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991 records – page 1 of 100.

[130 kilometers/hour save time!--Besides there is a shortage of organ donors].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature184140
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 2003 Jul 14;165(29):2900-1
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-14-2003

The 1993 General Social Survey II: alcohol problems in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature213880
Source
Can J Public Health. 1995 Nov-Dec;86(6):402-7
Publication Type
Article
Author
E W Single
J M Brewster
P. MacNeil
J. Hatcher
C. Trainor
Author Affiliation
Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse, Toronto, ON.
Source
Can J Public Health. 1995 Nov-Dec;86(6):402-7
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Alcoholism - complications - epidemiology - psychology
Automobile Driving
Canada - epidemiology
Female
Health status
Health Surveys
Humans
Income
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Quality of Life
Abstract
Rates and correlates of problems associated with the use of alcohol are reported from the 1993 General Social Survey in Canada. Approximately 1 in 11 drinkers (9.2%) reported that drinking has had an adverse effect on his or her social life, physical health, happiness, home life or marriage, work, or finances in the past year. The most commonly reported problems concerned physical health (5.1%), and financial position (4.7%). Approximately one in eight drinkers (12.9%) had driven a car within an hour after consuming two or more drinks in the previous year. Furthermore, more than two of every five respondents reported that they had experienced some problem due to other people's drinking. In a multivariate analysis, age, marital status, gender, religious attendance and employment status were the strongest predictors of problem drinking. The number of heavy drinking occasions is a stronger predictor of drinking problems than is overall level of consumption.
PubMed ID
8932480 View in PubMed
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Abandonment of mandatory jail for impaired drivers in Norway and Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature11418
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 1995 Apr;27(2):151-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1995
Author
H L Ross
H. Klette
Author Affiliation
Department of Sociology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque 87131, USA.
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 1995 Apr;27(2):151-7
Date
Apr-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - mortality - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects - legislation & jurisprudence
Automobile Driving - legislation & jurisprudence
Humans
Norway
Prisons - legislation & jurisprudence
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sweden
Abstract
In 1988 and 1990, respectively, Norway and Sweden adopted legal reforms including abandonment of mandatory jail sentences for persons driving with BACs above specific limits. Interrupted time-series analysis finds that in both countries traffic deaths diminished simultaneously with the reforms, consistent with the understanding that Scandinavian success in reducing impaired driving does not depend upon mandatory jail.
PubMed ID
7786382 View in PubMed
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Abnormally high concentrations of amphetamine in blood of impaired drivers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature9098
Source
J Forensic Sci. 2005 Sep;50(5):1215-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2005
Author
A W Jones
A. Holmgren
Author Affiliation
Department of Forensic Toxicology, University Hospital, 581 85 Linköping, Sweden. wayne.jones@RMV.se
Source
J Forensic Sci. 2005 Sep;50(5):1215-20
Date
Sep-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Amphetamine - blood
Amphetamine-Related Disorders - blood - diagnosis
Automobile Driving
Benzodiazepines - blood
Central Nervous System Stimulants - blood
Databases
Female
Forensic Medicine
Hallucinogens - blood
Humans
Male
Mass Fragmentography
Middle Aged
Substance Abuse Detection
Sweden
Tetrahydrocannabinol - blood
Abstract
We present a case series (N = 46) of individuals apprehended in Sweden for driving under the influence of drugs (DUID). These cases were selected because the concentrations of amphetamine in blood were abnormally high (> 5.0 mg/L), the highest being 17 mg/L. In comparison, the median blood-amphetamine concentration in a population of DUID offenders (N = 6,613) was 0.70 mg/L. Among the DUID suspects with extremely high blood-amphetamine concentrations there were 38 men (83%) with mean age of 37.8 y (SD 6.8 y) and 8 women (17%) with a mean age of 34.1 y (SD 4.3 y). All had previously been registered in our database (mean 12 times, median 9 times) for drug-related offences, including DUID. The concentration of amphetamine in blood of female offenders was slightly higher than the concentration in male offenders (6.6 mg/L vs. 5.8 mg/L), although this difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The drugs other than amphetamine most frequently encountered in the blood samples were tetrahydrocannabinol and benzodiazepines (diazepam and nordiazepam). The commonest signs of drug use reported by the arresting police officers were bloodshot and glazed (watery) eyes, restlessness, talkativeness, exaggerated reflexes and slurred speech. Unsteady gait and dilated pupils were observed in some but not all individuals. These very high concentrations of amphetamine were tolerated without any fatalities indicating a pronounced adaptation to the pharmacologic effects of this central stimulant. Anecdotal information indicated that those with the very highest concentrations of amphetamine in blood had swallowed the drug to prevent being apprehended in possession of an illicit substance.
