BACKGROUND: This paper describes a study that explores the experiences of internationally educated nurses (IENs) in their efforts to gain entry to practice as Registered Nurses (RNs) in the province of Ontario, Canada. AIM: The aim was to uncover, in part, the issues related to professional nursing credentialling. METHODS: This study was guided by a biographical narrative (qualitative) research methodology. A convenience sample of 12 IEN students volunteered for this study representing the Philippines, Mainland China, Korea, Ukraine and India. FINDINGS: The findings were that the IENs progress through a three-phase journey in their quest for licensure in Ontario. These phases include: (1) hope - wanting the Canadian dream of becoming an RN in Ontario; (2) disillusionment - discovering that their home-country nursing qualifications do not meet Ontario RN entry to practice; and (3) navigating disillusionment - living the redefined Canadian dream by returning to nursing school to upgrade their nursing qualifications. CONCLUSIONS: Professional regulatory nursing bodies and nursing educators, as well as practising nurses, must be aware of the potentially confusing and unpleasant processes IENs go through as they qualify for the privilege of practising nursing in Ontario.
Differences in ethnic beliefs about the perceived need for local anesthesia for tooth drilling and childbirth labor were surveyed among Anglo-Americans, Mandarin Chinese, and Scandinavians (89 dentists and 251 patients) matched for age, gender, and occupation. Subjects matched survey questionnaire items selected from previously reported interview results to estimate (a) their beliefs about the possible use of anesthetic for tooth drilling and labor pain compared with other possible remedies and (b) the choice of pain descriptors associated with the use of nonuse of anesthetic, including descriptions of injection pain. Multidimensional scaling, Gamma, and Chi-square statistics as well as odds ratios and Spearman's correlations were employed in the analysis. Seventy-seven percent of American informants reported the use of anesthetics as possible remedies for drilling and 51% reported the use of anesthetics for labor pain compared with 34% that reported the use of anesthetics among Chinese for drilling and 5% for labor pain and 70% among Scandinavians for drilling and 35% for labor pain. Most Americans and Swedes described tooth-drilling sensations as sharp, most Chinese used descriptors such as sharp and "sourish" (suan), and most Danes used words like shooting (jagende). By rank, Americans described labor pain as cramping, sharp, and excruciating, Chinese used words like sharp, intermittent, and horrible, Danes used words like shooting, tiring, and sharp, and Swedes used words like tiring, "good," yet horrible. Preferred pain descriptors for drilling, birth, and injection pains varied significantly by ethnicity. Results corroborated conclusions of a qualitative study about pain beliefs in relation to perceived needs for anesthetic in tooth drilling. Samples used to obtain the results were estimated to approach qualitative representativity for these urban ethnic groups.
PURPOSE: The aim of the present investigation was to perform an international multicenter comparison of dental appearance as evaluated by dentists, dental technicians, and nondental subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The participants were drawn from three groups: 203 dentists, 197 dental technicians and 254 nondental subjects. The methods developed in a previous study in Sweden were applied again in seven centers located in six countries. A questionnaire, accompanied by five sets of computer-manipulated images portraying one man and one woman, was used to prompt and record responses to different aspects of dental appearance and function. RESULTS: The questionnaire revealed that both the dental appearance and function of teeth were important to most of the participants, but three quarters of the participants did indicate that good dental function was more important that esthetics. More women (30%) than men (18%), however, placed greater importance on appearance. Age or gender did not influence judgments of the computer-manipulated images, although judgments did vary greatly within the three groups and between the centers. Nonetheless, highly colored teeth were preferred more often by nondental subjects than by dentists or dental technicians. CONCLUSION: Computer-aided image manipulation shows promise as a method for investigating the significance of dental-related beliefs, especially those relating to esthetics, in different population groups. The evaluation of dental appearance and function in this study indicated that dental function is held in greater regard, and that the significance of dental appearance varies widely among dentists, dental technicians, and nondental subjects.
With the predicted increase in the age of Canada's overall population, it is estimated that by 2020, up to 75% of nurses' time will be spent with older adults. It is recognized that care of older adults occurs in a cultural context in which the older members of society are poorly valued, often referred to as ageism. Based on the premise that attitudes affect behavior and knowledge acquisition, a comparative cross-sectional study using the Attitudes Toward Old People scale measured nursing students' attitudes at different points in a baccalaureate nursing program. Although analysis of variance revealed no significant differences in students' attitudes during the 4 years, post hoc analysis revealed a drop in positive attitudes and a rise in negative attitudes at the beginning of the second and fourth years of the baccalaureate program.
