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Abstract profiles of structural stability point to universal tendencies, family-specific factors, and ancient connections between languages.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature120224
Source
PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e45198
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Dan Dediu
Stephen C Levinson
Author Affiliation
Language and Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Dan.Dediu@mpi.nl
Source
PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e45198
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Americas
Asia
Australia
Bayes Theorem
Cultural Evolution - history
Europe
History, 21st Century
History, Ancient
History, Medieval
Humans
Language - history
Linguistics - statistics & numerical data - trends
Phylogeny
Siberia
Abstract
Language is the best example of a cultural evolutionary system, able to retain a phylogenetic signal over many thousands of years. The temporal stability (conservatism) of basic vocabulary is relatively well understood, but the stability of the structural properties of language (phonology, morphology, syntax) is still unclear. Here we report an extensive Bayesian phylogenetic investigation of the structural stability of numerous features across many language families and we introduce a novel method for analyzing the relationships between the "stability profiles" of language families. We found that there is a strong universal component across language families, suggesting the existence of universal linguistic, cognitive and genetic constraints. Against this background, however, each language family has a distinct stability profile, and these profiles cluster by geographic area and likely deep genealogical relationships. These stability profiles seem to show, for example, the ancient historical relationships between the Siberian and American language families, presumed to be separated by at least 12,000 years, and possible connections between the Eurasian families. We also found preliminary support for the punctuated evolution of structural features of language across families, types of features and geographic areas. Thus, such higher-level properties of language seen as an evolutionary system might allow the investigation of ancient connections between languages and shed light on the peopling of the world.
Notes
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Erratum In: PLoS One.2012;7(10). doi: 10.1371/annotation/ceff8775-a4e3-45cb-b6c9-dd62d9179d59
PubMed ID
23028843 View in PubMed
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Across six nations: stressful events in the lives of children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature35027
Source
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 1996;26(3):139-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
1996
Author
K. Yamamoto
O L Davis
S. Dylak
J. Whittaker
C. Marsh
P C van der Westhuizen
Author Affiliation
University of Colorado at Denver 80217, USA.
Source
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 1996;26(3):139-50
Date
1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Australia
Chi-Square Distribution
Child
Child Psychology
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Europe
Female
Humans
Life Change Events
Male
Reference Values
Stress, Psychological
United States
Abstract
A total of 1,729 children (2nd-9th grades) in South Africa, Iceland, Poland, Australia, the U.K., and the U.S.A. rated 20 events in terms of how upsetting they are. Save in Poland, the ratings were in close agreement (r, .85-.97), placing the loss of parent at the top and a new baby sibling at the bottom. In Poland, the baby's arrival led the list. Even so, what was seen as quite upsetting fell everywhere in the same two categories--experiences that threaten one's sense of security and those that occasion personal denigration and embarrassment.
PubMed ID
8819876 View in PubMed
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Actionable nuggets: knowledge translation tool for the needs of patients with spinal cord injury.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269783
Source
Can Fam Physician. 2015 May;61(5):e240-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2015
Author
Mary Ann McColl
Alice Aiken
Karen Smith
Alexander McColl
Michael Green
Marshall Godwin
Richard Birtwhistle
Kathleen Norman
Gabrielle Brankston
Michael Schaub
Source
Can Fam Physician. 2015 May;61(5):e240-8
Date
May-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Australia
Family Practice - education
Female
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Health Services Accessibility
Humans
Male
Needs Assessment
Newfoundland and Labrador
Ontario
Pilot Projects
Primary Health Care
Spinal Cord Injuries
Translational Medical Research - methods
Abstract
To present the results of a pilot study of an innovative methodology for translating best evidence about spinal cord injury (SCI) for family practice.
Review of Canadian and international peer-reviewed literature to develop SCI Actionable Nuggets, and a mixed qualitative-quantitative evaluation to determine Nuggets' effect on physician knowledge of and attitudes toward patients with SCI, as well as practice accessibility.
Ontario, Newfoundland, and Australia.
Forty-nine primary care physicians.
Twenty Actionable Nuggets (pertaining to key health issues associated with long-term SCI) were developed. Nugget postcards were mailed weekly for 20 weeks to participating physicians. Prior knowledge of SCI was self-rated by participants; they also completed an online posttest to assess the information they gained from the Nugget postcards. Participants' opinions about practice accessibility and accommodations for patients with SCI, as well as the acceptability and usefulness of Nuggets, were assessed in interviews.
