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Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2009 Jun 25;129(13):1355
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-25-2009
Author
Mads Gilbert
Helge Stalsberg
Morten Rostrup
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2009 Jun 25;129(13):1355
Date
Jun-25-2009
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Avalanches - mortality
Biomedical research
Cause of Death
Humans
Norway - epidemiology
PubMed ID
19561678 View in PubMed
Less detail

Comparison of avalanche survival patterns in Canada and Switzerland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136008
Source
CMAJ. 2011 Apr 19;183(7):789-95
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-19-2011
Author
Pascal Haegeli
Markus Falk
Hermann Brugger
Hans-Jürg Etter
Jeff Boyd
Author Affiliation
Avisualanche Consulting, Vancouver, BC. pascal@avisualanche.ca
Source
CMAJ. 2011 Apr 19;183(7):789-95
Date
Apr-19-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Avalanches - mortality
Canada - epidemiology
Cause of Death
Chi-Square Distribution
Disasters - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Rescue Work - statistics & numerical data
Retrospective Studies
Snow
Statistics, nonparametric
Survival
Switzerland - epidemiology
Time Factors
Abstract
Current recommendations for rescue and resuscitation of people buried in avalanches are based on Swiss avalanche survival data. We analyzed Canadian survival patterns and compared them with those from Switzerland.
We extracted relevant data for survivors and nonsurvivors of complete avalanche burials from Oct. 1, 1980, to Sept. 30, 2005, from Canadian and Swiss databases. We calculated survival curves for Canada with and without trauma-related deaths as well as for different outdoor activities and snow climates. We compared these curves with the Swiss survival curve.
A total of 301 people in the Canadian database and 946 in the Swiss database met the inclusion criteria. The overall proportion of people who survived did not differ significantly between the two countries (46.2% [139/301] v. 46.9% [444/946]; p = 0.87). Significant differences were observed between the overall survival curves for the two countries (p = 0.001): compared with the Swiss curve, the Canadian curve showed a quicker drop at the early stages of burial and poorer survival associated with prolonged burial. The probability of survival fell quicker with trauma-related deaths and in denser snow climates. Poorer survival probabilities in the Canadian sample were offset by significantly quicker extrication (median duration of burial 18 minutes v. 35 minutes in the Swiss sample; p
Notes
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Comment In: CMAJ. 2011 Apr 19;183(7):E366-721422124
Comment In: CMAJ. 2011 May 17;183(8):934; author reply 93421576318
PubMed ID
21422139 View in PubMed
Less detail

Parental mental health after the accidental death of a son during military service: 23-year follow-up study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature128303
Source
J Nerv Ment Dis. 2012 Jan;200(1):63-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2012
Author
Pål Kristensen
Trond Heir
Pål H Herlofsen
Øyvind Langsrud
Lars Weisæth
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Centre for Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies, University of Oslo, Kirkeveien 166, Oslo, Norway. Pal.Kristensen@nkvts.unirand.no
Source
J Nerv Ment Dis. 2012 Jan;200(1):63-8
Date
Jan-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Avalanches - mortality
Death
Depressive Disorder, Major - diagnosis - etiology - psychology
Fathers - psychology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Grief
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - diagnosis - etiology - psychology
Military Medicine - methods
Mothers - psychology
Norway
Nuclear Family
Prospective Studies
Self Report
Abstract
We prospectively studied parental mental health after suddenly losing a son in a military training accident. Parents (N = 32) were interviewed at 1, 2 and 23 years after the death of their son. The General Health Questionnaire and Expanded Texas Inventory of Grief were self-reported at 1, 2, 5, and 23 years; the Inventory of Complicated Grief was self-reported at 23 years. We observed a high prevalence of psychiatric disorders at 1- and 2-year follow-ups (57% and 45%, respectively), particularly major depression (43% and 31%, respectively). Only one mental disorder was diagnosed at the 23-year follow-up. Grief and psychological distress were highest at 1- and 2-year follow-ups. Spouses exhibited a high concordance of psychological distress. Mothers reported more intense grief reactions than did fathers. The loss of a son during military service may have a substantial impact on parental mental health particularly during the first 2 years after death. Spouses' grief can be interrelated and may contribute to their psychological distress.
PubMed ID
22210364 View in PubMed
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Patterns of death among avalanche fatalities: a 21-year review.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature152669
Source
CMAJ. 2009 Mar 3;180(5):507-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-3-2009
Author
Jeff Boyd
Pascal Haegeli
Riyad B Abu-Laban
Michael Shuster
John C Butt
Author Affiliation
Department of Emergency Medicine, Mineral Springs Hospital, Banff, Alberta.
Source
CMAJ. 2009 Mar 3;180(5):507-12
Date
Mar-3-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Alberta - epidemiology
Algorithms
Asphyxia - mortality
Avalanches - mortality
British Columbia - epidemiology
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
Cause of Death
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Mountaineering - injuries
Rescue Work
Retrospective Studies
Risk
Skiing - injuries
Snow Sports - injuries
Wounds and Injuries - mortality
Abstract
Avalanches are a significant cause of winter recreational fatalities in mountain regions. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative contributions of trauma and asphyxia to avalanche deaths.
We reviewed all avalanche fatalities between 1984 and 2005 that had been investigated by the offices of the British Columbia Coroners Service and the Chief Medical Examiner of Alberta. In addition, we searched the database of the Canadian Avalanche Centre for fatal avalanche details. We calculated injury severity scores for all victims who underwent autopsy.
There were 204 avalanche fatalities with mortality information over the 21-year study period. Of these, 117 victims underwent autopsy, and 87 underwent forensic external examination. Asphyxia caused 154 (75%) deaths. Trauma caused 48 (24%) deaths, with the rate of death from trauma ranging from 9% (4/44) for snowmobilers to 42% (5/12) for ice climbers. In addition, 13% (12/92) of the asphyxia victims who underwent autopsy had major trauma, defined as an injury severity score of greater than 15. Only 48% (23/48) of victims for whom trauma was the primary cause of death had been completely buried.
Asphyxia and severe trauma caused most avalanche fatalities in western Canada. The relative rates differed between snowmobilers and those engaged in other mountain activities. Our findings should guide recommendations for safety devices, safety measures and resuscitation.
Notes
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Comment In: CMAJ. 2009 Mar 3;180(5):491-219213800
Comment In: CMAJ. 2009 Jun 23;180(13):133119546465
PubMed ID
19213801 View in PubMed
Less detail

