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The 1996 Albert Lasker Medical Research Awards. Prevention of systemic infections, especially meningitis, caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b. Impact on public health and implications for other polysaccharide-based vaccines.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature34605
Source
JAMA. 1996 Oct 9;276(14):1181-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-9-1996
Author
J B Robbins
R. Schneerson
P. Anderson
D H Smith
Author Affiliation
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-2720, USA.
Source
JAMA. 1996 Oct 9;276(14):1181-5
Date
Oct-9-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Antibody formation
Awards and Prizes
Bacterial Capsules - immunology
Bacterial Vaccines - immunology
Clinical Medicine - history
Communicable disease control
Haemophilus Infections - prevention & control
Haemophilus Vaccines - immunology
Haemophilus influenzae - immunology
History, 20th Century
Humans
Immunogenetics
Meningitis, Haemophilus - prevention & control
Polysaccharides, Bacterial - immunology
United States
Vaccines, Conjugate - immunology
Abstract
The development of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines has led to the virtual elimination of systemic infections caused by that pathogen, has provided insights into the pathogenesis of and immunity to other capsulated bacteria, and has contributed to the development of new vaccines. Meningitis, a common and serious infection of children, and other infections caused by Hib have been virtually eliminated in countries that have achieved widespread vaccination with Hib conjugates, including the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Iceland, Scandinavia, France, and Germany. Hib conjugates have also been shown to be highly effective in developing countries. The principles derived from the use of these vaccines, along with studies of other capsulated pathogens, should allow the rapid inclusion of new polysaccharide-based conjugates into routine vaccination schedules of infants, and should help to realize further reductions in serious systemic infectious diseases.
PubMed ID
8827975 View in PubMed
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[Action of natural gamma-interferons on functional activity of phagocytes and antibody synthesis after vaccination]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature57493
Source
Mikrobiol Z. 2000 Nov-Dec;62(6):26-32
Publication Type
Article
Author
Ia G Kishko
M I Vasylenko
Author Affiliation
Institute of Microbiology and Virology, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences, 154 Zabolotny St., Kyiv, 03143, Ukraine.
Source
Mikrobiol Z. 2000 Nov-Dec;62(6):26-32
Language
Ukrainian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Animals, Newborn
Antibodies, Bacterial - biosynthesis
Bacterial Vaccines - immunology
Cattle
Comparative Study
English Abstract
Escherichia coli - immunology
Female
Interferon Type II - immunology - pharmacology
Phagocytes - drug effects - immunology - physiology
Swine - immunology
Vaccination
Abstract
Natural swine and cattle gamma-IFNs were prepared for trials. One dose of gamma-suiferon contained 1000 IU, that of gamma-boviferon--2000 IU. Three series of researches were carried out to estimate the in vitro and in vivo absorbing activity of phagocytes (monocytes and neutrophiles), their bactericidal ability (on new born pigs and calves, 2 months old animals, sows and cows with calf) and antibodygenesis after immunization of animals by colibacteriosis vaccine. It has been shown in trials that gamma-IFN increased to significant degree (several times, as a rule) the absorbing activity of phagocytes (especially that of monocytes in new-born animals). At the same time bactericidal activity of phagocytes sharply increased--their functional reserve in experimental animals was significantly higher (2-3-times), than in control. Immunization by colinebacteriosis vaccine with additional treatment by homologous gamma-IFN 3-4 times increased antibodygenesis in comparison with control.
