Urbanization among Indigenous peoples is growing globally. This has implications for the assertion of Indigenous rights in urban areas, as rights are largely tied to land bases that generally lie outside of urban areas. Through their impacts on the broader social determinants of health, the links between Indigenous rights and urbanization may be related to health. Focusing on a Canadian example, this study explores relationships between Indigenous rights and urbanization, and the ways in which they are implicated in the health of urban Indigenous peoples living in Toronto, Canada. In-depth interviews focused on conceptions of and access to Aboriginal rights in the city, and perceived links with health, were conduced with 36 Aboriginal people who had moved to Toronto from a rural/reserve area. Participants conceived of Aboriginal rights largely as the rights to specific services/benefits and to respect for Aboriginal cultures/identities. There was a widespread perception among participants that these rights are not respected in Canada, and that this is heightened when living in an urban area. Disrespect for Aboriginal rights was perceived to negatively impact health by way of social determinants of health (e.g., psychosocial health impacts of discrimination experienced in Toronto). The paper discusses the results in the context of policy implications and future areas of research.
Cultural effects on sexuality are pervasive and potentially of great clinical importance, but have not yet received sustained empirical attention. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of acculturation on sexual permissiveness and sexual function, with a particular focus on arousal in Asian women living in Canada. We also compared questionnaire responses between Asian and Euro-Canadian groups in hopes of investigating whether acculturation captured unique information not predicted by ethnic group affiliation. Euro-Canadian (n = 173) and Asian (n = 176) female university students completed a battery of questionnaires in private. Euro-Canadian women had significantly more sexual knowledge and experiences, more liberal attitudes, and higher rates of desire, arousal, sexual receptivity, and sexual pleasure. Anxiety from anticipated sexual activity was significantly higher in Asian women, but the groups did not differ significantly on relationship satisfaction or problems with sexual function. Acculturation to Western culture, as well as maintained affiliation with traditional Asian heritage, were both significantly and independently related to sexual attitudes above and beyond length of residency in Canada, and beyond ethnic group comparisons. Overall, these data suggest that measurement of acculturation may capture information about an individual's unique acculturation pattern that is not evident when focusing solely on ethnic group comparisons or length of residency, and that such findings may be important in facilitating the assessment, classification, and treatment of sexual difficulties in Asian women.
Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of considering acculturation when investigating the sexuality of East Asian women in North America. Moreover, bidimensional assessment of both heritage and mainstream cultural affiliations provides significantly more information about sexual attitudes than simple unidimensional measures, such as length of residency in the Western culture.
The goal of this study was to extend the findings in women to a sample of East Asian men.
Self-report measures of sexual behaviors, sexual responses, and sexual satisfaction.
Euro-Canadian (N = 124) and East Asian (N = 137) male university students privately completed a battery of questionnaires in exchange for course credit. Results. Group comparisons revealed East Asian men to have significantly lower liberal sexual attitudes and experiences, and a significantly lower proportion had engaged in sexual intercourse compared with the Euro-Canadian sample. In addition, the East Asian men had significantly higher Impotence and Avoidance subscale scores on the Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction, a measure of sexual dysfunction. Focusing on East Asian men alone, mainstream acculturation, but not length of residency in Canada, was significantly related to sexual attitudes, experiences, and responses.
Overall, these data replicate the findings in women and suggest that specific acculturation effects over and above length of residency should be included in the cultural assessment of men's sexual health.
In a phenomenological research study with a purposeful sample, 6 Ojibwa and Cree indigenous women healers from Canada and the United States shared their experience of being a traditional healer. Using stories obtained during open-ended, unstructured interviews, in this article I depict the lives, backgrounds, and traditional healing practices of women who, in the past, have not been afforded an opportunity to dialogue about their healing art and abilities. The methods of these women healers, their arts and their gifts, are different from those of Western conventional medicine because of dissimilar world views related to health and illness. An increased awareness of health care providers related to the ancient art of traditional healing currently practiced in communities by gifted women who provide culturally specific holistic healing and health care is essential.
