A comparative analysis of the genome of V. cholerae O139 strains isolated in Russia's territory from patients with cholera and from the environment showed essential differences in their structures. The genome of clinical strains possessed all tested genes associated with virulence (ctxAB, zot, ace, rstC, rtxA, hap, toxR and toxT) and the at-tRS site for the CTXp phage DNA integration. As for the O139 V. cholerae chromosome strains isolated from water, 70% of the studied genes (ctxAB, zot, ace, rstC, tcpA, and toxT) and the attRS sequence were not detected in them. A lack of the key virulence genes in O139-serogroup "water" vibrios, including genes of toxin-coregulated adhesion pili. (that are receptors for the CTXp phage), and of the attachment site of the above phage are indicative of that the O139 V. cholerae strains isolated from open water sources located in different Russia's regions are epidemically negligible.
Pyogenic streptococci cause significant morbidity and mortality, and the incidence of invasive group C and G streptococcal disease appears to be increasing. In this retrospective study we describe the epidemiological characteristics of invasive group A, C and G, along with non-invasive group C and G streptococcal infections in Western Norway from 1999 to 2013. A total of 512 invasive streptococcal infections were identified, of these 297 (58%) were group A (GAS), 24 (5%) group C (GCS) and 188 (37%) group G streptococci (GGS). In the non-invasive group, 4935 GCS and GGS-infections were identified. GCS and GGS were treated as one group (GCGS) for statistical purposes. All microbial categories displayed increasing incidence with age, seasonal variation and a male predominance. The incidence of invasive GCGS infections increased significantly from 1.4/100,000 inhabitants in 1999 to 6.3/100,000 in 2013 (p
cagA, vacA s and m genotypes and iceA alleles were analyzed from Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from 17 Finnish children and 32 children of non-Finnish origin living in Finland. Twelve children in the latter group were eastern European and 15 were of African origin. Only three children of non-Finnish origin were born in Finland. The vacA sla subtype was more prevalent in the isolates from Finnish children than African children (76% vs. 7%, P
In 2006 a new variant of Chlamydia trachomatis (nvCT), with a deletion in the cryptic plasmid, was reported in Sweden. This deletion included the targets for the genetic diagnostic systems used in many clinical laboratories and resulted in thousands of false-negative results. The aim of this study was to characterise consecutive Chlamydia tissue culture-positive samples from 2006 in Orebro County, after identification of the nvCT, and to compare the results from samples collected in the same county in 1999-2000. The study also aimed to evaluate the discriminatory capacity of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) compared with ompA sequencing.
ompA sequencing and MLST was used to characterise 100 consecutive Chlamydia tissue culture-positive samples.
A random selection of 25 strains isolated during an epidemic caused by serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis in Sudan (1988), 3 preepidemic meningococcal strains (1985), and 26 serogroup A strains isolated from sporadic cases of meningitis in Sweden (1973 to 1987) were assessed for multilocus enzyme genotypes (ETs), DNA restriction enzyme patterns, outer membrane proteins, lipopolysaccharides, pilus formation, and antibiograms. All of the 25 Sudanese epidemic isolates and 22 of the Swedish strains were of the same or closely related ETs (ETs 3, 4, and 5), corresponding to clone III-1, which has been responsible for two pandemic waves in the last three decades. The earlier pandemic involved Scandinavia, and the last one caused an outbreak during the pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia (August 1987), spreading to Sudan, Chad, and Ethiopia. The three Sudanese preepidemic isolates (1985) were clone IV-1 (sulfonamide susceptible), which has been resident in the African meningitis belt for the last 25 years. The uniformity of clone III-1 strains (all sulfonamide resistant) from Sudan and Sweden was confirmed by DNA restriction enzyme patterns. ETs 3, 4, and 5 from Sudan and Sweden had 86 to 100% similarity to a Swedish clone III-1 reference strain, whereas ETs 1, 2, 6, and 7 showed 50 to 80% similarity. Class 1 protein for clone III-1 showed serosubtype antigens P1.9 and P1.x, whereas ET6 strains (clone IV-1) had serosubtype P1.7. Lipopolysaccharides were variable in the Sudanese and Swedish strains. Pili were expressed in all clone III-1 isolates from Sudan and Sweden but in none of the clone IV-1 isolates (Sudan, 1985).
In this study we aimed to characterize the ompA gene by sequencing DNA from all detected cases of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in a Swedish county during 2001, in order to improve the efficiency of contact tracing. Approximately 990 bp of the ompA gene was amplified, and sequence analysis was achieved in 678 (94%) of 725 C. trachomatis-positive cases in this unselected population. The most prevalent genotype was serotype E (39%), followed by F (21%), G (11%), D (9%), K (9%), J (7%), H (2%), B (1%), and Ia (1%). Serotype E was found in five genotype variants, with the reference sequence comprising 96% of all E cases. Serotype D was the most variable, and of seven sequence variants, three were identified as recombinants with serotype E. Altogether 29 genetic variants were detected, and mutations and recombination events are discussed. Clinical manifestations were not associated with genotypes. Sequence variation was linked to sexual networks identified by contact tracing and improved epidemiological knowledge but was of limited benefit.
Streptococcus pyogenes is indigenous to the human pharynx and causes acute pharyngitis. Balanoposthitis is an inflammatory disease of the glans and the foreskin. However, balanoposthitis caused by S. pyogenes is not widely recognized as a sexually transmitted disease. In addition, bacteriological features of the isolates causing balanoposthitis are unclear. The four S. pyogenes strains isolated from adult balanoposthitis were examined. We performed emm typing, T antigen typing, RAPD assay, PCR assay for the streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin-related genes and antibiotic-resistant genes, and antibiotic susceptibility assay. All four strains were suspected to be transmitted by penile-oral sexual intercourse, were found to be different by genetic analysis, and also harbored some antibiotic-resistant factors. We propose that S. pyogenes should be considered as a causative agent of sexually transmitted disease. The drug resistant S. pyogenes must be taken into account when balanoposthitis patients are treated with antibiotic.
Chlamydia psittaci in birds may be transmitted to humans and cause respiratory infections, sometimes as severe disease. Our study investigated the C. psittaci prevalence in migratory birds in Sweden by real-time PCR. Fecal specimens or cloacal swabs were collected from 497 birds from 22 different species, mainly mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), at two bird observatories in Sweden. DNA from C psittaci was found in six (1.2%) birds from three different species. Five of the positive specimens were infected with four novel strains of C. psittaci, based on sequencing of partial 16S rRNA gene and ompA gene, and the sixth was indentified as a recently described Chlamydiaceae-like bacterium. Considering exposure to humans it is concluded that the risk of zoonotic infection is low.
Our aims were to genotype Chlamydia trachomatis strains present in urogenital samples and to investigate the occurrence of the Swedish new variant of C. trachomatis in Finland. We genotyped 160 C. trachomatis positive samples with ompA real-time PCR and analyzed 495 samples for the new variant. The three most prevalent genotypes were E (40%), F (28%), and G (13%). Only two specimens containing bacteria with the variant plasmid were detected. It seems that in Finland the percentage of infections due to genotypes F and G has slightly increased during the last 20 years. Genotypes E and G appear to be more common, and genotypes J/Ja and I/Ia appear to be less common in Europe than in the USA. Although the genotype E was the most common genotype among C. trachomatis strains, the new variant was rarely found in Finland.