PubMed ID
11247346 View in PubMed
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[Active immunization and its effect on the epidemic process of childhood infections]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature38395
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 1988 Oct;(10):70-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1988

Age-related immunogenicity of meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine in aboriginal children and adolescents living in a Northern Manitoba reserve community.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature33624
Source
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1998 Oct;17(10):860-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1998
Author
B J Law
T. Rosenberg
N E MacDonald
F E Ashton
J C Huang
W J King
W J Ferris
G J Gray
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Canada. blaw@ms.umanitoba.ca
Source
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1998 Oct;17(10):860-4
Date
Oct-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
American Native Continental Ancestry Group
Antibodies, Bacterial - biosynthesis
Bacterial Vaccines - immunology
Carrier State - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Humans
Infant
Manitoba - epidemiology
Meningococcal Infections - epidemiology - prevention & control
Meningococcal Vaccines
Neisseria meningitidis - classification - immunology - isolation & purification
Prospective Studies
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Serotyping
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the total and functional serogroup C antibody response to a quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine in a group of aboriginal infants, children and adolescents. A secondary objective was to determine their prevalence of meningococcal carriage. DESIGN: Open prospective, before and after intervention study. SUBJECTS: Aboriginal children ages 0.5 to 19.9 years, living in a single Northern community and eligible for a public health immunization campaign conducted in all Manitoba native reserve communities to control a meningococcal serogroup C, electrophoretic type (ET) 15 outbreak. No outbreak cases had occurred in the community at the time of the study. METHODS: Total serogroup C capsular polysaccharide antibody (CPA) and functional bactericidal antibody (BA) responses were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and bactericidal assay, respectively. RESULTS: Neisseria meningitidis was recovered from the oropharynx of 13 (5.2%) of 249 aboriginal children including 4 (1.6%) serogroup C isolates, all with the designation C:2a:P1.2,5 ET15. Paired sera from 152 children were available for assay. For CPA the geometric mean concentrations and proportions with > or =2 microg/ml before and after immunization were 0.69, 18% and 12.3, 96%, respectively. A significant increase in serum CPA was achieved by children of all ages, with the greatest response occurring after age 11 years. Among infants or =2 microg/ml. For BA the pre- and post-vaccine geometric mean titers were 1.02 and 45.9. The response was significantly associated with age. BA titers > or =1:8 were present, before and after immunization, respectively, in 0 and 0% of infants or =2-year-olds. CONCLUSION: The age-related total and functional group C meningococcal antibody response after quadrivalent polysaccharide vaccine among aboriginals is similar to that reported for Caucasian children. After age 2 all children made excellent CPA and BA responses. In the younger age groups the BA response was blunted but 82 to 95% achieved CPA titers of > or =2 microg/ml.
PubMed ID
9802625 View in PubMed
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Antibody levels against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b in a population of splenectomized individuals with varying vaccination status.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature34132
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 1997 Oct;119(2):167-74
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1997
Author
H B Konradsen
C. Rasmussen
P. Ejstrud
J B Hansen
Author Affiliation
Streptococcus Unit, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen S, Denmark.
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 1997 Oct;119(2):167-74
Date
Oct-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Antibodies, Bacterial - blood
Bacterial Vaccines - immunology
Child
Child, Preschool
Denmark
Female
Haemophilus Vaccines - immunology
Haemophilus influenzae type b - immunology
Humans
Immunization, Secondary
Male
Middle Aged
Pneumococcal Vaccines
Polysaccharides, Bacterial - immunology
Population Surveillance
Splenectomy - adverse effects
Streptococcus pneumoniae - immunology
Time Factors
Abstract
In order to determine antibody levels against Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) in a population of splenectomized subjects, 561 persons in a Danish county, splenectomized between 1984 and 1993 were identified. Two hundred and thirty-five were alive and 149 participated in the study. Each person donated a blood sample for antibody determination by ELISA. Though vaccine coverage among the 149 persons was 91% only 52% had 'protective' levels of pneumococcal antibodies. Despite recommendations for regular follow-up on pneumococcal antibody levels this had only been carried out in 4% of the subjects. Splenectomized subjects who needed pneumococcal revaccination were significantly more likely to have received their initial vaccination less than 14 days before or after splenectomy, as recommended, than those not requiring revaccination. Therefore, the timing of initial pneumococcal vaccination in relation to splenectomy seems to be important. All persons had Hib antibody levels higher than 0.15 microgram/ml and 60% had levels higher than 1 microgram/ml, which are the levels thought to provide short term and long term protection, respectively. In total, 37% of the 149 persons tested had pneumococcal and Hib antibody levels thought to correlate with protection from serious infections.
PubMed ID
9363015 View in PubMed
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Bactericidal antibodies after vaccination with the Norwegian meningococcal serogroup B outer membrane vesicle vaccine: a brief survey.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature57757
Source
NIPH Ann. 1991 Dec;14(2):147-55; discussion 155-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1991
Author
E A Høiby
E. Rosenqvist
L O Frøholm
G. Bjune
B. Feiring
H. Nøkleby
E. Rønnild
Author Affiliation
Department of Bacteriology, National Institute of Public Health, Oslo.
