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38 records – page 1 of 4.

[Actual problems of creation of informational-analytical system for rapid control of epidemics of infectious diseases].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature127296
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2011 Nov-Dec;(6):37-42
Publication Type
Article
Author
B V Boev
T A Semenenko
V M Bondarenko
A L Gintsburg
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2011 Nov-Dec;(6):37-42
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Atlases as Topic
Bacterial Infections - epidemiology - prevention & control
Data Mining
Epidemics - prevention & control
Forecasting
Humans
Information Systems
Risk assessment
Russia - epidemiology
Vaccination
Virus Diseases - epidemiology - prevention & control
Zoonoses - epidemiology - microbiology - virology
Abstract
Structure and modules of computer informational-analytical system "Electronic atlas of Russia" is presented, the object of mapping in this system is epidemiology of socially significant infectious diseases. Systemic information on processes of emergence and spread of socially significant infectious diseases (anthroponoses, zoonoses and sapronoses) in the population of Russian Federation is presented in the atlas. Detailed electronic maps of country territory filled with prognosis-analytical information created by using technological achievements of mathematic and computer modeling of epidemics and outbreaks of viral and bacterial infections are of particular interest. Atlas allows to objectively evaluate the pattern of infection spread, prepare prognoses of epidemic and outbreak developments taking into account the implementation of control measures (vaccination, prophylaxis, diagnostics and therapy) and evaluate their economic effectiveness.
PubMed ID
22308725 View in PubMed
Less detail

Aeromonas salmonicida infection levels in pre- and post-stocked cleaner fish assessed by culture and an amended qPCR assay.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282184
Source
J Fish Dis. 2016 Jul;39(7):867-77
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2016
Author
S. Gulla
S. Duodu
A. Nilsen
I. Fossen
D J Colquhoun
Source
J Fish Dis. 2016 Jul;39(7):867-77
Date
Jul-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aeromonas salmonicida - isolation & purification
Animals
Colony Count, Microbial - veterinary
Fisheries
Furunculosis - diagnosis - epidemiology - prevention & control - transmission
Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections - epidemiology - prevention & control - transmission - veterinary
Norway - epidemiology
Perciformes
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction - veterinary
Abstract
Due to increasing resistance to chemical therapeutants, the use of 'cleaner fish' (primarily wrasse, Labridae, species) has become popular in European salmon farming for biocontrol of the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer). While being efficient de-licers, cleaner fish mortality levels in salmon cages are commonly high, and systemic bacterial infections constitute a major problem. Atypical furunculosis, caused by Aeromonas salmonicida A-layer types V and VI, is among the most common diagnoses reached in clinical investigations. A previously described real-time PCR (qPCR), targeting the A. salmonicida A-layer gene (vapA), was modified and validated for specific and sensitive detection of all presently recognized A-layer types of this bacterium. Before stocking and during episodes of increased mortality in salmon cages, cleaner fish (primarily wild-caught wrasse) were sampled and screened for A. salmonicida by qPCR and culture. Culture indicated that systemic bacterial infections are mainly contracted after salmon farm stocking, and qPCR revealed A. salmonicida prevalences of approximately 4% and 68% in pre- and post-stocked cleaner fish, respectively. This underpins A. salmonicida's relevance as a contributing factor to cleaner fish mortality and emphasizes the need for implementation of preventive measures (e.g. vaccination) if current levels of cleaner fish use are to be continued or expanded.
