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[Activation of natural tularemia foci of the field-meadow and steppe types on the territory of Tula Province 1977-1978].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature243441
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 1982 Mar;(3):36-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1982
Author
Z A Levacheva
A G Lobkovskii
V V Tikhonenko
M A Belova
M P Dolotova
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 1982 Mar;(3):36-40
Date
Mar-1982
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arthropod Vectors
Arvicolinae - microbiology
Bacterial Vaccines - administration & dosage
Disease Reservoirs
Disease Vectors
Francisella tularensis - immunology
Geography
Humans
Rural Population
Russia
Ticks - microbiology
Tularemia - epidemiology - prevention & control
Urban Population
Abstract
Natural tularemia foci of the meadow and steppe type are extremely stable and become active in those years when the most favourable living conditions for rodents appear. For the first time during the last 30 years a great increase in the number of common voles, accompanied by widely spread epizooty covering the whole territory of the Tula region, was observed. House mice, common field mice, harvest mice and black rats were also involved in this epizooty and 235 tularemia patients with all clinical forms of the disease were registered, the pulmonary form of the disease being prevalent. The cases of the disease were observed among both urban and rural population. In spite of a high morbidity rate, no cases of group infection were registered in domestic conditions and among agricultural workers due to the existence of the numerous immune layer among the population. The formation of this layer resulted from planned vaccinal prophylaxis covering, on the average, 86.3% of the rural population of the region.
PubMed ID
6211008 View in PubMed
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[Advances and challenges in immunoprophylaxis].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature132687
Source
Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk. 2011;(6):21-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
A A Baranov
V K Tatochenko
L S Namazova-Baranova
Source
Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk. 2011;(6):21-7
Date
2011
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Bacterial Vaccines - administration & dosage
Child
Child, Preschool
Communicable Disease Control - history - methods
Communicable Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Disease Outbreaks - prevention & control
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
Humans
Immunization Programs
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Preventive Health Services - standards - trends
Russia - epidemiology
Vaccination - history - standards - trends
Vaccines, Combined - administration & dosage
Viral Vaccines - administration & dosage
Abstract
A significant progress in the management of controllable infections achieved by the early XXI century made it possible eliminate poliomyelitis across the nation, and practically eliminate measeles by vaccinating 96-99% of the children without raising the complication rate. The list of counterindications was shortened significantly, the Calendar of immunoprophylaxis was supplemented by inoculations against hepatitis B, rubella, flu, and type b Haemophilis influenzae infections. Morbidity of controllable infections in Russia decreased substantially compared with that in the 1990s. Nevertheless, the public health services are faced with the necessity of speedy application of new vaccines (including combined ones) allowing the inoculation impact on the child to be reduced. A rationale for the use of vaccines against pneumococcal and meningococcal infections, hepatitis A, varicella and for scaling up anti-pertussis vaccination coverage is proposed. Equally important is more extensive vaccination against papillomavirus infection as a means of cervical cancer prevention and introduction of the rotavirus vaccine to control most viral diarrheas.
PubMed ID
21789797 View in PubMed
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American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Infectious Diseases. Policy statement: recommendations for the prevention of pneumococcal infections, including the use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Prevnar), pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, and antibiotic prophylaxis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature5510
Source
Pediatrics. 2000 Aug;106(2 Pt 1):362-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2000
Source
Pediatrics. 2000 Aug;106(2 Pt 1):362-6
Date
Aug-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Antibiotic Prophylaxis
Bacterial Vaccines - administration & dosage - immunology
Child, Preschool
Humans
Immunization Schedule
Immunocompetence - immunology
Infant
Meningococcal Vaccines
Opportunistic Infections - immunology - prevention & control
Pneumococcal Infections - immunology - prevention & control
Pneumococcal Vaccines
Risk factors
Vaccines, Conjugate - administration & dosage - immunology
Abstract
Heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) is recommended for universal use in children 23 months and younger, to be given concurrently with other recommended childhood vaccines at 2, 4, 6, and 12 to 15 months of age. For children 7 to 23 months old who have not received previous doses of PCV7, administration of a reduced number of doses is recommended. Two doses of PCV7 are recommended for children 24 to 59 months old at high risk of invasive pneumococcal infection-including children with functional, anatomic, or congenital asplenia; infection with human immunodeficiency virus; and other predisposing conditions-who have not been immunized previously with PCV7. Recommendations have been made for use of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide (23PS) vaccine in high-risk children to expand serotype coverage. High-risk children should be given vaccines at the earliest possible opportunity. Use of antibiotic prophylaxis in children younger than 5 years with functional or anatomic asplenia, including children with sickle cell disease, continues to be recommended. Children who have not experienced invasive pneumococcal infection and have received recommended pneumococcal immunizations may discontinue prophylaxis after 5 years of age. The safety and efficacy of PCV7 and 23PS in children 24 months or older at moderate or lower risk of invasive pneumococcal infection remain under investigation. Current US Food and Drug Administration indications are for administration of PCV7 only to children younger than 24 months. Data are insufficient to recommend routine administration of PCV7 for children at moderate risk of pneumococcal invasive infection, including all children 24 to 35 months old, children 36 to 59 months old who attend out-of-home care, and children 36 to 59 months old who are of Native American (American Indian and Alaska Native) or African American descent. However, all children 24 to 59 months old, regardless of whether they are at low or moderate risk, may benefit from the administration of pneumococcal immunizations. Therefore, a single dose of PCV7 or 23PS vaccine may be given to children 24 months or older. The 23PS is an acceptable alternative to PCV7, although an enhanced immune response and probable reduction of nasopharyngeal carriage favor the use of PCV7 whenever possible.