With Actionable Nuggets, participants' knowledge of the health needs of patients with SCI improved, as knowledge increased from a self-rating of fair (58%) to very good (75%) based on posttest quiz results. The mean overall score for accessibility and accommodations in physicians' practices was 72%. Participants' awareness of the need for screening and disease prevention among this population also increased. The usefulness and acceptability of SCI Nugget postcards were rated as excellent.
Actionable Nuggets are a knowledge translation tool designed to provide family physicians with concise, practical information about the most prevalent and pressing primary care needs of patients with SCI. This evidence-based resource has been shown to be an excellent fit with information consumption processes in primary care. They were updated and adapted for distribution by the Canadian Medical Association to approximately 50,000 primary care physicians in Canada, in both English and French.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26167564 View in PubMed
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Activity levels and body mass index of children in the United States, Sweden, and Australia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature30804
Source
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003 Aug;35(8):1367-73
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2003
Author
Susan D Vincent
Robert P Pangrazi
Anders Raustorp
L Michaud Tomson
Thomas F Cuddihy
Author Affiliation
Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602, USA. sue_vincent@byu.edu
Source
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003 Aug;35(8):1367-73
Date
Aug-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Distribution
Australia - epidemiology
Body mass index
Child
Comparative Study
Exercise - physiology
Female
Humans
Male
Motor Activity - physiology
Multivariate Analysis
Obesity - epidemiology
Sex Distribution
Sweden - epidemiology
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
PURPOSE: Assess the physical activity and body mass index (BMI) levels of children in the United States, Sweden, and Australia. METHODS: A total of 1954 children, 6-12 yr old (711 American, 563 Australian, and 680 Swedish) wore sealed pedometers for four consecutive days. Height and weight measures were obtained. RESULTS: Descriptive data for step counts and BMI by sex, age, and country were calculated to determine activity levels and BMI. Three-way multivariate ANOVA for step counts and BMI between countries at each age and sex found that, in general, the Swedish children were significantly more active than the Australian and American children, and the American children were significantly heavier than the Australian and Swedish children. For boys, the mean step counts ranged from 15673 to 18346 for Sweden, 13864 to 15023 for Australia, and 12554 to 13872 for America. For girls, the mean step counts ranged from 12041 to 14825 for Sweden, 11221 to 12322 for Australia, and 10661 to 11383 for America. The activity curve is somewhat level during the preadolescent years. The rate of increase in BMI with age is much greater in the American children than in the Swedish or Australian children. The percent of American, Swedish, and Australian boys classified as overweight/obese was 33.5, 16.6, and 15.8, respectively. The percent of American, Swedish, and Australian girls classified as overweight/obese was 35.6, 16.8, and 14.4, respectively. Correlation analysis found few significant negative relationships between step counts and BMI. CONCLUSIONS: American children tend to be the least active and heaviest with the greatest rate of increase in BMI. The Swedish children are the most active group followed by Australia. Swedish and Australian children maintain lower BMI throughout their prepubescent years than do the American children who have a greater percentage who are classified as overweight.
PubMed ID
12900692 View in PubMed
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Adapting an Australian question prompt list in oncology to a Norwegian setting-a combined method approach.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286916
Source
Support Care Cancer. 2017 Jan;25(1):51-58
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2017
Author
Anita Amundsen
Bente Ervik
Phyllis Butow
Martin H N Tattersall
Svein Bergvik
Tore Sørlie
Tone Nordøy
Source
Support Care Cancer. 2017 Jan;25(1):51-58
Date
Jan-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Australia
Communication
Female
Focus Groups
Humans
Male
Medical Oncology - standards
Middle Aged
Norway
Patient Participation
Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract
A question prompt list (QPL) is an inexpensive communication aid that has been proved effective in encouraging patients to ask questions during medical consultations. The aim of this project was to develop a QPL for Norwegian cancer patients.
A multimethod approach was chosen combining literature review, focus groups, and a survey in the process of culturally adjusting an Australian QPL for the Norwegian setting. Participants were recruited from the University Hospital of North Norway. They were asked to review and comment on iterative drafts of the QPL.
