Differences in ethnic beliefs about the perceived need for local anesthesia for tooth drilling and childbirth labor were surveyed among Anglo-Americans, Mandarin Chinese, and Scandinavians (89 dentists and 251 patients) matched for age, gender, and occupation. Subjects matched survey questionnaire items selected from previously reported interview results to estimate (a) their beliefs about the possible use of anesthetic for tooth drilling and labor pain compared with other possible remedies and (b) the choice of pain descriptors associated with the use of nonuse of anesthetic, including descriptions of injection pain. Multidimensional scaling, Gamma, and Chi-square statistics as well as odds ratios and Spearman's correlations were employed in the analysis. Seventy-seven percent of American informants reported the use of anesthetics as possible remedies for drilling and 51% reported the use of anesthetics for labor pain compared with 34% that reported the use of anesthetics among Chinese for drilling and 5% for labor pain and 70% among Scandinavians for drilling and 35% for labor pain. Most Americans and Swedes described tooth-drilling sensations as sharp, most Chinese used descriptors such as sharp and "sourish" (suan), and most Danes used words like shooting (jagende). By rank, Americans described labor pain as cramping, sharp, and excruciating, Chinese used words like sharp, intermittent, and horrible, Danes used words like shooting, tiring, and sharp, and Swedes used words like tiring, "good," yet horrible. Preferred pain descriptors for drilling, birth, and injection pains varied significantly by ethnicity. Results corroborated conclusions of a qualitative study about pain beliefs in relation to perceived needs for anesthetic in tooth drilling. Samples used to obtain the results were estimated to approach qualitative representativity for these urban ethnic groups.
PURPOSE: To identify factors that influence American and Icelandic parents' health perceptions among families of infants or young children with asthma. DESIGN: A cross-sectional research design of 76 American families and 103 Icelandic families. Data were collected mainly in the Midwest of the United States (US) and in Iceland from August 1996 through January 2000. METHOD: Parents in these two countries who had children aged 6 or younger with chronic asthma completed questionnaires regarding family demands, caregiving demands, family hardiness, sense of coherence, and health perceptions. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and t tests were compiled. Multiple regression analysis was used to test path models and for mediation. FINDINGS: American parents differed from their Icelandic counterparts in family hardiness. In both countries, significant differences were found in caregiving demands and health perceptions between mothers and fathers. Illness severity and caregiving demands affected health perceptions of both mothers and fathers. Sense of coherence mediated the relationship between family demands and parents' perceptions for both parents. For mothers only, family hardiness mediated the relationship between family demands and health perceptions. CONCLUSIONS: The Resiliency Model of Family Stress, Adjustment, and Adaptation was useful for building knowledge on parents' health perceptions in two Western cultures for families of young children with asthma. Interventions emphasizing family and individual resiliency and strengths have the potential to affect parents' views of their children's health.
PURPOSE: The aim of the present investigation was to perform an international multicenter comparison of dental appearance as evaluated by dentists, dental technicians, and nondental subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The participants were drawn from three groups: 203 dentists, 197 dental technicians and 254 nondental subjects. The methods developed in a previous study in Sweden were applied again in seven centers located in six countries. A questionnaire, accompanied by five sets of computer-manipulated images portraying one man and one woman, was used to prompt and record responses to different aspects of dental appearance and function. RESULTS: The questionnaire revealed that both the dental appearance and function of teeth were important to most of the participants, but three quarters of the participants did indicate that good dental function was more important that esthetics. More women (30%) than men (18%), however, placed greater importance on appearance. Age or gender did not influence judgments of the computer-manipulated images, although judgments did vary greatly within the three groups and between the centers. Nonetheless, highly colored teeth were preferred more often by nondental subjects than by dentists or dental technicians. CONCLUSION: Computer-aided image manipulation shows promise as a method for investigating the significance of dental-related beliefs, especially those relating to esthetics, in different population groups. The evaluation of dental appearance and function in this study indicated that dental function is held in greater regard, and that the significance of dental appearance varies widely among dentists, dental technicians, and nondental subjects.
We assumed that persons with a Russian/Soviet cultural background have a more skeptical attitude towards psychotherapy than persons with a German background because of the poor distribution of psychotherapy and the knowledge about this kind of treatment in Russia.
