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Abstracts of papers presented at the forty-sixth annual meeting of the Laboratory Division of the Canadian Public Health Association.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature247947
Source
Can J Public Health. 1979 Jan-Feb;70(1):47-62
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material

AIDS in Haitian immigrants and in a Caucasian woman closely associated with Haitians.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature241400
Source
Can Med Assoc J. 1983 Dec 1;129(11):1209-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1-1983
Author
M. Laverdière
J. Tremblay
R. Lavallée
Y. Bonny
M. Lacombe
J. Boileau
J. Lachapelle
C. Lamoureux
Source
Can Med Assoc J. 1983 Dec 1;129(11):1209-12
Date
Dec-1-1983
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - diagnosis - epidemiology - immunology
Adult
Bacterial Infections - diagnosis - epidemiology
Emigration and Immigration
European Continental Ancestry Group
Female
Haiti - ethnology
Humans
Male
Mycoses - diagnosis - epidemiology
Quebec
Toxoplasmosis - diagnosis - epidemiology
Virus Diseases - diagnosis - epidemiology
Abstract
In Montreal the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was seen in eight Haitian immigrants and one Caucasian woman who had lived with Haitian immigrants for 3 years before the onset of her illness. AIDS was characterized by opportunistic infections alone in seven patients, by opportunistic infection and Kaposi's sarcoma in one patient and by chronic generalized lymphadenopathy in one patient. Five of the patients had presented with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections 1 to 12 months before the onset of opportunistic infections. All nine patients were found to have recall anergy by skin testing for delayed hypersensitivity. Enumeration of the lymphocyte subpopulations in three patients showed a marked inversion of the ratio of helper to suppressor T lymphocytes. Six of the patients died as a result of the opportunistic infections; autopsies showed no recognizable causes of immunodeficiency. Thus, there is in Montreal a third clustering of AIDS cases in North America related to Haitian immigrants.
Notes
Cites: J Exp Med. 1970 Nov;132(5):1001-184919141
Cites: Clin Chem. 1975 Nov;21(12):1735-461182993
Cites: J Clin Microbiol. 1981 Nov;14(5):486-917031082
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1983 May 19;308(20):1181-46221192
Cites: Ann Intern Med. 1982 Oct;97(4):533-96982014
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1983 Jan 20;308(3):125-96217423
Cites: Ann Intern Med. 1983 Mar;98(3):277-846299151
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1982 Jul 15;307(3):162-56806657
PubMed ID
6640458 View in PubMed
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All-cause hospitalizations in systemic lupus erythematosus from a large Canadian referral centre.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature117333
Source
Rheumatology (Oxford). 2013 May;52(5):905-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2013
Author
June Lee
Nimrit Dhillon
Janet Pope
Author Affiliation
Western University, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, Canada.
Source
Rheumatology (Oxford). 2013 May;52(5):905-9
Date
May-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Academic Medical Centers
Adult
Age Distribution
Bacterial Infections - diagnosis - epidemiology - therapy
Databases, Factual
Disease Progression
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions - epidemiology - etiology
Female
Hospital Mortality - trends
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Incidence
Length of Stay
Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic - diagnosis - epidemiology - therapy
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario
Referral and Consultation - statistics & numerical data
Retrospective Studies
Risk assessment
Severity of Illness Index
Sex Distribution
Survival Rate
Abstract
To determine factors affecting morbidity and mortality in a contemporary cohort of hospitalized SLE patients and estimate the rate of SLE hospitalization.
A retrospective chart review was done on all patients admitted to London Health Sciences Centre and St Joseph's Health Centre in London, Ontario, Canada, between January 2006 and June 2009.