Eighteen patients, mean age 54, participated in the focus groups, and 31 patients, mean age 55, participated in the survey. Focus groups suggested that topics related to accompanying relatives, children as next of kin, and rehabilitation were important and should be added to the original QPL. The survey revealed that most questions from the original QPL were considered both useful and understandable. Although half of the patients found some questions about prognosis unpleasant, the vast majority considered the same questions useful. Questions regarding clinical studies, multidisciplinary teams, and public versus private hospitals had lower ratings of usefulness.
QPLs require some adjustment to the local cultural context, and a mixed method approach may provide a useful model for future cultural adaptation of QPLs. The present QPL has been adjusted to the needs of oncology patients in the Norwegian health care setting.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27539133 View in PubMed
Less detail

Adiposity and the isotemporal substitution of physical activity, sedentary time and sleep among school-aged children: a compositional data analysis approach.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292190
Source
BMC Public Health. 2018 03 02; 18(1):311
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
03-02-2018
Author
Dorothea Dumuid
Tyman E Stanford
Željko Pedišic
Carol Maher
Lucy K Lewis
Josep-Antoni Martín-Fernández
Peter T Katzmarzyk
Jean-Philippe Chaput
Mikael Fogelholm
Martyn Standage
Mark S Tremblay
Timothy Olds
Author Affiliation
Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition and Activity (ARENA), School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, GPO Box 2471, Adelaide, SA, 5001, Australia. dorothea.dumuid@mymail.unisa.edu.au.
Source
BMC Public Health. 2018 03 02; 18(1):311
Date
03-02-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adipose Tissue
Australia
Canada
Child
Exercise
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Pediatric Obesity
Sedentary lifestyle
Sleep
Time Factors
United Kingdom
Abstract
Daily activity data are by nature compositional data. Accordingly, they occupy a specific geometry with unique properties that is different to standard Euclidean geometry. This study aimed to estimate the difference in adiposity associated with isotemporal reallocation between daily activity behaviours, and to compare the findings from compositional isotemporal subsitution to those obtained from traditional isotemporal substitution.
We estimated the differences in adiposity (body fat%) associated with reallocating fixed durations of time (isotemporal substitution) between accelerometer-measured daily activity behaviours (sleep, sedentary time and light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) among 1728 children aged 9-11 years from Australia, Canada, Finland and the UK (International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment, 2011-2013). We generated estimates from compositional isotemporal substitution models and traditional non-compositional isotemporal substitution models.
Both compositional and traditional models estimated a positive (unfavourable) difference in body fat% when time was reallocated from MVPA to any other behaviour. Unlike traditional models, compositional models found the differences in estimated adiposity (1) were not necessarily symmetrical when an activity was being displaced, or displacing another (2) were not linearly related to the durations of time reallocated, and (3) varied depending on the starting composition.
The compositional isotemporal model caters for the constrained and therefore relative nature of activity behaviour data and enables all daily behaviours to be included in a single statistical model. The traditional model treats data as real variables, thus the constrained nature of time is not accounted for, nor reflected in the findings. Findings from compositional isotemporal substitution support the importance of MVPA to children's health, and suggest that while interventions to increase MVPA may be of benefit, attention should be directed towards strategies to avoid decline in MVPA levels, particularly among already inactive children. Future applications of the compositional model can extend from pair-wise reallocations to other configurations of time-reallocation, for example, increasing MVPA at the expense of multiple other behaviours.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29499689 View in PubMed
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Adjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine and cisplatin compared to observation after curative intent resection of cholangiocarcinoma and muscle invasive gallbladder carcinoma (ACTICCA-1 trial) - a randomized, multidisciplinary, multinational phase III trial.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature272747
Source
BMC Cancer. 2015;15:564
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Alexander Stein
Dirk Arnold
John Bridgewater
David Goldstein
Lars Henrik Jensen
Heinz-Josef Klümpen
Ansgar W Lohse
Björn Nashan
John Primrose
Silke Schrum
Jenny Shannon
Eik Vettorazzi
Henning Wege
Source
BMC Cancer. 2015;15:564
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Australia
Bile Duct Neoplasms - drug therapy - surgery
Chemotherapy, Adjuvant - adverse effects - methods
Cholangiocarcinoma - drug therapy - surgery
Cisplatin - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Denmark
Deoxycytidine - administration & dosage - analogs & derivatives - therapeutic use
Gallbladder Neoplasms - drug therapy - surgery
Germany
Great Britain
Humans
Netherlands
Prognosis
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
Despite complete resection, disease-free survival (DFS) of patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is less than 65 % after one year and not more than 35 % after three years. For muscle invasive gallbladder carcinoma (GBCA), prognosis is even worse, with an overall survival (OS) of only 30 % after three years. Thus, evaluation of adjuvant chemotherapy in biliary tract cancer in a large randomized trial is warranted.