Risk taking in avalanche terrain: a study of the human factor contribution.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature139288
Source
Clin J Sport Med. 2010 Nov;20(6):445-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2010
Author
Albert E Sole
Carolyn A Emery
Brent E Hagel
Barbara A Morrongiello
Author Affiliation
Sport Injury Prevention Research Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. asole@ucalgary.ca
Source
Clin J Sport Med. 2010 Nov;20(6):445-51
Date
Nov-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Avalanches - mortality
Canada - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Male
Retrospective Studies
Reward
Risk-Taking
Young Adult
Abstract
To discover possible associations between the human factors and avalanche incidents.
Self-report, intercept, and Web-based, 1-year retrospective, cross-sectional study.
Mountain Equipment Co-op stores in Calgary and Vancouver, Canada.
People shopping at the store and who had entered avalanche terrain in the past 12 months were invited to complete the survey (n = 447).
Sex, age, sport activity, days of exposure, years of experience, socioeconomic status, level of training, risk propensity, and motivation.
Experiencing an avalanche incident.
Women and those traveling with women were less likely to experience an avalanche incident [odds ratio (OR) = 0.45; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.21-0.96]. Those with the most training were more likely to report experiencing an avalanche incident (OR = 6.86; 95% CI, 2.37-19.83), but this difference was attenuated (OR = 2.25) and not statistically significant (95% CI, 0.57-8.81) after adjustment for exposure. Experience was not found to be a factor. Being motivated to seek intense experiences was found to be a factor (OR = 2.19; 95% CI, 1.03-4.66), whereas being motivated to create memorable experiences was protective (OR = 0.29; 95% CI, 0.10-0.86).
The results of this study suggest that people exposing themselves to avalanche risk do so to satisfy inherited and learned motivational needs and that some motivations are associated with higher or lower risk taking than others. Training appears to be exploited so as to increase access to these benefits rather than reduce risk. Within this risk/reward paradigm, risk taking among men is moderated by the presence of a woman in the group.
PubMed ID
21079440 View in PubMed
Less detail

Should strategies for care of avalanche victims change?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature152670
Source
CMAJ. 2009 Mar 3;180(5):491-2
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-3-2009
Author
Hermann Brugger
Author Affiliation
International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine and the Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria.
Source
CMAJ. 2009 Mar 3;180(5):491-2
Date
Mar-3-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Asphyxia - mortality - therapy
Avalanches - mortality
Canada - epidemiology
Cause of Death
Clinical Protocols
Humans
Rescue Work
United States - epidemiology
Wounds and Injuries - mortality - therapy
Notes
Cites: High Alt Med Biol. 2007 Spring;8(1):56-6117394418
Cites: Resuscitation. 2001 Oct;51(1):7-1511719168
Cites: Wilderness Environ Med. 2001 Winter;12(4):244-711769920
Cites: High Alt Med Biol. 2005 Spring;6(1):72-715772502
Cites: CMAJ. 2009 Mar 3;180(5):507-1219213801
Cites: Resuscitation. 2007 Dec;75(3):476-8317689170
Cites: Wilderness Environ Med. 2007 Winter;18(4):293-718076300
Cites: Wilderness Environ Med. 2008 Spring;19(1):1-318333659
Comment On: CMAJ. 2009 Mar 3;180(5):507-1219213801
PubMed ID
19213800 View in PubMed
Less detail

7 records – page 1 of 1.