PubMed ID
10920169 View in PubMed
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American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Infectious Diseases. Technical report: prevention of pneumococcal infections, including the use of pneumococcal conjugate and polysaccharide vaccines and antibiotic prophylaxis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature3161
Source
Pediatrics. 2000 Aug;106(2 Pt 1):367-76
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2000
Author
G D Overturf
Source
Pediatrics. 2000 Aug;106(2 Pt 1):367-76
Date
Aug-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Antibiotic Prophylaxis
Bacterial Vaccines - administration & dosage - adverse effects - immunology
Child, Preschool
Humans
Immunization Schedule
Infant
Meningococcal Vaccines
Opportunistic Infections - immunology - prevention & control
Pneumococcal Infections - immunology - prevention & control
Pneumococcal Vaccines
Risk factors
Treatment Outcome
Vaccines, Conjugate - administration & dosage - adverse effects - immunology
Abstract
Pneumococcal infections are the most common invasive bacterial infections in children in the United States. The incidence of invasive pneumococcal infections peaks in children younger than 2 years, reaching rates of 228/100,000 in children 6 to 12 months old. Children with functional or anatomic asplenia (including sickle cell disease [SCD]) and children with human immunodeficiency virus infection have pneumococcal infection rates 20- to 100-fold higher than those of healthy children during the first 5 years of life. Others at high risk of pneumococcal infections include children with congenital immunodeficiency; chronic cardiopulmonary disease; children receiving immunosuppressive chemotherapy; children with immunosuppressive neoplastic diseases; children with chronic renal insufficiency, including nephrotic syndrome; children with diabetes; and children with cerebrospinal fluid leaks. Children of Native American (American Indian and Alaska Native) or African American descent also have higher rates of invasive pneumococcal disease. Outbreaks of pneumococcal infection have occurred with increased frequency in children attending out-of-home care. Among these children, nasopharyngeal colonization rates of 60% have been observed, along with pneumococci resistant to multiple antibiotics. The administration of antibiotics to children involved in outbreaks of pneumococcal disease has had an inconsistent effect on nasopharyngeal carriage. In contrast, continuous penicillin prophylaxis in children younger than 5 years with SCD has been successful in reducing rates of pneumococcal disease by 84%. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines have been recommended since 1985 for children older than 2 years who are at high risk of invasive disease, but these vaccines were not recommended for younger children and infants because of poor antibody response before 2 years of age. In contrast, pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (Prevnar) induce proposed protective antibody responses (>.15 microg/mL) in >90% of infants after 3 doses given at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. After priming doses, significant booster responses (ie, immunologic memory) are apparent when additional doses are given at 12 to 15 months of age. In efficacy trials, infant immunization with Prevnar decreased invasive infections by >93% and consolidative pneumonia by 73%, and it was associated with a 7% decrease in otitis media and a 20% decrease in tympanostomy tube placement. Adverse events after the administration of Prevnar have been limited to areas of local swelling or erythema of 1 to 2 cm and some increase in the incidence of postimmunization fever when it is given with other childhood vaccines. Based on data in phase 3 efficacy and safety trials, the US Food and Drug Administration has provided an indication for the use of Prevnar in children younger than 24 months.
PubMed ID
10920170 View in PubMed
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Antibody response to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccine in the elderly.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature57649
Source
J Infect Dis. 1996 Feb;173(2):387-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1996
Author
U. Sankilampi
P O Honkanen
A. Bloigu
E. Herva
M. Leinonen
Author Affiliation
National Public Health Institute, Department in Oulu, Finland.
Source
J Infect Dis. 1996 Feb;173(2):387-93
Date
Feb-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Antibodies, Bacterial - biosynthesis
Bacterial Capsules - immunology
Bacterial Vaccines - administration & dosage - immunology
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Immunoenzyme Techniques
Immunoglobulin G - analysis
Male
Pneumococcal Infections - immunology - prevention & control
Pneumococcal Vaccines
Reproducibility of Results
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sensitivity and specificity
Serotyping
Streptococcus pneumoniae - classification - immunology
Vaccination
Abstract
Antibody response to 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine was assessed in 350 subjects (131 men, 219 women) aged 65-91 years. IgG antibodies to pneumococcal serotypes 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 19F, and 23F were measured by EIA after blocking of antibodies to cell wall polysaccharide. Antibody concentrations in both pre- and postvaccination sera (mean interval, 35 days) were higher in elderly men than women; in the women, the concentrations decreased significantly with increasing age, but not in the men. Antibody fold increases were good in the elderly, including those > or = 85 years old. The overall percentage of the elderly with antibody concentrations > 1 microgram/mL to the 6 antigens increased by vaccination from 61% to 87%, but in the women > or = 85 years old, only to 75%. Antibody response to 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine was satisfactory in the elderly.
