Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multi-factorial disease in which diet is believed to play a role. Little is known about the health effects of specific regional diets. The Nordic diet is high in fat and sugar but also includes a range of traditional products with anticipated health-promoting effects. The aim of this cohort study was to determine whether a healthy Nordic food index consisting of fish, cabbage, rye bread, oatmeal, apples, pears and root vegetables was related to CRC incidence. Data were obtained from a prospective cohort study of 57,053 Danish men and women aged 50-64 years, of whom 1025 developed CRC (13 years' follow-up). Incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95 % CI were calculated from Cox proportional hazard models. Women who strongly adhered to a healthy Nordic food index had a 35 % lower incidence of CRC than women with poor adherence (adjusted IRR, 0·65; 95 % CI 0·46, 0·94); a similar tendency was found for men. Women had a 9 % lower incidence of CRC per point adherence to the healthy Nordic food index, but no significant effect was found for men. A regional diet based on healthy Nordic food items was therefore associated with a lower incidence of CRC in women. The protective effect was of the same magnitude as previously found for the Mediterranean diet, suggesting that healthy regional diets should be promoted in order to ensure health; this will also preserve cultural heredity and the environment.
Barley husks, rye bran, and a fiber residue from oat milk production were processed by heat pretreatment, various separation steps, and treatment with an endoxylanase in order to improve the prebiotic potential of these cereal byproducts. Metabolic functions were intended to improve along with improved microbial activity. The products obtained were included in a high-fat mouse diet so that all diets contained 5% dietary fiber. In addition, high-fat and low-fat controls as well as partially hydrolyzed guar gum were included in the study. The soluble fiber product obtained from rye bran caused a significant increase in the bifidobacteria (log copies of 16S rRNA genes; median (25-75 percentile): 6.38 (6.04-6.66) and 7.47 (7.30-7.74), respectively; p
To investigate side by side the effects on serum lipoproteins and postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations of beverages enriched with 5 or 10 g of beta-glucans from oats or barley.
An 8-week single blind, controlled study with five parallel groups carried out at two centres under identical conditions.
A total of 100 free-living hypercholesterolaemic subjects were recruited locally and 89 completed the study.
During a 3-week run-in period all subjects consumed a control beverage. For the following 5-week period four groups received a beverage with 5 or 10 g beta-glucans from oats or barley and one group continued with the control beverage. Blood samples in weeks 0, 2, 3, 7 and 8 were analysed for serum lipids, lipoproteins, glucose and insulin. Postprandial concentrations of glucose and insulin were compared between control and the beverage with 5 g of beta-glucans from oats or barley.
Compared to control, 5 g of beta-glucans from oats significantly lowered total-cholesterol by 7.4% (P
The treatment of celiac disease is a strict adherence to a gluten-free diet for life. In the past, oats were considered to be toxic to individuals with celiac disease and were not allowed in a gluten-free diet. However, recent evidence suggests that oats that are pure and uncontaminated with other gluten-containing grains, if taken in limited quantities, are safe for most individuals with celiac disease. For adults, up to 70 g (1/2 to 3/4 cup) of oats per day and for children, up to 25 g (1/4 cup) per day are safe to consume. These oats and oat products must fulfill the standards for a gluten-free diet set by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency and Health Canada. The Canadian Celiac Association, in consultation with Health Canada, Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, has established requirements for growing, processing, and purity testing and labelling of pure oats. These strategies have led to the production of pure, uncontaminated oats for the first time in Canada. Oats and oat products that are safe for consumption by individuals with celiac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis are now commercially available in Canada.
To examine the effect of oat bran supplemented diet on serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolaemic males who had failed to comply with a conventional lipid lowering diet.
Run-in period with a conventional lipid lowering diet followed by supplements of oat bran (70 g per day) for six weeks. Wash-out period without oat bran ended the survey.
The workplace of Pyhäsalmi Mine, Finland.
59 volunteer male miners whose serum cholesterol was over 6.1 mmol/l in spite of a conventional lipid lowering diet.
Differences between means for serum cholesterol concentrations at different phases of the survey.
During the oat bran supplemented diet serum total cholesterol decreased by 6.2%, from 6.93 to 6.50 mmol/l (p = 0.000) and LDL cholesterol by 9.5%, from 4.64 to 4.20 mmol/l (p = 0.000). During the wash-out phase serum total cholesterol increased by 2.3%, to 6.65 mmol/l (p = 0.084) and LDL cholesterol by 5.0%, to 4.41 mmol/l (p = 0.021). The reduction in cholesterol levels on oat bran supplement correlated positively with the pre-treatment values.
Oat bran seems to offer an additional dietary means of coping with hypercholesterolaemia.
A growing body of evidence suggests that a majority of people with celiac disease and on a gluten-free diet can safely consume pure oats in moderate amounts; however, previous studies have indicated that the commercial oat supply in other countries, and in Canada to some extent, is contaminated with other grains. This study has confirmed that the commercial oat supply in Canada is heavily contaminated with gluten from other grains. Approximately 88% of the oat samples (n = 133) were contaminated above 20 mg kg(-1) and there were no differences between the oat types tested. Only one gluten-free variety of oats was analysed and it consistently provided negative results in all analyses. It is difficult to determine where the contamination originates, but there are possibilities for cross-contamination in the field, in the transport of the grain, in the storage of the grain, and in the milling and packaging facilities. It is clear from this study that only those products that have been certified 'pure' oats would be appropriate for a gluten-free diet.