To explain determinants in the decision-making of nurses in the treatment of severely ill incompetent patients and to describe underlying attitudes, consecutive samples of nurses from Germany and Sweden have been investigated by means of a case scenario and a questionnaire. Whereas the level of dementia emerged as the only factor being significantly related with the treatment option within the Swedish group, patient's age, patient's wishes and ethical concerns were correlated among German nurses. The more the nurses have been able to participate in the provision of the available do-not-resuscitate order or of an advance directive, the less frequent they would perform CPR against the patient's wishes.
In this qualitative study we explored how health-care staff continuously resolve "obstacles to transcultural caring relationships" as they care for families with an immigrant background within the context of pediatric oncology care. A constant comparative method was used and data collection included 5 focus group interviews and 5 complementary individual interviews with health-care staff within pediatric oncology care. Bridging emerged as the way that health-care staff deal with obstacles to transcultural caring relationships. Bridging is a process in which various tools may be used and combined, including communicational tools, transcultural tools and organizational tools. Failure to use tools, or to use and combine them insufficiently, can bring the caring relationship to a halt, which leads to inequity in care. In order to ensure the provision of high-quality care despite differences in religion, culture, language and social situation, health-care staff need to bridge obstacles to transcultural caring relationships.
The total number of people with dementia symptoms is expected to double every 20 years and there will also be an increase in the number of older immigrants in several countries. There are considerable deficiencies in the present knowledge of how to conduct well-functioning health care for immigrants with dementia symptoms. The aim of this study was to explore caring and uncaring encounters between assistant nurses and immigrants in two group homes for persons with dementia symptoms in Sweden: a Finnish-speaking as well as a Swedish-speaking context. In addition, this study aims to describe how caring and uncaring encounters are manifested in these two contexts according to Halldórsdóttir's theory of "Caring and Uncaring encounters".
Descriptive field notes from 30 separate observations were analyzed using qualitative deductive content analysis.
The main category "caring encounters" focused on reaching out to initiate connection through communication, removing masks of anonymity by acknowledging the unique person, acknowledgment of connection by being personal. Reaching a level of truthfulness by being present and showing respect, raising the level of solidarity by equality and true negotiation of care, based on the residents' needs. The main category, uncaring encounters, focused on disinterest in and insensitivity towards the other, coldness in the connection and lack of humanity in care situations. The observations showed that caring encounters occurred more in the Finnish-speaking context and uncaring encounters more often in the Swedish context.
Encounters could be caring, uncaring, and carried out using a person-centered approach. Communication and relationships could be facilitated using the same language but also through learning to interpret residents' needs and desires.
In 1984, the college of nursing at the University of Saskatchewan (U of S), the First Nations University of Canada and the University of Regina, with funding from Health Canada, established the National Native Access Program to Nursing (NNAPN). This program promoted nursing to aboriginal people, negotiated access seats for aboriginal students at all Canadian universities and offered a nine-week spring orientation program intended to prepare aboriginal students for the demands of campus life and nursing programs. A restructuring of the program in 1997 made it provincial in scope, becoming NAPN, which focuses on the recruitment, support and retention of aboriginal nursing students at the U of S's Nursing Education Program of Saskatchewan (NEPS). Currently, more than 200 self-identified aboriginal students are enrolled in NEPS. All aboriginal students are encouraged to access the NAPN services and to become involved in NAPN activities. NAPN advisers strive for success and excellence for aboriginal nursing students through support and advocacy (personal issues, social services, individual funding, academic assistance, advocacy with faculty), summer employment assistance, recruitment efforts and community partnerships (including community-building activities among the students and building partnerships with outside stakeholders, both First Nations and non-First Nations).
The article compares the ability of nurses and physicians to connect with patients in ethnoculturally nonconcordant clinical encounters with 41 randomly selected political-asylum seekers (PAS) residing at five Finnish reception centers in summer 2002. Doctors and nurses were equally unlikely to draw congruent assessments of the patient's past and present health condition, mixed use of biomedical/ethnocultural practices, adherence with medication and eat/drink instructions, (dis)satisfaction, and future confidence in recommended biomedical and ethnocultural approaches. Nurses were considerably more likely to hold views that were congruent with the patient's reported health care effectiveness in Finland. The findings suggest that doctors should request and place special weight on the insights of the principal attending nurse when assessing the potential contributions of personal, family, and host-society health care assets and inhibitors to a migrant patient's overall health plan. The results also suggest that culturally sensitive health care training offers specific advantages to nurses who attend to PAS.