To explore the connections between culture and expectations surrounding the childbirth experience for professional Chinese Canadian women.
Descriptive and qualitative, using ethnographic interview.
Women were recruited from a community health care center in metropolitan Toronto.
Six professional Chinese Canadian women who had experienced at least one childbirth.
The respondents described adherence to many traditional values, beliefs, and practices throughout the pregnancy and childbirth experience. However, some practices were modified to address functioning in a context that could not support full expression of cultural traditions. Recent immigration to Canada was associated with less adherence to traditional Chinese rituals and beliefs.
Nurses cannot make assumptions about who will use traditional cultural practices or about the circumstances in which they are relevant. Nurses need to be aware of cultural expectations so they can provide culturally competent care, but they should also be aware of how to engage in discussions to clarify individual patient priorities.
Black women bear a disproportionate burden of HIV/AIDS in North America. The purpose of this investigation was to explore Black Canadian women's perspectives on HIV risk and prevention. Four 90-minute focus groups (n=26) and six key informant interviews were conducted in Toronto with Black women of African and Caribbean descent and low socioeconomic status. Data analysis revealed a number of potent barriers to existing HIV preventive interventions: stigma, cultural disconnections, lack of engagement of Black religious institutions, and multiple intersecting forms of discrimination. Recommended HIV prevention opportunities included the Black church, mainstreaming, health care providers, and ethno-specific agencies. HIV prevention strategies for North American Black women, rather than focusing on HIV and individual risk behaviors, may benefit from a primary focus on social and structural factors (e.g., promoting gender equality, economic opportunity, women-controlled prevention technologies and combating racism in health care) thereby integrating HIV prevention into the larger context of community health and survival.