There were a total of 96 SLE patients meeting inclusion criteria hospitalized during this period resulting in 154 hospitalizations. Average age at diagnosis was 33.3 years (s.d. 13.7) and 46.5 years (s.d. 14.1) at hospitalization; 91.7% of hospitalized patients were female. The most common reasons for hospitalization included disease flare (17.5%), infection (mostly bacterial) (16.2%) and adverse drug reaction (8.1%). Acute coronary syndrome (2.6%) and venous thromboembolic events (1.9%) were less common causes of hospitalization. Mean hospitalization length was 8.5 (s.d. 11.2) days. Intensive care unit (ICU) admission occurred in 22 cases (13.8%) and mortality was significantly higher (27.3% of ICU patients died; P
PubMed ID
23307831 View in PubMed
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Bacterial infections in alcoholic and nonalcoholic liver cirrhosis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature272573
Source
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015 Sep;27(9):1080-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2015
Author
Konstantina Sargenti
Hanne Prytz
Emma Nilsson
Sara Bertilsson
Evangelos Kalaitzakis
Source
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015 Sep;27(9):1080-6
Date
Sep-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Anti-Bacterial Agents - therapeutic use
Bacterial Infections - diagnosis - epidemiology - microbiology - mortality - therapy
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Female
Humans
Incidence
Kaplan-Meier Estimate
Liver Cirrhosis - diagnosis - epidemiology - mortality - therapy
Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic - diagnosis - epidemiology - mortality - therapy
Liver Transplantation
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Prognosis
Proportional Hazards Models
Retrospective Studies
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Severity of Illness Index
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Abstract
Longitudinal, population-based data on the occurrence, localization, and severity of bacterial infections over time in patients with alcoholic compared with nonalcoholic cirrhosis are limited.
All patients with incident cirrhosis diagnosed in 2001-2010 (area of 600,000 inhabitants) were retrospectively identified. All bacterial infections resulting in or occurring during an inpatient hospital episode during this period were registered. The etiology of cirrhosis (alcoholic vs. nonalcoholic), infection localization, and outcome as well as bacterial resistance patterns were analyzed. Patients were followed until death, transplant, or the end of 2011.
In all, 633 cirrhotics (363 alcoholic, 270 nonalcoholic) experienced a total of 398 infections (2276 patient-years). Among patients diagnosed with cirrhosis each year from 2001 to 2010, increasing trends were noted in the occurrence of infection (from 13 to 27%, P
PubMed ID
26011234 View in PubMed
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Capnocytophaga canimorsus septicemia in Denmark, 1982-1995: review of 39 cases.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature54636
Source
Clin Infect Dis. 1996 Jul;23(1):71-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1996
Author
C. Pers
B. Gahrn-Hansen
W. Frederiksen
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Microbiology, Statens Seruminstitut Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
Clin Infect Dis. 1996 Jul;23(1):71-5
Date
Jul-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Animals
Bacteremia - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Bites and Stings - complications
Capnocytophaga - pathogenicity
Denmark - epidemiology
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation - etiology
Dogs
Endocarditis, Bacterial - etiology
Female
Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Humans
Male
Meningitis, Bacterial - etiology
Middle Aged
Time Factors
Abstract
Thirty-nine Danish cases of Capnocytophaga canimorsus septicemia were reviewed to determine the clinical course of this infection. The cases of septicemia were related to recent dog bites or other close contact with dogs. The period from the bite to the onset of symptoms ranged from 1 to 8 days. The mean age of the patients was 59.1 years (range, 28-83 years). Underlying conditions included previous splenectomy and alcoholism. Thirteen patients had previously been in good health. Common initial symptoms were fever, malaise, myalgia, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, dyspnea, confusion, headache and skin manifestations. Disseminated intravascular coagulation developed in 14 patients, meningitis in 5, and endocarditis in 1. Twelve of the patients died. All patients except two were treated with penicillin or ampicillin. Five patients had received antibiotics prior to admission. Attention should be drawn to C. canimorsus septicemia in cases of febrile illness following dog bites or contact with dogs, as well as those involving previously healthy persons. The incidence of this condition in Denmark is estimated to be 0.5 case per 1 million people per year.
