humans
Ontario - epidemiology
Abstract
Bacillus cereus is responsible for an increasing number of food poisoning cases. By using 12 bacteriophages isolated from sewage, a typing scheme for B. cereus isolates from outbreaks or sporadic cases of food poisoning was developed. The phages belonged to three morphotypes. Ten phages with contractile tails and icosahedral heads were members of the Myoviridae family, and two phages with noncontractile tails belonged to the Siphoviridae family. Phage 11 represented a new species. It had an isometric head and a very long contractile tail with long wavy tail fibers and was one of the largest viruses known. The vast majority of 166 B. cereus strains (161, or 97%) isolated from food poisoning cases were typeable. Of 146 strains isolated from 18 outbreaks, 142 (97%) could be divided into 17 phage types. A good correlation, on the order of 80 to 100%, between phage types of strains isolated from suspected foods and those of strains isolated from stools of symptomatic patients was observed. Most Bacillus thuringiensis strains were also typeable, providing further evidence of the close relatedness of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. This phage typing scheme can be a valuable epidemiological tool in tracing the origins of food poisoning caused by B. cereus.
Notes
Cites: Lancet. 1974 May 25;1(7865):1043-54133716
Cites: J Med Microbiol. 1975 Nov;8(4):543-50813000
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Cites: Clin Microbiol Rev. 1993 Oct;6(4):324-388269390
Cites: J Infect Dis. 1987 Apr;155(4):806-93546523
PubMed ID
7751369 View in PubMed
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Source
Canadian Journal of Public Health. 1972 Jul-Aug; 63(4):342-354.
Publication Type
Article
Date
1972
Author
Mankiewicz, E.
Author Affiliation
Royal Edward Chest Hospital (Montreal)
Source
Canadian Journal of Public Health. 1972 Jul-Aug; 63(4):342-354.
Date
1972
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Article
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Phage typing
Adult
Africa, Eastern
Aged
Bacteriological Techniques
Bacteriophage Typing
Humans
Inuits
Middle Aged
Mycobacteriophages
Mycobacterium bovis - classification - isolation & purification
Mycobacterium tuberculosis - classification - isolation & purification
Quebec
Tuberculosis - microbiology
Tuberculosis, Pulmonary - microbiology
Notes
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 1759.
PubMed ID
4627149 View in PubMed
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Canadian experience with Yersinia enterocolitica (1966--1977).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature247644
Source
Contrib Microbiol Immunol. 1979;5:144-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
1979
Author
S. Toma
L. Lafleur
V R Deidrick
Source
Contrib Microbiol Immunol. 1979;5:144-9
Date
1979
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Animals
Bacteriophage Typing
Canada
Child
Child, Preschool
Feces - microbiology
Food Microbiology
Gastroenteritis - microbiology
Humans
Serotyping
Water Microbiology
Yersinia - classification - isolation & purification
Yersinia Infections - microbiology
Abstract
Data pertaining to 1,219 cultures of Yersinia enterocolitica isolated in Canada are summarized. Of the 977 cultures isolated from humans, Y. enterocolitica serotype 0:3, biotype 4, phage type IXb was the most predominant type in Ontario, Quebec and the four Eastern Provinces. In the Western Provinces the predominant strains were indol-positive, serotypes 0:8; 5,27 and 4,32. Most of the 242 cultures of nonhuman origin, except those isolated from swine and a few isolated from wild animals, were indol-positive, biochemically atypical and serologically nontypable or belonging to different serotypes which have seldom been found in human infections.
PubMed ID
535372 View in PubMed
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105 records – page 1 of 11.