Data from the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development were used to examine factors associated with postnatal depression and the links between self-rated health (SRH) and depressive symptoms in mothers 5 months after giving birth, according to immigration status. Postnatal depressive symptoms were measured using the 12-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Immigrant mothers were classified according to their ethnocultural (majority or minority) group and compared with Canadian-born mothers. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between SRH and depressive symptoms. The prevalence of high depressive symptoms was larger among immigrants from minority groups (24.7%) than among immigrants from majority groups (8.3%) and Canadian-born mothers 11.2%). SRH was associated with depressive symptoms among Canadian- born mothers, but not among minority immigrant mothers. Canadian- born mothers integrated mental health into their assessment of overall health status, however, depressive symptoms among minority immigrant mothers were common, and their determinants warrant further research.
This study examined the relationships between culture and the health status of older Chinese in Canada. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with a cross-sectional, randomly selected sample of 2,272 older Chinese between 55 and 101 years of age in seven Canadian cities. Health status was assessed by the number of chronic illnesses, by limitations in ADL and IADL, and by information on the Medical Outcome Study Short Form SF-36. Although cultural variables explained only a small proportion of variance in health status, having a stronger level of identification with traditional Chinese health beliefs was significant in predicting physical health, number of illnesses, and limitations on IADL. Other cultural variables, including religion, country of origin, and length of residence in Canada, were also significant in predicting some health variables. Interventions to improve health should focus on strategies to enhance cultural compatibility between users and the health delivery system.
To describe new immigrant Punjabi women's perinatal experiences and the ways that traditional beliefs and practices are legitimized and incorporated into the Canadian health care context.
Naturalistic qualitative descriptive.
Fifteen first-time mothers who had immigrated in the past 5 years to Canada from Punjab, India, and had given birth to a healthy infant in the past 3 months in a large urban center in British Columbia, Canada. Five health professionals and community leaders also took part in a focus group to confirm the study findings and to offer recommendations.
Three major categories emerged: the pervasiveness of traditional health beliefs and practices related to the perinatal period (e.g., diet, lifestyle, and rituals), the important role of family members in supporting women during the perinatal experiences, and the positive and negative interactions women had with health professionals in the Canadian health care system.
Change is required at the levels of the health professional, the heath care system, and the community to ensure that culturally safe care is provided to immigrant Punjabi women and their families during the perinatal period, which is an important and sensitive period of interaction with the Canadian health care system.
INTRODUCTION: Women's emotions and grief after miscarriage are influenced not only by the context in which the miscarriage occurred but also by their past experience, the circumstances around the miscarriage and their future prospects. Their emotions therefore express a specific form of grief. Normally the time needed to work through the loss varies. A number of different scales, measuring women's emotions and grief after miscarriage have been published. One instrument that measures the specific grief, such as the grief after miscarriage is the Perinatal Grief Scale (PGS) that was designed to measure grief after perinatal loss and has good reliability and validity. AIMS: The purpose of this study was to translate the PGS into Swedish and to use the translation in a small pilot study. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The original short version of the PGS was first translated from English into Swedish and then back-translated into English, using different translators. During translation and back-translation, not only the linguistic and grammatical aspects were considered but also cultural differences. The Likert 5-point and a 10-point scale were tested in a pilot study where 12 volunteers anonymously answered the PGS twice. The intra-personal correlations were compared and analysed with weighted kappa-coefficient. FINDINGS: In all, five different versions were tested before the final Swedish version was established. The weighted kappa-coefficient for the volunteers was 0.58, which is regarded as representing good reproducibility. CONCLUSION: The PGS was translated successfully into Swedish and could be used in a Swedish population. As this work is rather time-consuming we therefore wish to publish the Swedish version so that it may be used by other researchers.
To describe immigrant women's postpartum health, service needs, access to services, and service use during the first 4 weeks following hospital discharge compared to women born in Canada.