PubMed ID
8816132 View in PubMed
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Cesarean delivery and risk of intestinal bacterial infection.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature98163
Source
J Infect Dis. 2010 Mar 15;201(6):898-902
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-15-2010
Author
Peter Bager
Jacob Simonsen
Steen Ethelberg
Morten Frisch
Author Affiliation
Dept of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, 5 Artillerivej, DK-2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark. bg@ssi.dk
Source
J Infect Dis. 2010 Mar 15;201(6):898-902
Date
Mar-15-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Campylobacter
Campylobacter Infections - epidemiology
Cesarean Section - adverse effects
Child, Preschool
Denmark - epidemiology
Escherichia coli
Female
Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Gram-Negative Facultatively Anaerobic Rods
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Intestinal Diseases - diagnosis - epidemiology - microbiology
Pregnancy
Registries
Regression Analysis
Salmonella
Yersinia enterocolitica
Young Adult
Abstract
BACKGROUND: An individual's intestinal bacterial flora is established soon after birth. Delivery by Cesarean section (c-section) deprives the newborn of colonization with maternal vaginal bacteria. We determined whether delivery by c-section is associated with an altered risk of infection with intestinal bacterial pathogens. METHODS: In a cohort of 1.7 million Danes born 1973-2005 we identified cases of laboratory-confirmed non-typhoidal Salmonella species, Campylobacter species, Yersinia enterocolitica, Shigella species, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from 1991-2005 in the National Registry of Enteric Pathogens. Using Poisson-regression we estimated confounder-adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for infection according to mode of delivery. RESULTS: During 14.0 million person-years of follow-up, 22,486 individuals were diagnosed with 1 intestinal bacterial infection. C-section was associated with a small increase in risk at age 1 to
PubMed ID
20132034 View in PubMed
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Clinical utility and performance of sock sampling in weaner pig diarrhoea.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature270814
Source
Prev Vet Med. 2015 Jul 1;120(3-4):313-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1-2015
Author
Ken Steen Pedersen
Elisabeth Okholm
Markku Johansen
Øystein Angen
Sven Erik Jorsal
Jens Peter Nielsen
Poul Bækbo
Source
Prev Vet Med. 2015 Jul 1;120(3-4):313-20
Date
Jul-1-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Brachyspira - isolation & purification
Denmark - epidemiology
Desulfovibrionaceae Infections - diagnosis - epidemiology - microbiology - veterinary
Diarrhea - diagnosis - epidemiology - microbiology - veterinary
Escherichia coli - isolation & purification
Escherichia coli Infections - diagnosis - epidemiology - microbiology - veterinary
Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections - diagnosis - epidemiology - microbiology - veterinary
Lawsonia Bacteria - isolation & purification
Polymerase Chain Reaction - methods - veterinary
Prevalence
Swine
Swine Diseases - diagnosis - epidemiology - microbiology
Abstract
Low pathogen diarrhoea is a group-level diagnosis, characterised by non-haemorrhagic diarrhoea. In the current study, the apparent prevalence of low pathogen diarrhoea outbreaks in Danish herds was investigated along with the clinical utility of a laboratory examination for intestinal disease, agreement between three consecutive herd examinations from the same herd and agreement between quantitative PCR results from pooled faecal samples and sock samples. Twenty-four veterinarians submitted faecal and sock samples for quantitative PCR testing from outbreaks of diarrhoea in nursery pigs (n=38 herds) where the farmer or veterinarian had decided that antimicrobial treatment was necessary. The veterinarians were asked to fill in a questionnaire and participate in telephone interviews. The apparent prevalence of low pathogen diarrhoea was 0.18 (95% CL: 0.08-0.34). Agreement between the veterinarians' clinical aetiological diagnosis and the pooled faecal sample was 0.18 (95% CL: 0.08-0.34), and Cohen's Kappa was 0.03 (95% CL: -0.08 to 0.14). Antibiotic treatment or prevention strategies were changed in 0.63 (95% CL: 0.46-0.78) of the herds, and the veterinarians indicated that, for 0.32 (95% CL: 0.18-0.50) of the herds, changes were related to the diagnostic results from the laboratory examination performed in the study. In 0.16 (95% CL: 0.05-0.36) of the herds, the same infections were demonstrated at all three consecutive examinations. No herds had three consecutive diarrhoea outbreaks classified as low pathogen diarrhoea. For the quantitative results (log10 of the summed amounts of Lawsonia intracellularis, Brachyspira pilosicoli, Escherichia coli F4 and F18) agreement between pooled faecal samples and sock samples was evaluated. Lin's concordance correlation coefficient was 0.69 (95% CL: 0.48-0.82), and the mean difference between the two types of samples was -0.38 log10 bacteria/g faeces (SD=1.59log10 bacteria/g faeces; 95% CI: -0.90 to 0.14log10 bacteria/g faeces). Agreement for the dichotomised results was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.75-0.97) when test results were classified as low pathogen diarrhoea or not, and Cohen's Kappa was 0.61 (95% CI: 0.26-0.95). In relation to detection of the individual infections, agreement was 0.63 (95% CI: 0.46-0.78), and Cohen's Kappa was 0.53 (95% CI: 0.34-0.71). In conclusion, low pathogen diarrhoea is a common finding amongst diarrhoea outbreaks that are subjected to antibiotic batch treatment in Danish nursery pigs. Sock samples seem to offer a reliable diagnostic method with impact on clinical decisions for treatment and prevention. However, both the diarrhoea type and the aetiology change with time in the majority of herds, indicating a potential need for frequent diagnostic examinations.