PubMed ID
26514414 View in PubMed
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An outbreak of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in a hematology-oncology unit: control by patient cohorting and terminal cleaning of the environment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature188914
Source
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2002 Aug;23(8):468-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2002
Author
Mary Lu Sample
Denise Gravel
Cathy Oxley
Baldwin Toye
Gary Garber
Karam Ramotar
Author Affiliation
Infection Control, The Ottawa Hospital, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2002 Aug;23(8):468-70
Date
Aug-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cross Infection - epidemiology - prevention & control
Disease Outbreaks - prevention & control
Disinfection - methods
Enterococcus
Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections - epidemiology - prevention & control
Humans
Infection Control - methods
Male
Oncology Service, Hospital
Ontario - epidemiology
Patient Isolation
Vancomycin Resistance
Abstract
We describe the impact of enhanced infection control interventions on controlling the spread of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in our hematology-oncology unit. Between April and September 1998, 13 patients on this unit were identified as having VRE. In addition to contact precautions, other measures that were needed to control the outbreak included closure of the unit to new admissions, creation of a cohort of VRE-positive patients and staff, and thorough cleaning of patients' rooms with 0.5% sodium hypochlorite.
PubMed ID
12186215 View in PubMed
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[A scientific providing for the system of hygienic optimization and anti-epidemic safety of rail ridership].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature112713
Source
Gig Sanit. 2013 Jan-Feb;(1):26-9
Publication Type
Article
Author
M F Vil'k
L P Korotich
V. Polyakova
Source
Gig Sanit. 2013 Jan-Feb;(1):26-9
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Microbiology
Air Pollution, Indoor - prevention & control
Bacterial Infections - epidemiology - prevention & control
Environmental Exposure - prevention & control
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Humans
Hygiene
Occupational Exposure - prevention & control
Occupational Health
Railroads
Russia - epidemiology
Sanitation - methods
Abstract
The system of scientific and reasonable measures for hygienic and anti-epidemic providing of rail ridership is elaborated. The legal and methodical base for precautionary and current sanitary inspection in the field of hygiene and epidemiology of ridership has been created, standard and methodical documents have been introduced in practice of medical sanitary health services of the railroads and accepted to realization by the design, car-building and car-repair organizations. Sanitary and hygienic monitoring for rail ridership, including control for sanitary, hygienic and microbiological indices of the air environment of passenger and service premises of stations and passenger trains, and also control for indices of health of the workers providing ridership, with use of pre-nosological symptoms of pathology is organized. Features of a bacterial aero-plankton of passenger objects are revealed. The increase of indices of bacterial pollution of air in passenger objects during the summer-autumn periods of year in comparison with winter period is established. Direct relationship between levels of bacterial air pollution of passenger rooms of stations and integrated indices of anti-infectious stability of an organism of workers of the railway stations serving ridership, and also number of persons with the changed indices of the immune status is revealed.
PubMed ID
23805688 View in PubMed
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[Communicable diseases in Norway. Epidemiological status and future challenge for prevention of the most important diseases].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature214289
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1995 Sep 30;115(23):2899-903
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-30-1995
Author
A. Lystad
L B Flugsrud
Author Affiliation
Avdeling for bakteriologi, Statens institutt for folkehelse, Oslo.
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1995 Sep 30;115(23):2899-903
Date
Sep-30-1995
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bacterial Infections - epidemiology - prevention & control
Bacterial Vaccines - administration & dosage - supply & distribution
Communicable disease control
Cross Infection - epidemiology - prevention & control
Epidemiologic Methods
Forecasting
Humans
Norway - epidemiology
Respiratory Tract Infections - epidemiology - prevention & control
Sexually Transmitted Diseases - epidemiology - prevention & control
Viral Vaccines - administration & dosage - supply & distribution
Virus Diseases - epidemiology - prevention & control
Abstract
The authors briefly review the incidence of some of the more important communicable diseases in Norway today. Thanks to extensive use of vaccines, effective preventive measures and useful antibiotics, many of these diseases are no longer a threat to public health, as was the rule up to the latter half of this century. However, constant vigilance is needed to sustain this positive situation.
