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38 records – page 1 of 4.

The 1986 and 1988 UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation) reports: findings and implications.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature25247
Source
Health Phys. 1990 Mar;58(3):241-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1990
Author
F A Mettler
W K Sinclair
L. Anspaugh
C. Edington
J H Harley
R C Ricks
P B Selby
E W Webster
H O Wyckoff
Author Affiliation
School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque 87131.
Source
Health Phys. 1990 Mar;58(3):241-50
Date
Mar-1990
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents
Background Radiation
Environmental Exposure
Female
Humans
Japan
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced
Nuclear Reactors
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Radiation Dosage
Radiation Genetics
Radiation, Ionizing
Risk
Ukraine
Abstract
The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has published a substantive series of reports concerning sources, effects, and risks of ionizing radiation. This article summarizes the highlights and conclusions from the most recent 1986 and 1988 reports. The present annual per person effective dose equivalent for the world's population is about 3 mSv. The majority of this (2.4 mSv) comes from natural background, and 0.4 to 1 mSv is from medical exposures. Other sources contribute less than 0.02 mSv annually. The worldwide collective effective dose equivalent annually is between 13 and 16 million person-Sv. The Committee assessed the collective effective dose equivalent to the population of the northern hemisphere from the reactor accident at Chernobyl and concluded that this is about 600,000 person-Sv. The Committee also reviewed risk estimates for radiation carcinogenesis which included the new Japanese dosimetry at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These data indicate that risk coefficient estimates for high doses and high dose rate low-LET radiation in the Japanese population are approximately 3-10% Sv-1, depending on the projection model utilized. The Committee also indicated that, in calculation of such risks at low doses and low dose rates, a risk-reduction factor in the range of 2-10 may be considered.
PubMed ID
2312289 View in PubMed
Less detail