PubMed ID
16225234 View in PubMed
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Absence behavior as traffic crash predictor in bus drivers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature150286
Source
J Safety Res. 2009;40(3):197-201
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Anders E af Wåhlberg
Lisa Dorn
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. anders.af_wahlberg@psyk.uu.se
Source
J Safety Res. 2009;40(3):197-201
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absenteeism
Accidents, Traffic
Adult
Automobile Driving
England
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Motor Vehicles
Risk assessment
Sweden
Abstract
Various indicators of health have been shown to be associated with traffic crash involvement. As general health is also related to absence from work, the latter variable may be more strongly related to crashes, especially for professional drivers.
Bus driver absence from work was analyzed in association with their crash records. Two British samples and one Swedish sample were used.
One of the British samples yielded fair correlations between crash record and absence, while for the other the effect was restricted to the first three months of driving. The Swedish data had effects in the expected direction but these were not significant.
The use of an indirect, overall measurement of health, may be a viable method for predicting the traffic crash involvement for professional drivers, although replications are needed in larger samples and other populations.
The use of absence records for the identification of at risk drivers would seem to be a simple and useful method for companies with major fleets, and it also shows the importance of promoting employee health and well being at work as a potential method of reducing the cost, not only of absenteeism, but also of crashes in company vehicles.
PubMed ID
19527813 View in PubMed
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The acceptability to older drivers of different types of licensing restriction.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature165854
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 2007 Jul;39(4):776-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2007
Author
Shawn C Marshall
Malcolm Man-Son-Hing
Frank Molnar
Keith G Wilson
Richard Blair
Author Affiliation
Elisabeth Bruyère Research Institute, SCO Health Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. smarshall@ottawahospital.on.ca
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 2007 Jul;39(4):776-93
Date
Jul-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Automobile Driver Examination - legislation & jurisprudence
Automobile Driving - psychology - standards
Female
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Licensure - standards
Male
Ontario
Public Opinion
Rural Population
Urban Population
Abstract
The primary objective of this study was to determine the acceptability of various driving restrictions to older drivers. Licensed drivers aged 65 years or more living in the community in the Ottawa, Ontario area were recruited by means of posters and advertisements in regional and local newspapers. We recruited 86 subjects, 56 men and 30 women with a mean age of 75 years (50 urban and 36 rural residents). The subjects completed a one-hour interview with one of two trained study nurses during which their driving restriction preferences (utilities) were determined using a modified standard gamble technique. Highly endorsed restrictions included regular assessment by the Ministry of Transportation (mean utility 0.94), driving with vehicle adaptations (0.94) and daytime driving only (0.93). Less acceptable restrictions included avoidance of roads with a speed limit greater than 60 km/h (0.50), limitation of destinations (0.45), driving only within a 10-km radius of home (0.45) and requirement of another licensed driver in the vehicle (0.42). Our subjects' preferences appeared to be inversely related to the impact on autonomy and the ability to access the community. These findings may be useful to motor transport administrators in designing effective restricted licensing programs that are acceptable to older drivers.
PubMed ID
17196917 View in PubMed
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The acceptable risk of driving after myocardial infarction: are bus drivers a special case?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature205358
Source
J Cardiopulm Rehabil. 1998 May-Jun;18(3):199-208
Publication Type
Article
Author
R J Shephard
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Physical Education and Health, and Graduate Department of Community Health, University of Toronto, Toronto Rehabilitation Centre, Ontario, Canada.