ACTICCA-1 is a randomized, multidisciplinary, multinational phase III investigator initiated trial. With respect to data obtained in the ABC-02 trial, we selected the combination of gemcitabine and cisplatin for 24 weeks as investigational treatment. Based on adjuvant trials in pancreatic cancer with comparable postoperative recovery time, inclusion of patients within a maximum interval of 16 weeks between surgery and start of chemotherapy was stipulated. Due to the different prognosis and treatment susceptibility of muscle invasive carcinoma, two separate cohorts (CCA and GBCA) were included to capture the potentially different treatment effects. Randomization is stratified for lymph node status for both cohorts and localization for CCA. The primary endpoint is DFS and secondary endpoints include OS, safety and tolerability of chemotherapy, quality of life, and patterns of disease recurrence. For CCA, adjuvant chemotherapy should increase DFS 24 months post-surgery from 40 to 55 % to be considered relevant. With a power of 80 % and a significance level of 5 %, 271 evaluable study patients have to be followed for 24-28 months to observe 166 events. For GBCA, chemotherapy should increase DFS 24 months post-surgery from 35 to 55 % to be of relevance; thus, 154 evaluable study patients have to be monitored for 24-28 months to observe 90 events. In both cohorts, randomization will be 1:1 with chemotherapy for 24 weeks and imaging every twelve weeks. In 2014, the study was initiated in Germany and in The Netherlands (funded by the Deutsche Krebshilfe, the Dutch Cancer Society, and supported by medac GmbH). Sites in Australia, Denmark, and the United Kingdom (funded by Cancer Research UK) are joining 2015.
The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT02170090 ) and the European Clinical Trials Database (2012-005078-70). Registration date is 06/18/2014.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26228433 View in PubMed
Less detail

Adulteration of Ginkgo biloba products and a simple method to improve its detection.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259503
Source
Phytomedicine. 2014 May 15;21(6):912-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-15-2014
Author
Hans Wohlmuth
Kate Savage
Ashley Dowell
Peter Mouatt
Source
Phytomedicine. 2014 May 15;21(6):912-8
Date
May-15-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Australia
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Commerce
Denmark
Dietary Supplements
Drug Contamination
Flavonols - analysis
Genistein - analysis
Ginkgo biloba - chemistry
Glycosides - analysis
Pharmacopoeias as Topic
Plant Extracts - chemistry
Plant Leaves
Abstract
Extracts of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) leaf are widely available worldwide in herbal medicinal products, dietary supplements, botanicals and complementary medicines, and several pharmacopoeias contain monographs for ginkgo leaf, leaf extract and finished products. Being a high-value botanical commodity, ginkgo extracts may be the subject of economically motivated adulteration. We analysed eight ginkgo leaf retail products purchased in Australia and Denmark and found compelling evidence of adulteration with flavonol aglycones in three of these. The same three products also contained genistein, an isoflavone that does not occur in ginkgo leaf. Although the United States Pharmacopeia - National Formulary (USP-NF) and the British and European Pharmacopoeias stipulate a required range for flavonol glycosides in ginkgo extract, the prescribed assays quantify flavonol aglycones. This means that these pharmacopoeial methods are not capable of detecting adulteration of ginkgo extract with free flavonol aglycones. We propose a simple modification of the USP-NF method that addresses this problem: by assaying for flavonol aglycones pre and post hydrolysis the content of flavonol glycosides can be accurately estimated via a simple calculation. We also recommend a maximum limit be set for free flavonol aglycones in ginkgo extract.
PubMed ID
24566389 View in PubMed
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