Organ and tissue transplantation offers great potential for improving quality of life and reducing health care costs associated with end-stage organ failure. However, substantial and persistent shortages of organs and tissues for transplantation exist in Canada and there is a growing gap between those on transplant waiting lists and the organs available for transplantation. Every Canadian should have the opportunity to consider organ and tissue donation and transplantation in a culturally sensitive and respectful manner. During consultation with the Chinese Canadian community in Toronto, it was found that a clear understanding of the attitudes and values of Chinese Canadians regarding organ and tissue donation could assist health professionals in making ethnoculturally sensitive requests for donation to members of this community.
Over the past 30 years, women have been the target of intense advertising focused on hormone replacement therapy. The author takes a critical look at the distorting nature of this approach, which has succeeded in convincing many Western women that menopause is an illness, and hormone replacement therapy a panacea. Through studies she has consulted, and discussions on the economic situation associated with age and poverty among the elderly, the author underlines that menopause is a lucrative industry. She advances several relevant issues for discussion.
Although many health concerns of women in India differ from those of Indian women in Canada, both groups of women have a high incidence of low birthweight babies. The question of how best to improve the health status of pregnant Indo-Canadian women and consequently improve pregnancy outcomes is a complex one. It involves the availability and allocation of financial and human resources, the integration of Indian cultural beliefs and attitudes with Western biomedical knowledge, the status of women in Indian culture, and Canadian social and economic issues such as demographic changes, changes in the role of the family, government policies, economic restructuring and so on.
Given the paradox of the success of modern medical technology and the growing patient dissatisfaction with present-day medicine, critics have called for a reevaluation of contemporary medical practice. This paper offers a phenomenological analysis of traditional Navajo healers and their ceremonies to highlight key aspects of healing. A phenomenological view of medical practice takes into account three key features: the lifeworld, the lived body, and understanding. Because of their closeness to a phenomenological view, traditional Navajo mythology and healing practices offer insight into the healing process. Contemporary physicians can appreciate the phenomenological elements of Navajo healing ceremonies, including the Mountain Chant. Navajo healers help patients make sense of their illnesses and direct their lives accordingly, an outcome available to contemporary practitioners, who are also gifted with the benefits of new technologies. By examining scientific medicine, Navajo healing practices, and phenomenology as complementary disciplines, the authors provide the groundwork for reestablishing a more therapeutic view of health.
The aim of this study was to explore nurses' perceptions of their encounters with multicultural families in intensive care units in Norwegian hospitals. Immigrants from non-Western countries make up 6.1% of the population in Norway. When a person suffers an acute and critical illness the person's family may experience crises. Nurses' previous experiences of caring for culturally diverse patients and families is challenging due to linguistic differences, and contextual factors. Family members should be near their critically ill spouse to reduce the impact from a frightening environment. The study had a descriptive exploratory qualitative design with a retrospective focus. Three multistage focus groups consisting of 16 nurses were set up in intensive care units. The data were analysed by interpretive content analysis. The theme 'Cultural diversity and workplace stressors' emerged. This theme was characterised by four categories: 'impact on work patterns'; 'communication challenges'; 'responses to crises' and 'professional status and gender issues'. In conclusion, nurses' perception of their encounters with multicultural families in intensive care units seem to be ambiguous with challenges in interaction, and the nurses' stressors emanating from linguistic, cultural and ethnic differentness. To diminish cultural diversity the nurses strive for increased knowledge of different cultures and religions.
The major purpose of this paper is to examine how 'race' and racialization operate in health care. To do so, we draw upon data from an ethnographic study that examines the complex issues surrounding health care access for Aboriginal people in an urban center in Canada. In our analysis, we strategically locate our critical examination of racialization in the 'tension of difference' between two emerging themes, namely the health care rhetoric of 'treating everyone the same,' and the perception among many Aboriginal patients that they were 'being treated differently' by health care providers because of their identity as Aboriginal people, and because of their low socio-economic status. Contrary to the prevailing discourse of egalitarianism that paints health care and other major institutions as discrimination-free, we argue that 'race' matters in health care as it intersects with other social categories including class, substance use, and history to organize inequitable access to health and health care for marginalized populations. Specifically, we illustrate how the ideological process of racialization can shape the ways that health care providers 'read' and interact with Aboriginal patients, and how some Aboriginal patients avoid seeking health care based on their expectation of being treated differently. We conclude by urging those of us in positions of influence in health care, including doctors and nurses, to critically reflect upon our own positionality and how we might be complicit in perpetuating social inequities by avoiding a critical discussion of racialization.