PubMed ID
25975665 View in PubMed
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Coeliac disease is associated with intrauterine growth and neonatal infections.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature31683
Source
Acta Paediatr. 2002;91(1):30-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
2002
Author
S. Sandberg-Bennich
G. Dahlquist
B. Källén
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Acta Paediatr. 2002;91(1):30-3
Date
2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bacterial Infections - diagnosis - epidemiology
Birth weight
Celiac Disease - diagnosis - epidemiology
Comorbidity
Comparative Study
Confidence Intervals
Female
Fetal Growth Retardation - diagnosis - epidemiology
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Small for Gestational Age
Male
Maternal Age
Odds Ratio
Population Surveillance
Pregnancy
Prenatal Diagnosis
Prevalence
Registries
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Smoking - adverse effects
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
To investigate whether factors in the fetal or neonatal period influence the risk of later development of coeliac disease we conducted a population-based register study. The Swedish Medical Birth Register was linked with the Hospital Discharge Register and identified 3392 singleton infants born in the period 1987-97 who developed coeliac disease. Perinatal data for these children were compared with all children born in these years. Exposure variables: Maternal age, parity and smoking habits in early pregnancy, preeclampsia, pregnancy duration and birthweight, birthweight by gestational week, Apgar score, neonatal icterus, neonatal infections, maternal-fetal blood group incompatibility, exchange transfusion, phototherapy. Odds ratios and test-based confidence intervals were calculated. Analyses were made with stratification for year of birth and other risk factors. The risk of developing coeliac disease decreased with maternal age and was lower in first-born than in second-born children. Maternal smoking in early pregnancy was a weak risk factor, as was low birthweight. The most evident risk factors were being exposed to neonatal infections (OR = 1.52, confidence limits 1.19: 1.95) and being small for gestational age (OR = 1.45, confidence limits 1.20; 1.75). These risk factors were independent of each other. Conclusions: We have demonstrated that the intrauterine environment, mainly as mirrored by a low birthweight for gestational age and, independently, neonatal infection diagnosis, is associated with the risk of developing coeliac disease, supporting the idea of a multifactorial aetiology of the disease.
Notes
Comment In: Acta Paediatr. 2002;91(1):16-711883812
PubMed ID
11883814 View in PubMed
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Definition and detection of alarms in critical care.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature210968
Source
Comput Methods Programs Biomed. 1996 Oct;51(1-2):5-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1996
Author
C J Morgan
J. Takala
D. DeBacker
T. Sukuvaara
A. Kari
Author Affiliation
Department of Anaesthesia and Critical Care, Royal Brompton Hospital, London, UK.