Source
NIPH Ann. 1991 Dec;14(2):147-55; discussion 155-6
Date
Dec-1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Antibodies, Bacterial - blood - immunology
Antibody Formation - immunology
Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins - immunology
Bacterial Vaccines - immunology - standards
Drug Evaluation
Humans
Meningococcal Vaccines
Norway
Polysaccharides, Bacterial - immunology
Serum Bactericidal Test
Abstract
Results from the serum bactericidal assay (BA) after immunization of human volunteers with the Norwegian serogroup B meningococcal outer membrane vesicle vaccine are surveyed. In the phase II trials with adults we found very high seroconversion rates (greater than 98%) against the vaccine strain in the BA. Details in the antigenic composition of the inoculum used in the BA seem very important as shown here by finding lower bactericidal titres with teenager sera when tested with a variant of the standard inoculum. The present preliminary report corresponds to the presentation given at the Report Meeting on the Norwegian Meningococcal Vaccine Trial, Oslo, 12 September, 1991.
PubMed ID
1812429 View in PubMed
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Bacteriological aspects of infections of the upper respiratory tract.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature40239
Source
Scand J Infect Dis Suppl. 1983;39:9-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
1983
Author
L O Kallings
Source
Scand J Infect Dis Suppl. 1983;39:9-13
Date
1983
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology
Bacteria - drug effects
Bacterial Infections - drug therapy - microbiology - prevention & control
Bacterial Vaccines - immunology
Child
Child, Preschool
Drug Resistance, Microbial
Humans
Infant
Otitis Media - microbiology
Respiratory Tract Infections - drug therapy - microbiology
Abstract
In this introductory presentation, the bacteriology of acute otitis media, sinusitis and orofacial infections is surveyed, and recent data on antibiotic resistance of the most common pathogenic bacteria are reported. In addition, the difference in the immunogenic effect of capsular polysaccharides from pneumococci and Haemophilus influenzae in children of different ages is mentioned. In acute otitis media and sinusitis, pneumococci and H. influenzae are the most common isolates followed in frequency by Branhamella catarrhalis and streptococci group A. It should be emphasized that the average relative risk of otitis media with effusion is much higher in children with viral respiratory infections than in children with nasopharyngeal colonization with pneumococci or H. influenzae. Anaerobic bacteria are the most common causes of odontogenic infections. Penicillin remains the most active of the currently available antibiotics against streptococci group A. Resistance to penicillin of clinical isolates has still not been documented, although resistance may occur to erythromycin and tetracycline. In pneumococci isolates obtained in Sweden, a relative resistance to penicillin occurs in a low percentage. They may also be resistant to erythromycin and tetracycline. The frequency of beta-lactamase producing H. influenzae has been followed nation-wide in Sweden during recent years. The mean frequency varies around 3-4% with local and seasonal peaks up to 12%. The majority of the H. influenzae isolates in Sweden are not fully sensitive to erythromycin, but resistance to chloramphenicol occurs. Most strains (including beta-lactamase producing) are sensitive to co-trimoxazole, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, cefotriaxone and cefaclor. Over 40% of clinical isolates of B. catarrhalis in Sweden produce beta-lactamase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PubMed ID
6580737 View in PubMed
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Clinical and immunologic responses to the capsular polysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae type b alone or conjugated to tetanus toxoid in 18- to 23-month-old children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature38498
Source
J Pediatr. 1988 May;112(5):695-702
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1988
Author
B A Claesson
B. Trollfors
T. Lagergard
J. Taranger
D. Bryla
G. Otterman
T. Cramton
Y. Yang
C B Reimer
J B Robbins
Author Affiliation
Department of Infectious Diseases, University of Göteborg, Sweden.
Source
J Pediatr. 1988 May;112(5):695-702
Date
May-1988
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aluminum Hydroxide - immunology
Antibodies, Bacterial - analysis
Bacterial Vaccines - immunology
Female
Haemophilus Vaccines
Humans
Immunoglobulin A - analysis
Immunoglobulin G - analysis
Immunoglobulin M - analysis
Infant
Male
Polysaccharides, Bacterial - immunology
Tetanus Toxoid - immunology
Abstract
The safety and immunogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) capsular polysaccharide (CPS) alone, or covalently bound to tetanus toxoid in saline solution (Hib-TT) or adsorbed onto AI(OH)3 (Hib-TT ads), were evaluated after one injection into 18- to 23-month-old healthy children in Sweden. No side reactions were elicited by Hib CPS; side reactions elicited by the two conjugates were similar and comparable to those reported for diphtheria and tetanus toxoids adsorbed. Hib-TT was the most immunogenic of the three vaccines, eliciting about 10-fold higher antibody levels than Hib CPS; of 28 vaccinees, all had greater than 1.0 microgram Ab/mL serum after immunization with Hib-TT. Increases of Hib CPS antibodies within immunoglobulin classes induced by the three vaccines were, in decreasing order, IgG greater than IgM greater than IgA. Within IgG subclasses, rises in IgG1 Hib CPS antibodies were the most frequent, followed by IgG2; some vaccinees with high postimmunization levels also had rises in IgG3 and one in IgG4. Immunization-induced Hib CPS antibodies were bactericidal. Hib-TT also elicited higher levels of tetanus toxoid antibodies than Hib-TT ads; these tetanus toxoid antibodies neutralized tetanus toxin in vivo.
