Phototoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Arctic is important to study since the future PAH load is likely to increase. In combination with the increased UV-light penetration due to ozone layer thinning, phototoxicity may be a potential problem for arctic areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of pyrene and phototoxicity of pyrene on natural algae and bacteria from arctic sediments. Sediments from a shallow-water marine baywere spiked with different pyrene concentrations. Microcosms containing the sediment were incubated under three light regimes, natural sunlight with UV-light, natural sunlight without UV-light, and dark. Significant effects were evident at low pyrene concentrations, particularly in presence of UV-light, indicating phototoxicity. The microalgae were especially sensitive to the phototoxicity of pyrene. Already atthe lowest pyrene concentration (Cfree: 4 nM) algal 14C-incorporation and chlorophyll a content were reduced. The toxic effects of pyrene on the microalgae probably led to the release of organic matter. In agreement with this, bacterial activity increased at high pyrene concentrations indicated by increased oxygen consumption and increased release of inorganic N and P from the sediment. This study indicates that phototoxicity of PAHs may be relevant for sediment communities from shallow marine arctic areas at environmentally relevant pyrene concentrations.
The contents of the large intestine were investigated bacteriologically in 44 pregnant women at the pregnancy term of 27-28 weeks living in the areas contaminated with radionuclides at a concentration of 15-40 C/km2. It was found that in 9.6 per cent of the women the intestinal microbiocenosis was within the normal and in 19.1 per cent there was detected marked dysbacteriosis. In the other women compensated or subcompensated intestinal dysbacteriosis was recorded. The state of the large intestine microbiocenosis in the pregnant women did not depend on urogynecological or infectious diseases in the case histories. The prophylactic treatment with eubiotics (bifidumbacterin per rectum and lactobacterin intravaginally) aimed at the correction of the impaired microbiocenosis had a favourable effect which did not depend on urogynecological or infectious diseases in the case histories. After the completion of the prophylaxis course with the eubiotics some indices improved but the percentage of the pregnant women isolating colibacilli with the properties of virulence increased.
Conventional wastewater treatment is challenging in the Arctic region due to the cold climate and scattered population. Thus, no wastewater treatment plant exists in Greenland, and raw wastewater is discharged directly to nearby waterbodies without treatment. We investigated the efficiency of physicochemical wastewater treatment, in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. Raw wastewater from Kangerlussuaq was treated by chemical coagulation and UV disinfection. By applying 7.5 mg Al/L polyaluminium chloride (PAX XL100), 73% of turbidity and 28% phosphate was removed from raw wastewater. E. coli and Enterococcus were removed by 4 and 2.5 log, respectively, when UV irradiation of 0.70 kWh/m3 was applied to coagulated wastewater. Furthermore, coagulated raw wastewater in Denmark, which has a chemical quality similar to Greenlandic wastewater, was disinfected by peracetic acid or UV irradiation. Removal of heterotrophic bacteria by applying 6 and 12 mg/L peracetic acid was 2.8 and 3.1 log, respectively. Similarly, removal of heterotrophic bacteria by applying 0.21 and 2.10 kWh/m3 for UV irradiation was 2.1 and greater than 4 log, respectively. Physicochemical treatment of raw wastewater followed by UV irradiation and/or peracetic acid disinfection showed the potential for treatment of arctic wastewater.