Data were collected as part of a larger cross-sectional study.
Women were recruited from 5 hospitals purposefully selected to provide a diverse sample.
A sample of 1,250 women following vaginal delivery of a healthy infant; approximately 31% were born outside of Canada.
Self-reported health status, postpartum depression, postpartum needs, access to services, service use.
Immigrant women were significantly more likely than Canadian-born women to have low family incomes, low social support, poorer health, possible postpartum depression, learning needs that were unmet in hospital, and a need for financial assistance. However, they were less likely to be able to get financial aid, household help, and reassurance/support. There were no differences between groups in ability to get care for health concerns.
Health care professionals should attend not only to the basic postpartum health needs of immigrant women but also to their income and support needs by ensuring effective interventions and referral mechanisms.
Parenting a preterm infant at risk for developmental disabilities can be a profoundly stressful experience. For parents from minority cultures, language barriers and cultural differences can increase feelings of uncertainty and inability to cope. Research suggests that cultural differences influence not only parents' emotional responses to and perceptions of disability, but also their utilization of services and their interaction with health professionals. The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Mount Sinai Hospital (MSH), Toronto, provides care to a culturally diverse community, and approximately 45 percent of patients receiving care represent minority ethnic groups. Although efforts to provide culturally sensitive care have been made, they have tended to be isolated initiatives lacking consistency and coordination. This article describes the initiation and development of a multicultural program at MSH to support families of infants at risk for developmental disabilities. This article provides valuable guidance to other neonatal units that are attempting to support parents from diverse cultural groups.
The potential of storytelling to effect change and produce new knowledge is being recognized across disciplines. Two conditions are necessary to realize these goals: first, reading of stories must be contextualized to include larger social and political landscapes; and second, how stories are read and toward what end must be closely examined. This article explores these issues with reference to the subject of the "mental health" or emotional well-being of a cohort of postrevolution Iranian women from metropolitan Vancouver, British Columbia. Reading their stories at a particular moment in time shows that well-being is essentially grounded in spaces and places where we live, work, and engage in social interactions. This commonplace knowledge, which is subdued in medical discourse, is retrieved through Iranian women's stories of life and living told at a time when their experiences, histories, and viewpoints on health are subject to erasure.
Research among cancer patients has shown that emotional support in informal relationships may be difficult to access because of a fear or lack of knowledge about cancer. Consequently, formal relationships with healthcare professionals may be important sources of support.
This study explores needs for and experiences with emotional support provided by nurses as well as prerequisites for the provision of support among Danish-born and migrant cancer patients.
We conducted narrative interviews with 18 adult Danish-born and migrant cancer patients. Patients were recruited from a variety of places in a purposive strategic sampling process. Analysis was inspired by phenomenological methods and Simmel's theoretical concept of "the stranger".
Both Danish-born and migrant patients perceived the support delivered by healthcare professionals as available, empathic and valuable. Prerequisites for providing emotional support were 1) setting aside time for the patient to feel safe and able to verbalise emotional concerns, 2) continuity in relationships with healthcare professionals, and 3) nurses' ability to understand the patient's emotional reactions without creating additional distress.
Being positioned as a stranger to the patient gives nurses a unique position from which to provide emotional support during cancer treatment. Thus, formal relationships with healthcare professionals are of great importance for many cancer patients.
The number of rural hospitals offering maternity care in British Columbia has significantly declined since 2000, mirroring trends of closures and service reductions across Canada. The impact on Aboriginal women is significant, contributing to negative maternal and newborn health and social outcomes. The present qualitative case study explored the importance of local birth for Aboriginal women from a remote BC community after the closure of local maternity services. Data collection consisted of 12 interviews and 55 completed surveys. The average participant age was 32 years old at the time of the study. From the perspective of losing local services, participants expressed the importance of local birth in reinforcing the attributes that contributed to their identities, including the importance of community and kinship ties and the strength of ties to their traditional territory.