PubMed ID
3361379 View in PubMed
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Comparison of passive hemagglutination, bactericidal activity, and radioimmunological methods in measuring antibody responses to Neisseria meningitidis group A capsular polysaccharide vaccine.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature245575
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 1980 Aug;12(2):256-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1980
Author
H. Käyhty
Source
J Clin Microbiol. 1980 Aug;12(2):256-63
Date
Aug-1980
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Antibodies, Bacterial - immunology
Bacterial Vaccines - immunology
Blood Bactericidal Activity
Cell Wall - immunology
Finland
Hemagglutination Tests
Humans
Male
Military Medicine
Neisseria meningitidis - immunology
Polysaccharides, Bacterial - immunology
Radioimmunoassay
Vaccination
Abstract
Passive hemagglutination (HA), a bactericidal activity test (BCA), and radioimmunoassay (RIA) were compared in measuring serum antibodies before and after group A meningococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccination of servicemen. The three methods were found satisfactory in demonstrating a response to vaccination in this age group. Of the postimmunization sera, 5% remained without HA and 1% remained without BCA activity; 1% of the postimmunization sera had less than 2 micrograms of antibody per ml as measured by RIA. Approximately 60% of the serum pairs showed a greater than or equal to 32-fold rise in HA titer, a greater than or equal 25-fold rise in BCA titer, or a greater than or equal to 4-fold rise in antibody concentration by RIA. A difference in response to two different vaccine lots was seen with RIA and BCA. Although the calculated correlation between the three methods was good, some individual sera gave discrepant results. These could be shown to be due mainly to one of the following factors: low HA titer was due to lack of the immunoglobulin M and A classes of antibodies, low BCA titer was due to the blocking effect of high immunoglobulin A content, and high BCA titer was due to antibodies directed to bacterial components other than the capsular polysaccharide.
Notes
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PubMed ID
6785306 View in PubMed
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The concept of "tailor-made", protein-based, outer membrane vesicle vaccines against meningococcal disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature29847
Source
Vaccine. 2005 Mar 18;23(17-18):2202-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-18-2005
Author
Johan Holst
Berit Feiring
Lisbeth M Naess
Gunnstein Norheim
Paul Kristiansen
E Arne Høiby
Klaus Bryn
Philipp Oster
Paolo Costantino
Muhamed-Kheir Taha
Jean-Michel Alonso
Dominique A Caugant
Elisabeth Wedege
Ingeborg S Aaberge
Rino Rappuoli
Einar Rosenqvist
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. johan.holst@fhi.no
Source
Vaccine. 2005 Mar 18;23(17-18):2202-5
Date
Mar-18-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Bacterial Vaccines - immunology - isolation & purification - pharmacology
Cell Membrane - immunology
Child
Child, Preschool
Disease Outbreaks - prevention & control
Humans
Infant
Meningococcal Infections - epidemiology - immunology - prevention & control
National Health Programs
Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup B - immunology
New Zealand - epidemiology
Abstract
Protein-based, outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccines have previously proven to be efficacious against serogroup B meningococcal disease in Norway and Cuba. Currently, a public health intervention is going on in order to control a serogroup B epidemic in New Zealand. The scale-up and standardization of vaccine production required for controlling the New Zealand epidemic has allowed the establishment of large-scale GMP manufacturing for OMV vaccines. The outcome of this will be licensing of the vaccine in New Zealand and possibly other countries. The availability of licensed OMV vaccines raises the question of whether such vaccines may provide the opportunity to control other outbreaks and epidemics. For instance, such a vaccine could control a localised outbreak of group B meningococci in Normandy, France. "Tailor-made" vaccines, focusing on the sub-capsular antigens may also be considered for use in sub-Saharan Africa for the prevention of the recurrent outbreaks by serogroups A and W135 meningococci. This assumption is based on the epidemiological observation that meningococcal outbreaks in Africa are clonal and are strikingly stable regarding their phenotypic characteristics.
PubMed ID
15755595 View in PubMed
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52 records – page 1 of 6.