Activity concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ra in drilled well water in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168789
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2006;121(4):406-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
P. Vesterbacka
T. Turtiainen
S. Heinävaara
H. Arvela
Author Affiliation
STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, PO Box 14, 00881 Helsinki, Finland. pia.vesterbacka@stuk.fi
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2006;121(4):406-12
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Background Radiation
Body Burden
Environmental Exposure - analysis
Finland
Humans
Radiation Dosage
Radiation Monitoring - methods
Radiation Protection - methods
Radon - analysis
Relative Biological Effectiveness
Water Pollutants, Radioactive - analysis
Water Supply - analysis
Abstract
The activity concentrations of (226)Ra and (228)Ra in drinking water were determined in water samples from 176 drilled wells. (226)Ra activity concentrations were in the range of
PubMed ID
16777909 View in PubMed
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Age dependence of natural uranium and thorium concentrations in bone.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature165657
Source
Health Phys. 2007 Feb;92(2):119-26
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2007
Author
Dominic Larivière
Ana Paula Packer
Leonora Marro
Chunsheng Li
Jing Chen
R Jack Cornett
Author Affiliation
Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, 775 Brookfield Road, Address Locator 6302D1, Ottawa, ON, Canada, K1A. dominic_lariviere@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
Health Phys. 2007 Feb;92(2):119-26
Date
Feb-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aging
Background Radiation
Body Burden
Bone and Bones - chemistry
Canada
Humans
Radiation Dosage
Radiometry - methods
Relative Biological Effectiveness
Thorium - analysis
Uranium - analysis
Abstract
The age dependence of the natural concentration of uranium and thorium in the skeleton was investigated using human vertebrae bone collected from two Canadian locations (Winnipeg, Manitoba, and Regina, Saskatchewan). The concentration of both radioelements in digested ashed bone samples was determined using sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The geometric means for uranium level in bones showed a significant statistical difference between the two locations studied. Similarly for thorium, a statistical difference was observed, although this difference was considered marginal. The thorium concentration differed only marginally with respect to age group, indicating that its behavior in the body could be age-independent. Conversely, the uranium level in bones was found to change for the age groups tested, an indication of age-specific deposition. The age profile for uranium was comparable to the calcium turn-over rate, indicating that uranium deposition is probably, in part, dictated by this metabolic process, showing the role of present uptake into the uranium concentration in bones for populations exposed to significant uranium intake.
PubMed ID
17220713 View in PubMed
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[An epidemiological method for studying the effect of elevated background radiation on the neuropsychic health of children]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature36500
Source
Zh Nevropatol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 1993;93(3):64-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
1993
Author
N K Sukhotina
A A Kashnikova
V B Preis
I N Tatarova
T V Terekhina
Source
Zh Nevropatol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 1993;93(3):64-8
Date
1993
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Occupational
Adolescent
Air Pollution, Radioactive - adverse effects - statistics & numerical data
Background Radiation - adverse effects
Child
Child, Preschool
Comparative Study
Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
English Abstract
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - statistics & numerical data
Epidemiologic Methods
Female
Humans
Infant
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology - etiology
Mental health
Nuclear Reactors
Power Plants
Russia
Ukraine
Abstract
The children living in 4 regions of Russia contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl catastrophe were investigated. The control group consisted of the children of 2 regions which did not undergo this influence. The investigations were made 1-3 years after the catastrophe took place. An increase of etiologically non-clear asthenic-vegetative disorders was determined in the regions of radiation contamination. They were observed mainly among the children who had light residual organic cerebral deficiency. The authors cannot exclude the impact of the psychogenic factors.
PubMed ID
8042395 View in PubMed
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The annual effective dose from natural sources of ionising radiation in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature181012
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2004;108(3):215-26
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
Author
R L Grasty
J R LaMarre
Author Affiliation
Gamma-Bob Inc., 3924 Shirley Avenue, Ottawa, Ontario K1V 1H4, Canada. grasty@rogers.com
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2004;108(3):215-26
Date
2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Background Radiation
Body Burden
Canada - epidemiology
Environmental Exposure - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Environmental Monitoring - methods - statistics & numerical data
Epidemiological Monitoring
Geography - methods
Humans
Radiation Dosage
Radiation Protection - methods
Radiation, Ionizing
Radiometry - methods - statistics & numerical data
Radon - analysis
Relative Biological Effectiveness
Risk Assessment - methods
Risk factors
Time Factors
Abstract
A review and analysis of published information combined with the results of recent gamma ray surveys were used to determine the annual effective dose to Canadians from natural sources of radiation. The dose due to external radiation was determined from ground gamma ray surveys carried out in the cities of Toronto, Ottawa, Montreal and Winnipeg and was calculated to be 219 microSv. A compilation of airborne gamma ray data from Canada and the United States shows that there are large variations in external radiation with the highest annual outdoor level of 1424 microSv being found in northern Canada. The annual effective inhalation dose of 926 microSv from 222Rn and 220Rn was calculated from approximately 14,000 measurements across Canada. This value includes a contribution of 128 microSv from 222Rn in the outdoor air together with 6 microSv from long-lived uranium and thorium series radionuclides in dust particles. Based on published information, the annual effective dose due to internal radioactivity is 306 microSv. A program developed by the Federal Aviation Administration was used to calculate a population-weighted annual effective dose from cosmic radiation of 318 microSv. The total population-weighted average annual effective dose to Canadians from all sources of natural background radiation was calculated to be 1769 microSv but varies significantly from city to city, largely due to differences in the inhalation dose from 222Rn.
PubMed ID
15031443 View in PubMed
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Assessment of occupational exposure to uranium by indirect methods needs information on natural background variations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature165079
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2007;125(1-4):492-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
M. Muikku
T. Heikkinen
M. Puhakainen
T. Rahola
L. Salonen
Author Affiliation
Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, FIN-00881 Helsinki, Finland. maarit.muikku@stuk.fi
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2007;125(1-4):492-5
Date
2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Algorithms
Background Radiation
Biological Assay - methods
Computer simulation
Finland
Humans
Internationality
Models, Biological
Occupational Exposure - analysis
Radiation Dosage
Radiation Monitoring - methods
Radiation Protection - methods
Reproducibility of Results
Sensitivity and specificity
Uranium - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Abstract
Urine monitoring is the preferred method to determine exposure to soluble compounds of uranium in workplaces. The interpretation of uranium contents in workers bioassay samples requires knowledge on uranium excretion and its dependence on intake by diet. Exceptionally high concentrations of natural uranium in private drinking water sources have been measured in the granite areas of Southern Finland. Consequently, high concentrations of natural uranium have been observed in the urine and hair samples of people using water from their own drilled wells. Natural uranium content in urine and hair samples of family members, who use uranium-rich household water, have been analyzed by using ICP-MS. The uranium concentrations both in urine and hair samples of the study subjects were significantly higher than the world-wide average values. In addition, gammaspectrometric methods have been tested for determining uranium in hair samples. This method can be used only for samples with highly elevated uranium concentrations.
PubMed ID
17309870 View in PubMed
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[Assessment of the irradiation levels of different population groups in the RSFSR].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature236858
Source
Gig Sanit. 1986 Jul;(7):36-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1986

Background radiation and childhood leukemia: A nationwide register-based case-control study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282312
Source
Int J Cancer. 2016 Nov 01;139(9):1975-82
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-01-2016
Author
Atte Nikkilä
Sini Erme
Hannu Arvela
Olli Holmgren
Jani Raitanen
Olli Lohi
Anssi Auvinen
Source
Int J Cancer. 2016 Nov 01;139(9):1975-82
Date
Nov-01-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Background Radiation - adverse effects
Case-Control Studies
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Genotype
Humans
Male
Odds Ratio
Polyploidy
Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma - epidemiology - genetics
Registries
Abstract
High doses of ionizing radiation are an established cause of childhood leukemia. However, substantial uncertainty remains about the effect of low doses of radiation, including background radiation and potential differences between genetic subgroups of leukemia have rarely been explored. We investigated the effect of the background gamma radiation on childhood leukemia using a nationwide register-based case-control study. For each of the 1,093 cases, three age- and gender matched controls were selected (N?=?3,279). Conditional logistic regression analyses were adjusted for confounding by Down syndrome, birth weight (large for gestational age), and maternal smoking. Complete residential histories and previously collected survey data of the background gamma radiation in Finland were used to assess the exposure of the study subjects to indoor and outdoor gamma radiation. Overall, background gamma radiation showed a non-significant association with the OR of childhood leukemia (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.97, 1.05 for 10 nSv/h increase in average equivalent dose rate to red bone marrow). In subgroup analyses, age group 2-
PubMed ID
27405274 View in PubMed
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[Background radiation and the incidence of cataract among inhabitants of the Far North].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature240380
Source
Gig Sanit. 1984 Jul;(7):30-2
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1984

38 records – page 1 of 4.