The article presents results from a survey that was carried out among participants in a strictly controlled dietary intervention trial in order to investigate and compare the social and cultural acceptability of three different diets. Measures of social and cultural acceptability included liking of diet, social eating events, practical matters surrounding shopping, cooking, eating, understandings of the relationship between diet type, bodyweight and health, and preferences for specific foods. The survey study focuses especially on the acceptability of the diet recommended by American epidemiologist Walter Willett. On most measures the results indicated that a diet based on Willett's recommendations had a generally high level of acceptability. Scepticism related primarily to the health and weight benefits of this diet in comparison with those of the present dietary recommendations in Denmark. The survey also revealed that participants attributed more influence on their body weight to the amount of food they ate than they did to the composition of the diets they followed. While the scope of the study does not allow for the generalizations of results to a general population level, the experimental design provides detailed insight into social and cultural aspects of experiences of strict dietary adherence.
BACKGROUND: Although individualised nursing care is considered a core value in nursing in different countries, international comparative studies in this area are rare. In Western countries, common hospitalised patients, e.g. orthopaedic patients, often perceive health care as impersonal rather than individualised; a term which may also have different connotations in different cultures. OBJECTIVES: To describe and compare orthopaedic and trauma patients' perceptions of individuality in their care in four European countries. DESIGN: A cross-sectional comparative study. SETTINGS: 24 orthopaedic and trauma wards in 13 acute care hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: Data were collected from orthopaedic and trauma patients in Finland (n=425, response rate 85%), Greece (n=315, 86%), Sweden (n=218, 73%) and UK (n=135, 58%) between March 2005 and December 2006. METHODS: Questionnaire survey data using the Individualised Care Scale (ICS) were obtained and analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics including frequencies, percentages, means, standard deviations, 95% confidence intervals (CI), one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), chi2 statistics and univariate analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). RESULTS: Patients perceived that nurses generally supported their individuality during specific nursing interventions and perceived individuality in their care. There were some between-country differences in the results. Patients' individuality in the clinical situation and in decisional control over their care were also generally well supported and taken into account. However, patients' personal life situation was not supported well through nursing interventions and these patients perceived lower levels of individualised care. CONCLUSIONS: North-South axis differences in patients' perceptions of individualised care may be attributed to the way nursing care is defined and organised in different European countries. Differences may be due to the differences in regional samples, and so no firm conclusions can be made. Further research will be needed to examine the effect of patient characteristics' and health care organisation variables in association with patients' perceptions of individualised care.
The aim of this study was to correlate dental anxiety as reported by two different ethnic groups with socio-demographic factors, dental status, and dental behaviour. Two randomly selected populations aged 35-44 years and 65-74 years were interviewed. The populations comprised 214 and 99 Danes and 384 and 497 Hong Kong Chinese respectively. Dental anxiety was assessed by the Corah Dental Anxiety Score (DAS). Mean DAS scores were significantly higher in Chinese than in Danes (8.7-10.3 and 6.7-8.2, respectively) and higher in the younger than in the older groups. Moderate to phobic dental anxiety was reported by 15% of the Danes and 30% of the Chinese, the latter proportion far beyond what is usually reported in Western populations. Only in the Chinese group did women report more anxiety than men. Regression analysis indicated that only a few of the variables selected to explain anxiety determinants had significant explanatory value. Among Chinese, gender was the most predominant in both age groups followed by perceived condition of teeth in the younger age group. Among Danes, perceived condition of teeth had an explanatory value for both age groups and dental visit pattern was the strongest for the younger age group. In spite of statistical significance, all explanatory values were small and indicate that variables not included in this analysis may exert a greater influence on the variation in dental anxiety. DAS, seemingly, was able to highlight variations in dental anxiety in the populations in spite of their differences and made interpretations feasible with regard to contrasting dental care behaviour and dental status.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
To describe immigrant women's postpartum health, service needs, access to services, and service use during the first 4 weeks following hospital discharge compared to women born in Canada.
Data were collected as part of a larger cross-sectional study.
Women were recruited from 5 hospitals purposefully selected to provide a diverse sample.
A sample of 1,250 women following vaginal delivery of a healthy infant; approximately 31% were born outside of Canada.
Self-reported health status, postpartum depression, postpartum needs, access to services, service use.
Immigrant women were significantly more likely than Canadian-born women to have low family incomes, low social support, poorer health, possible postpartum depression, learning needs that were unmet in hospital, and a need for financial assistance. However, they were less likely to be able to get financial aid, household help, and reassurance/support. There were no differences between groups in ability to get care for health concerns.
Health care professionals should attend not only to the basic postpartum health needs of immigrant women but also to their income and support needs by ensuring effective interventions and referral mechanisms.