PubMed ID
7570514 View in PubMed
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Control of transmission of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in a long-term-care facility.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature201971
Source
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1999 May;20(5):312-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1999
Author
M. Armstrong-Evans
M. Litt
M A McArthur
B. Willey
D. Cann
S. Liska
S. Nusinowitz
R. Gould
A. Blacklock
D E Low
A. McGeer
Author Affiliation
Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai and Princess Margaret Hospitals, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1999 May;20(5):312-7
Date
May-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology
Costs and Cost Analysis
Cross Infection - epidemiology - prevention & control - transmission
Disease Outbreaks - prevention & control
Disease Reservoirs
Drug Resistance, Microbial
Enterococcus faecium - drug effects - isolation & purification
Female
Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections - epidemiology - prevention & control - transmission
Homes for the Aged
Humans
Infection Control - economics - methods
Long-Term Care - methods
Male
Nursing Homes
Ontario - epidemiology
Vancomycin - pharmacology
Abstract
To describe the investigation and control of transmission of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in a residential long-term-care (LTC) setting. OUTBREAK INVESTIGATION: A strain of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium not previously isolated in Ontario colonized five residents of a 254-bed LTC facility in Toronto. The index case was identified when VRE was isolated from a urine culture taken after admission to a local hospital. Screening of rectal swabs from all 235 residents identified four others who were colonized with the same strain of E faecium.
Colonized residents were cohorted. VRE precautions were established as follows: gown and gloves for resident contact, restriction of contact between colonized and noncolonized residents, no sharing of personal equipment, and daily double-cleaning of residents' rooms and wheelchairs.
Two colonized residents died of causes unrelated to VRE. Although bacitracin therapy (75,000 units four times a day x 14 days) failed to eradicate carriage in two of three surviving residents, both cleared their carriage within 7 weeks. Repeat rectal swabs from 224 residents (91%) 2 months after isolation precautions were discontinued and from 125 residents (51%) 9 months later identified no new cases. Total cost of investigation and control was $12,061 (Canadian).
VRE may be transmitted in LTC facilities, and colonized LTC residents could become important VRE reservoirs. Control of VRE transmission in LTC facilities can be achieved even with limited resources.
PubMed ID
10349946 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Current problems of immunoprophylaxis of infectious and non-infectious diseases].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature152838
Source
Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk. 2008;(12):14-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
2008
Author
V K Tatochenko
L S Namazova
Source
Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk. 2008;(12):14-21
Date
2008
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Bacterial Infections - epidemiology - prevention & control
Bacterial Vaccines - administration & dosage
Catchment Area (Health)
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Prevalence
Russia - epidemiology
Vaccination - statistics & numerical data
Viral Vaccines - administration & dosage
Virus Diseases - epidemiology - prevention & control
Abstract
Progress in immunology greatly contributed to the understanding of mechanisms of infectious immunity and vaccine action. Moreover, it facilitated the development of new vaccines and vaccination not only of healthy children but also of subjects with health problems and chronic diseases including the use of several vaccines. The number of contraindications could be decreased without a rise in the frequency of post-vaccination complications. Immunoprophylaxis allowed the incidence of controllable infections to be reduced; the level of epidemiologic well-being achieved in the course of this work provided a basis for eradication of some diseases. At the same time, successes of vaccination made mankind dependent on the use of vaccines. As a result, discontinuation of mass vaccination and even temporal decrease of its scale in the absence of certain infections or in the situation of their sporadic occurrence (i.e. the lack of natural immunization) lead to their reappearance. Specific features of modern immunoprophylaxis of infectious and non-infectious pathology and its timetable are described.
PubMed ID
19186512 View in PubMed
Less detail

Deep infection in total hip arthroplasty.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature157994
Source
Can J Surg. 2008 Apr;51(2):111-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2008
Author
Henry Hamilton
John Jamieson
Author Affiliation
Port Arthur Health Centre, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. drhenryhamilton@hotmail.com
Source
Can J Surg. 2008 Apr;51(2):111-7
Date
Apr-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Antibiotic Prophylaxis
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip - statistics & numerical data
Asepsis
Bacterial Infections - epidemiology - prevention & control
Comorbidity
Cross-Sectional Studies
Follow-Up Studies
Hospitals, Community - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Incidence
Ontario
Prospective Studies
Reoperation
Risk factors
Staphylococcal Infections - epidemiology - prevention & control
Staphylococcus epidermidis
Surgical Wound Infection - epidemiology - prevention & control
Abstract
To report on a 30-year prospective study of deep infection in 1993 consecutive total hip arthroplasties performed by a single surgeon.