Cites: N Engl J Med. 2002 Jan 17;346(3):180-811796853
Ochratoxin A is a common contaminant in Danish cereals, and surveillance of ochratoxin A in cereals has been a part of the Danish monitoring system since 1986. Occurrence of ochratoxin A is highly related to the climatic conditions during harvest. Rye is the crop which is most often contaminated and contains the highest levels of ochratoxin A. The result of the survey period from 1986 to 1992 (total of 1431 samples) together with food consumption data is the basis of intake calculations. Especially in years with wet weather during harvest, the daily intake of ochratoxin A for some individuals in the Danish population could reach levels which exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for ochratoxin A of 5 ng/kg bw suggested by The Nordic Working Group on Food Toxicology and Risk Evaluation. A maximum limit of 5 micrograms ochratoxin A per kg cereal would keep the daily intake below 5 ng/kg bw.
AIMS: To examine if molecular amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting of the only ochratoxin A-producing species in European cereals, Penicillium verrucosum, can be used as a method in hazard analysis using critical control points (HACCP). METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 321 isolates of P. verrucosum were isolated from ochratoxin A-contaminated cereals from Denmark (oats), UK (wheat and barley) and Sweden (wheat). Of these, 236 produced ochratoxin A as determined by thin layer chromatography; 185 ochratoxin A-producing isolates were selected for AFLP fingerprinting. A total of 138 isolates had unique AFLP patterns, whereas 52 isolates could be allocated to small groups containing from two to four isolates with similar AFLP patterns. A total of 155 clones were found among the 185 P. verrucosum isolates, thus 84% of the isolates may represent different genets of P. verrucosum. As the few isolates that were grouped often came from the same farm, and those groups that contained AFLP-identical isolates from different countries were morphotypically different. On single farms up to 35 clones were found. The few groups of ramets from the same genet indicated that a HACCP approach based on clones may require a very large number of AFLP analysis to work in practice, we recommend basing the HACCP approach on the actual species P. verrucosum. A more detailed characterization should rather be based on the profile of species present at different control points, or analysis of the mycotoxins ochratoxin A and citrinin in the isolates. Examination of 86 isolates with HPLC and diode array detection of P. verrucosum showed that 66% produced ochratoxin A, 87% produced citrinin, 92% produced verrucin and 100% produced verrucolone. CONCLUSIONS: Among 184 ochratoxin A-producing Penicillium verrucosum, 155 clonal lineages were indicated by AFLP fingerprinting, indicating a high genetical diversity, yet the species P. verrucosum is phenotypically distinct and valid. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: AFLP fingerprinting of Penicillium verrucosum indicates that genetic recombination takes place in this fungus.
Pure oats are safe for most patients with celiac disease, but concerns regarding contamination by other grains limit their consumption. The Canadian Celiac Association recently released guidelines governing the production of pure oats. The objective was to test the safety of a product manufactured under these guidelines.
Fifteen adults with established, biopsy-confirmed celiac disease of = 1 year duration were challenged with 350 g/wk of pure oats for 12 weeks. Symptom scores, weight, hemoglobin, ferritin, albumin, and tissue transglutaminase (tTG) were assessed at weeks 0, 6, and 12. Duodenal biopsies were obtained before and after oat challenge and assessed based on the modified Marsh-Oberhuber score. Compliance with a gluten-free diet was monitored with random food diaries.
Fifteen patients completed the study and were analyzed in intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses. There were no significant changes in symptom scores, weight, hemoglobin, ferritin, or albumin during oat consumption. The tTG remained negative in all patients, and the histology scores did not significantly change during oat challenge. The only relapse occurred in a patient who became noncompliant with her gluten-free diet.
The findings support the safety of pure, uncontaminated oats manufactured under Canadian Celiac Association guidelines for patients with celiac disease.
Coumarin is a naturally occurring flavouring substance in cinnamon and many other plants. It is known that coumarin can cause liver toxicity in several species, and it is considered a non-genotoxic carcinogen in rodents. By using the bench mark dose approach we re-assessed coumarin toxicity and established a new TDI for coumarin of 0.07 mg/kg bw/day. Oral intake of coumarin is related to consumption of cinnamon-containing foods and food supplements. Cinnamon is a widely used spice in Norway, and can be used as topping on oatmeal porridge. Based on analyses of coumarin in Norwegian foods, intake calculations for children and adults were conducted, and a risk assessment of coumarin in the Norwegian population was performed. Intake estimates of coumarin show that small children eating oatmeal porridge several times a week sprinkled with cinnamon could have a coumarin intake of 1.63 mg/kg bw/day and may exceeding the TDI with several folds. Adults drinking cinnamon-based tea and consuming cinnamon supplements also can exceed TDI. The coumarin intake could exceed the TDI by 7- to 20-fold in some intake scenarios. Such large daily exceedances of TDI, even for a limited time period of 1-2 weeks, cause concern of adverse health effects.