To explore the connections between culture and expectations surrounding the childbirth experience for professional Chinese Canadian women.
Descriptive and qualitative, using ethnographic interview.
Women were recruited from a community health care center in metropolitan Toronto.
Six professional Chinese Canadian women who had experienced at least one childbirth.
The respondents described adherence to many traditional values, beliefs, and practices throughout the pregnancy and childbirth experience. However, some practices were modified to address functioning in a context that could not support full expression of cultural traditions. Recent immigration to Canada was associated with less adherence to traditional Chinese rituals and beliefs.
Nurses cannot make assumptions about who will use traditional cultural practices or about the circumstances in which they are relevant. Nurses need to be aware of cultural expectations so they can provide culturally competent care, but they should also be aware of how to engage in discussions to clarify individual patient priorities.
Rich descriptions of Anishinaabe medical knowledge and the cultural meanings associated with illness are available in the anthropological literature, especially in the writings of A.I. Hallowell. Most of this work is based on fieldwork carried out prior to 1940 and was often motivated by a desire to reconstruct the pre-contact situation. Since that time, there have been numerous changes affecting health status and health care. This paper examines lay medical knowledge in a contemporary Canadian Anishinaabeg community, with particular attention to change and continuity in the way people explain and respond to the occurrence of illness.
The extent to which the dietary practices recommended by nutrition science are compatible with an enjoyable lifestyle is a recurring theme in the debate on food and health in Denmark. The aim of this study was to see in practice what problems arise when ordinary people are confronted with a healthy diet. Fourteen of the participants in an 8 month dietary intervention study were interviewed about their opinions of, and experiences with, a diet composed in accordance with the Nordic nutrition recommendations. The interviews were qualitative, in depth and semistructured. The participants were interviewed twice, the first time towards the end of the intervention and again 3 months after the intervention ended. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. For the participants, who were young students with a relatively high knowledge of nutrition, practical experience of a recommended diet was a series of surprises: the amount of food, its similarity to modern Danish food culture, its palatability, and the relatively small amount of dairy products in the diet were contrary to participants expectations. Participants found the recommended diet pleasant to live on, but expected certain economical and practical difficulties in applying it to everyday life outside the intervention. Hunger and satiety sensations changed and became more distinct. The results of the study indicate suggestions relevant for both industrial product development and nutrition information to the public.
This descriptive, phenomenological study investigated the cultural and spiritual meanings of the childbirth experience from the personal perspectives of 30 Canadian Orthodox Jewish and 30 American Mormon women. Fewer Jewish women had childbirth education and attendance of their partners during childbirth than did Mormon women. Participants in the study, having codified belief systems, expressed the primary importance of bearing children in obedience to religious law. Birth was articulated as a bittersweet paradox, often accompanied by a sense of empowerment. Women described the importance of personal connectedness with others and with God, the importance of childbearing, and the spiritual and emotional dimensions of their childbirth experiences. Religious beliefs help women define the meaning of childbirth and may provide coping mechanisms for the intensity of giving birth. It is essential for holistic nurses to value and acknowledge the cultural and spiritual dimensions of the childbirth experience.
Parenting a preterm infant at risk for developmental disabilities can be a profoundly stressful experience. For parents from minority cultures, language barriers and cultural differences can increase feelings of uncertainty and inability to cope. Research suggests that cultural differences influence not only parents' emotional responses to and perceptions of disability, but also their utilization of services and their interaction with health professionals. The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Mount Sinai Hospital (MSH), Toronto, provides care to a culturally diverse community, and approximately 45 percent of patients receiving care represent minority ethnic groups. Although efforts to provide culturally sensitive care have been made, they have tended to be isolated initiatives lacking consistency and coordination. This article describes the initiation and development of a multicultural program at MSH to support families of infants at risk for developmental disabilities. This article provides valuable guidance to other neonatal units that are attempting to support parents from diverse cultural groups.