The relations of numerous variables to the incidence of deep infection were studied.
The cumulative infection rate after the index total hip arthroplasties rose from 0.8% at 2 years to 1.4% at 20 years; 9.6% of the index operations required further surgery. When infections attributed to these secondary procedures were included, the infection rate rose from 0.9% at 2 years to 2% at 20 years. Although the usual variables increased the incidence of infection, the significant and most precise predictors of infection were radiologic diagnoses of upper pole grade III and protrusio acetabuli, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, alcoholism and units of blood transfused.
From 2-20 years, the incidence of deep infection doubled. Preoperative recognition of the first 4 risk factors permits the use of additional prophylactic measures. Spinal or epidural anesthesia reduced the units of blood transfused (the fifth risk factor) and, hence, the risk of infection. Although most deep infections are seeded while the wound is open, there are many possible postoperative causes. In this study, fewer than one-third of the infections that presented after 2 years were related to hematogenous spread. The efficacy of clean air technology was supported, and it is recommended that all measures that may reduce the incidence of deep infection be employed.
Notes
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PubMed ID
18377751 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Dynamics of acquires resistance in the main gramnegative pathogens of surgical infections to beta-lactams in 2004-2008].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature142577
Source
Antibiot Khimioter. 2010;55(1-2):21-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
N S Bogomolova
L V Bol'shakov
T D Oreshkina
S M Kuznetsova
Source
Antibiot Khimioter. 2010;55(1-2):21-9
Date
2010
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cross Infection - epidemiology - prevention & control
Female
Gram-Negative Bacteria - growth & development - isolation & purification
Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections - epidemiology - prevention & control
Humans
Male
Postoperative Complications - epidemiology - prevention & control
Retrospective Studies
Russia - epidemiology
beta-Lactam Resistance
beta-Lactams - pharmacology - therapeutic use
Abstract
Resistance of 2134 clinical isolates of etiologically significant species of gramnegative bacteria to 5 beta-lactam antibiotics, i. e. cefepime, piperacillin/tazobactam, cefoperazone/sulbactam, imipenem and ceftazidime (the 3rd generation cephalosporin) as the reference drug was investigated for the period of 5 years (2004-2008). In total, 554 strains of E. coli, 578 strains of P. aeruginosa, 255 strains of Acinetobacter spp., 161 strains of Proteus mirabilis, 359 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 227 strains of Enterobacter cloacae were assayed in dynamics. The comparative analysis of the frequency of the antibiotic resistant isolates from the patients treated within 2004-2008 with often and long-term use of cefoperazom-sulbactam, meropenem and imipenem revealed an increase in development of resistance to all beta-lactams, including the inhibitor-protected ones. It least of all concerned imipenem, still isolation of 39.5% of the imipenem resistant strains of P. aeruginosa was in favour of the tendency. A dramatic 3-5-fold rise of resistance in 2007 and 2008 in the isolates of K. pneumoniae, E. cloacae and Acinetobacter spp. to both the inhibitor-protected beta-lactams, that averaged 56 and 45%, 45 and 35% and 26 and 30% respectively, deserved attention. It was assumed that the main mechanism of resistance in the isolates to the inhibitor-protected beta-lactams was hyperproduction of beta-lactamase of type CTX-M. The large part of the cefepime resistant isolates of K. pneumoniae and Acinetobacter spp. (76.8 and 62.2% respectively) was in favour of the assumption. It was concluded that periodical reversion of the policy of preventive antibiotic prophylaxis was necessary, since such a prophylaxis is a reliable barrier to development of postoperative complications and at the same time it promotes selection of nosocomial strains with some other mechanisms of antibiotic resistance under hospital conditions.
PubMed ID
20583554 View in PubMed
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38 records – page 1 of 4.