We compared the views of Russian probands (n=40), Russian migrants living in Germany (n=65) and German probands (n=70) with the "Questionnaire on Attitudes towards Psychotherapeutic Treatment" (QAPT). For the study of the Russian probands we translated the questionnaire into the Russian language.
The psychometric examination predominantly suggests the quality of the Russian version of the QAPT. Russian probands showed a more skeptical attitude towards psychotherapy compared to the German probands. The migrants had a tendentially more negative attitude than the Germans and a more positive attitude than the Russians. However, we could not determine any differences concerning the anticipated social acceptance regarding participation in psychotherapy.
The results suggest the relevance of culture-specific factors in psychotherapy and an increased need for information of persons with a Russian/Soviet cultural background about psychotherapy.
To assess patterns of illness behaviour in immigrant Greeks, 50 Greek and 50 Swedish consecutive patients were examined by a Swedish general practitioner and a Greek psychotherapist at a primary health centre in Stockholm. In addition to a physical examination an overall psychiatric assessment of the patients was made, partly with the help of rating scales. Psycho-social stressors were also rated. In spite of modest somatic and psychiatric findings, the majority of the Greek patients had been on long-term sick-leave and none of them could be rehabilitated. This illness behaviour, with passivity as the most notable response to pain, was very evident in the Greek group and was assessed as being strongly related to psycho-social stressors as well as to iatrogenic damage. All of the patients whose sick-leave had been of short duration prior to their first visit to the health centre could be rehabilitated. Psycho-social counselling given to the Greek patients in their native tongue had only marginal effect.
This study investigated whether the prevalence of weekly and problem gambling among youth varied according to cultural affiliation. A convenience sample of 1,265 Quebec high school students aged 12-18 was divided into three linguistic groupings: Anglophone (English), Francophone (French), and Allophone (other). Results revealed that the Allophone grouping contained the highest proportion of youth who gambled on a weekly basis and who reported gambling problems, followed by the Anglophone, and finally the Francophone groupings. Acculturation difficulties were associated with problem gambling. Few meaningful between-group differences were found with respect to factors related to problem gambling (i.e., comorbidity with other risk factors, coping, family functioning and resiliency). The results are discussed with respect to the influence of cultural background on gambling behavior.
The purpose of the present study is to compare the frequency and nature of expected symptoms in Greece (a country where the chronic post-concussive syndrome is largely unknown) with that in Canada.
A symptom checklist was administered to two subject groups selected from local companies in Patras, Greece, and Edmonton, Canada, respectively. Subjects were asked to imagine having suffered head trauma with loss of consciousness in a motor vehicle accident and to check off symptoms, they expected might arise from the injury. For symptoms they anticipated, they were asked to select the period of time they expected those symptoms to persist.
In both the Greek and Edmontonian groups, the pattern of symptoms anticipated closely resembled the acute symptoms commonly reported by accident victims with minor head injury. Yet, while many Edmontonians also anticipated symptoms to last months or years, very few Greek subjects selected any symptoms as being likely to persist in a chronic manner.
In Greece, despite the frequent experience of minor head injury in motor vehicle accidents, there is a very low rate of expectation of any chronic sequelae from such an injury, contrasting greatly with the response shown in Canada, where the prevalence of the chronic post-concussive syndrome is higher. Symptom expectation in some countries may be an important factor in the development of the chronic post-concussive syndrome.
Parenting a preterm infant at risk for developmental disabilities can be a profoundly stressful experience. For parents from minority cultures, language barriers and cultural differences can increase feelings of uncertainty and inability to cope. Research suggests that cultural differences influence not only parents' emotional responses to and perceptions of disability, but also their utilization of services and their interaction with health professionals. The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Mount Sinai Hospital (MSH), Toronto, provides care to a culturally diverse community, and approximately 45 percent of patients receiving care represent minority ethnic groups. Although efforts to provide culturally sensitive care have been made, they have tended to be isolated initiatives lacking consistency and coordination. This article describes the initiation and development of a multicultural program at MSH to support families of infants at risk for developmental disabilities. This article provides valuable guidance to other neonatal units that are attempting to support parents from diverse cultural groups.