Source
J Cardiopulm Rehabil. 1998 May-Jun;18(3):199-208
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic
Adult
Automobile Driving
Canada
Humans
Myocardial Infarction
Occupational Health
Recurrence
Risk
Risk factors
Abstract
Bus drivers frequently encounter difficulty in returning to their former employment after recovery from myocardial infarction. The risk that a recurrence of myocardial infarction may cause a personal-injury accident is analyzed.
The Cumulative Medical Index and Current Contents was searched systematically from 1980 to date, accepting papers irrespective of language. Relevant earlier material was drawn from the author's published reviews on bus driving and myocardial infarction and vehicle accidents. One hundred twenty-three articles were included in the database, of which 110 were used in the review.
The risk of a personal injury accident or fatality from a sudden cardiovascular incident is calculated as the product of typical driving time per day (Td = 0.167), vehicle characteristics (V) (a low factor of 0.167 for an urban bus because of slow speed and use of reserved curb lanes), the risk of recurrence of a sudden cardiovascular incident (SCI) (.015, somewhat greater in bus drivers than in the general population), and the risk that such an incident will cause a personal-injury accident (Ac) (at 0.005, probably lower than in the general population because of low vehicle speeds and the bus driver's experience in defensive driving).
The overall risk is 0.00002, 1 in 50,000 driver-years, is lower than accepted for passenger-car operators, and only slightly greater than for the older symptom-free adult. Bus drivers who meet the current standards of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society should be encouraged to return to their former employment.
Notes
Erratum In: J Cariopulm Rehabil 1998 Jan-Feb;19(1):66
PubMed ID
9632321 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
CMAJ. 2001 Aug 21;165(4):397
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-21-2001
Author
E J Therien
Source
CMAJ. 2001 Aug 21;165(4):397
Date
Aug-21-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - statistics & numerical data
Automobile Driving - legislation & jurisprudence
Humans
Ontario
Telephone
Notes
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1997 Feb 13;336(7):453-89017937
Cites: CMAJ. 2001 May 29;164(11):1557, 155911402789
Comment In: CMAJ. 2002 Jan 8;166(1):14-511800238
Comment On: CMAJ. 2001 May 29;164(11):1557, 155911402789
PubMed ID
11531045 View in PubMed
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The accident-exposure association: self-reported versus recorded collisions.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134525
Source
J Safety Res. 2011 Apr;42(2):143-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2011
Author
A E af Wåhlberg
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, P. O. Box 1225, 751 42 Uppsala, Sweden. anders.af_wahlberg@psyk.uu.se
Source
J Safety Res. 2011 Apr;42(2):143-6
Date
Apr-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - statistics & numerical data
Adult
Automobile Driving - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Motor Vehicles
Occupational Exposure - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Reproducibility of Results
Self Report
Sweden
Time Factors
Abstract
It has been claimed that exposure to risk of road traffic accidents (usually conceptualized as mileage) is curvilinearly associated with crashes (i.e., the increase in number of crashes decreases with increased mileage). However, this effect has been criticized as mainly an artifact of self-reported data.
To test the proposition that self-reported accidents create part of the curvilinearity in data by under-reporting by high-accident drivers, self-reported and recorded collisions were plotted against hours of driving for bus drivers.
It was found that the recorded data differed from self-reported information at the high end of exposure, and had a more linear association with the exposure measure as compared to the self-reported data, thus supporting the hypothesis.
Part of the previously reported curvilinearity between accidents and exposure is apparently due to biased methods. Also, the interpretation of curvilinearity as an effect of exposure upon accidents was criticized as unfounded, as the causality may just as well go the other way.
The question of how exposure associates with crash involvement is far from resolved, and everyone who uses an exposure metric (mileage, time, induced) should be careful to investigate the exact properties of their variable before using it.
PubMed ID
21569897 View in PubMed
Less detail

991 records – page 1 of 100.