PubMed ID
8568300 View in PubMed
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Antibody response to pneumococcal vaccine in middle-aged and elderly patients recently treated for pneumonia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature57692
Source
Arch Intern Med. 1994 Sep 12;154(17):1961-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-12-1994
Author
J U Hedlund
M E Kalin
A B Ortqvist
J. Henrichsen
Author Affiliation
Department of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska Institute, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Arch Intern Med. 1994 Sep 12;154(17):1961-5
Date
Sep-12-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Antibodies, Bacterial - blood
Bacterial Vaccines - administration & dosage - immunology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Hospitalization
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Pneumonia - immunology - therapy
Pneumonia, Pneumococcal - immunology - therapy
Prospective Studies
Streptococcus pneumoniae - immunology
Sweden
Vaccination
Abstract
BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of patients admitted to the hospital for pneumonia have been treated in a hospital during the preceding 4 to 5 years, and patients previously treated in a hospital for pneumonia seem to be at an especially high risk for another episode of pneumonia. Many cases of pneumococcal infection might therefore be prevented by immunizing admitted patients with pneumococcal vaccine at discharge or at follow-up. The aim of this study was to investigate the type-specific antibody response to pneumococcal vaccine in middle-aged and elderly patients at follow-up 8 weeks after hospital treatment for pneumonia. METHODS: A total of 92 individuals, 50 to 85 years old, participated in the study. One group consisted of 65 individuals treated in the hospital for pneumonia 8 weeks before vaccination (mean age, 67 years), and another group consisted of 27 individuals who had not recently been treated for pneumonia (mean age, 67 years). All 92 individuals received a single dose of a 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine. The type-specific antibody responses to six pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide antigens included in the vaccine as well as antibodies against the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine were measured before and 3 to 4 weeks after vaccination by use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: The antibody concentrations before and after vaccination were comparable in the two groups, as were antibody fold increases from prevaccination to postvaccination serum. No serious adverse events were recorded. CONCLUSIONS: Pneumococcal vaccination at follow-up 8 weeks after treatment in the hospital for pneumonia seems to elicit an adequate antibody response without notable adverse reactions.
PubMed ID
8074600 View in PubMed
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[Characteristics of the tularemia prevention measures in the natural foci of the Carpathian region]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature57917
Source
Vrach Delo. 1980 Jan;(1):107-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1980

Clinical efficacy of pneumococcal vaccine in the elderly: a randomized, single-blind population-based trial.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature207351
Source
Am J Med. 1997 Oct;103(4):281-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1997
Author
I. Koivula
M. Stén
M. Leinonen
P H Mäkelä
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, Finland.
Source
Am J Med. 1997 Oct;103(4):281-90
Date
Oct-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Bacterial Vaccines - administration & dosage
Catchment Area (Health)
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Influenza Vaccines - administration & dosage
Male
Middle Aged
Pneumococcal Vaccines
Pneumonia, Pneumococcal - epidemiology - prevention & control
Single-Blind Method
Streptococcus pneumoniae - immunology
Vaccination
Abstract
To study the efficacy of pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccine among the elderly by use of a population-based intervention in one township, Varkaus, Eastern Finland.
A randomized, controlled trial in which elderly inhabitants (aged 60 years or older) of the catchment area were randomized to receive either pneumococcal and influenza vaccines (PI group = vaccinated) or influenza vaccine alone (I group = controls) and offered participation. The response rate was 67.4%. The PI group consisted of 1,364 persons and the I group of 1,473 persons. The vaccinations were performed in the municipal health center in the fall of 1982, and all elderly inhabitants were followed for 3 years for the development of radiologically confirmed pneumonia. Pneumococcal etiology was identified by serological methods.
The incidence of pneumonia was 18.8 per 1,000 person-years in the PI group (73 pneumonia episodes) and 16.6 per 1,000 person-years in the I group (69 episodes). Pneumococcal etiology was found in 27 episodes in the PI group (incidence 7.0 per 1,000 person-years) and in 36 episodes in the I group (incidence 8.6 per 1,000 person-years). In controls (I group) the incidence of pneumococcal pneumonia was significantly higher among persons with increased risk for contracting pneumonia (19 per 1,000 person-years) than among controls with low risk status (4 per 1,000 person-years). No significant protection from pneumococcal pneumonia was found in the study group as a whole (vaccine efficacy 15%, 95% CI -43% to 50%). However, in persons with medical risk factors for contracting pneumonia, there was a statistically significant protective efficacy of 59% (95% CI, 6% to 82%).
Pneumococcal vaccination significantly reduced the incidence of pneumococcal pneumonia in elderly persons at increased risk for contracting pneumonia. This increased/high-risk category comprised 34% of the population aged 60 years or older. Because targeted vaccination of this large group may be difficult to organize in an efficient manner, vaccinating all elderly persons may be the best strategy to prevent this rather common and often fatal disease.
PubMed ID
9382120 View in PubMed
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100 records – page 1 of 10.