Source
Comput Methods Programs Biomed. 1996 Oct;51(1-2):5-11
Date
Oct-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bacterial Infections - diagnosis - epidemiology
Belgium
Cardiac Surgical Procedures
Critical Care - methods - standards
Emergencies
Finland
Health Care Surveys
Heart Failure - diagnosis - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Intensive Care Units - standards
London
Monitoring, Physiologic - standards
Multiple Trauma - complications
Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care)
Postoperative Complications
Respiratory Insufficiency - etiology
Respiratory Tract Diseases - diagnosis - epidemiology
Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted
Vascular Diseases - diagnosis - epidemiology
Abstract
Critical care medicine has developed enormously in complexity and even more so in cost over the past twenty years. There has been evidence of remarkable progress in improved outcomes from some conditions, particularly when severely ill patients are treated in well equipped and well managed intensive care units (ICU) which have clear directorship and comprehensive management guidelines and protocols (Zimmermann et al., Crit Care Med 1993; 21:1443-1451). Nevertheless, for some conditions such as severe acute respiratory failure and multiple organ failure, there is considerable debate as to whether there has been any improvement at all (Lee et al., Thorax 1994; 49:596-597. Artigas et al., Adult respiratory distress syndrome, Churchill Livingstone, Edinbugh, London, Madrid, Melbourne, New York, Tokyo, pp. 509-525). Developments in signal processing and monitoring and recording technology have resulted in a vast increase in the quantity of data that is available to clinicians trying to manage critically ill patients (Price, Bailliere's Clin Anaesthesiol 1987; 1:533-556) but there is little evidence that this apparent gain has lead to better clinical decisions or earlier warning of significant instability. One of the tasks of the European Union sponsored IMPROVE group was to attempt to identify significant downward trends in vital parameters sufficiently early to allow clinical intervention to be potent and effective and ultimately improve patient outcome from a wide range of life threatening conditions. The first stage of this task was to define examples of such life threatening deterioration and conduct a survey in representative intensive care units of the incidence of these conditions and the subsequent patient outcomes. This is a preliminary task, the next stage being the gathering of "real time' data from critically ill patients for 24-h sample periods to probe for deteriorating trends and to compile a comprehensive annotated data library of physiological data as a rich resource for future adaptations in signal processing technology and clinical decision support.
PubMed ID
8894387 View in PubMed
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Description and burden of travel-related cases caused by enteropathogens reported in a Canadian community.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature138169
Source
J Travel Med. 2011 Jan-Feb;18(1):8-19
Publication Type
Article
Author
André Ravel
Andrea Nesbitt
Barbara Marshall
Nancy Sittler
Frank Pollari
Author Affiliation
Laboratory for Foodborne Zoonoses, Public Health Agency of Canada, Faculté de Médecine Vétérinaire, Pavillon de Santé Publique Vétérinaire, 3190 rue Sicotte, Saint-Hyacinthe, Québec, Canada. andre.ravel@phac-aspc.gc.ca
Source
J Travel Med. 2011 Jan-Feb;18(1):8-19
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Bacterial Infections - diagnosis - epidemiology
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Cost of Illness
Developing Countries
Disease Outbreaks - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Female
Gram-Negative Bacteria - isolation & purification
Gram-Positive Bacteria - isolation & purification
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Infant
Male
Middle Aged
Patient Education as Topic - statistics & numerical data
Population Surveillance
Prevalence
Primary Prevention - organization & administration
Retrospective Studies
Risk Assessment - statistics & numerical data
Seasons
Travel - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Risk of infections by enteropathogens among individuals traveling outside their country of residence is considered important. Such travel-related cases (TRC) have been poorly estimated and described in Canada.
Data from an enhanced, passive surveillance system of diseases caused by enteropathogens within a Canadian community from June 2005 to May 2009 were used to describe TRC in terms of disease (pathogen, symptoms, hospitalization, duration, and timing of sickness relative to return); demographics (age and gender); and travel (destination, length, and accommodation); and to compare them with non-TRC.
Among 1,773 reported cases, 446 (25%) were classified as TRC with 9% of them being new immigrants. The main TRC diseases were campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, and giardiasis. Disease onset occurred before return in 42% of TRC. Main destinations were Latin America/Caribbean and Asia. No differences by month and year were observed for onset, departure, and return dates. In addition to new immigrants, three subgroups of TRC based on travel destination, length of travel, type of accommodation, and age were identified and some diseases were more frequently observed in these subgroups. Generally, TRC did not differ from domestic cases in terms of age, gender, symptoms, hospitalization, and disease duration. Campylobacter coli and Salmonella enteritidis were significantly more frequent among TRC.
TRC of diseases caused by enteropathogens that are reportable in Canada represent a significant proportion of the burden of the total diseases. Subgroups of TRC exist and are associated with certain diseases. These results help inform the assessment of the actual risk related to travel for each subgroup of travelers and quantify the attribution of traveling abroad to the overall burden of these gastrointestinal diseases.
PubMed ID
21199137 View in PubMed
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29 records – page 1 of 3.