In Denmark, there is a focus on patient involvement. Health professionals want to involve patients, but have diverse interpretations of what this entails, which complicates knowledge dissemination. Interventions are scattered and diverse, and often do not systematically involve patients' knowledge. Studies have shown that patients want to be involved and contribute with knowledge, but this only happens to a limited degree. Involvement of patients is often limited to involving their resources in the form of self care rather than integrating their knowledge into their treatment and care.
The objective was to study the dimensionality of knowledge among general practitioners in Norway about transmission of HIV and what factors influence the degree of knowledge. Data were collected by a mailed questionnaire. Independent variables were experience of HIV, acquisition of knowledge and confidence in information on HIV from the central authorities and perception of own knowledge, skills of practice and fear of oneself or one's family contracting the HIV infection. Analysis of variance and multiple classification analysis were applied to measure the effect of independent variables on knowledge about transmission of HIV. The general practitioners in three counties (Oslo, Møre og Romsdal and Troms), constituting one-quarter of the Norwegian general practitioner population were selected (n = 578). The response rate was 65%, and the results are assumed to be representative of Norwegian general practitioners. Four dimensions of knowledge about transmission of HIV were identified by factor analysis. The two most important, transmission through 'body fluids' and transmission by 'needle sticks', were subsequently converted into sum scores and used as dependent variables. Forty-five per cent of the respondents were uncertain about ways in which HIV is not transmitted through 'body fluids'. There was an association between knowledge about transmission through 'body fluids' and the variables county background, confidence in the information about HIV and fear of contracting HIV. In the multiple classification analysis these three variables explained 11% of the variation in knowledge about transmission through 'body fluids'. Only confidence and fear significantly predicted the degree of knowledge, and among the 11% who had no confidence in the information received the effect of fear on knowledge increased significantly.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
With advances in the field of nutrigenomics, commercial laboratories have begun marketing genotyping services, nutritional advice, and dietary supplements "tailored" to match individual genetic predispositions. Although primarily offered by American companies, these services are available to Canadian consumers via the Internet. Qualitative research in the form of focus groups with members of the Canadian public was undertaken to assess the current level of understanding of and receptivity toward this new genomic application. Additionally, focus groups with health care professionals (physicians, pharmacists, dieticians, nutritionists, and naturopaths) investigated their interest in integrating nutrigenomics into health care delivery, and their capacity to do so. Gauging knowledge and attitudes early in the introduction of a new technology serves to identify potential "blind spots" regarding the ethical, legal, and social implications. Preliminary results indicate consumers believe potential benefits of nutrigenomics outweigh risks, while health care professionals express more skepticism. Both groups agree that more public education about nutrigenomics is needed and that regulatory oversight should ensure consumer protection.
Vaccine acceptability among Quebec midwives is not well documented. The purpose of this study was to examine midwives' knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to immunization in Quebec.
Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 participants (17 midwives and 8 midwifery students). The mean duration of the interviews was 1 hour. The interviews were conducted in 2010 and were audiotaped, transcribed and submitted to content analysis using NVivo 8 software.
In addition to the laws regulating midwifery practice in Quebec, the findings suggest that most midwifery interventions are based on midwifery philosophy. Informed choice is one of the key principles of this philosophy. In order to help women make an informed decision about vaccination, midwives seek to outline the pros and cons of vaccination using government documentation, as well as other sources such as books on naturopathy. Most of the participating midwives recognized that vaccination has advantages, including disease prevention and free vaccines. Various arguments against vaccination were also identified. Most of these were related to the vaccination schedule and to combined vaccines. Some of the participants noted that it was difficult to find unbiased information about vaccination.
This study highlights the key role of midwifery philosophy in midwifery practice. Most decisions (such as vaccination) are made on the basis of the principle of informed choice. Most of the participants noted that they lacked information on vaccination.
The purpose of this study was to compare physicians', midwives' and lay people's attitudes towards genetic screening and testing to find out whether medical education and experience influence attitudes of genetic screening and testing. The study was based on comparison of answers to joint questions in three different cross-sectional postal surveys between October 1996 and April 1998 in Finland. Target groups were physicians (study base n=772, response rate 74%, including gynaecologists, paediatricians, general practitioners and clinical geneticists), midwives and public health nurses (collectively referred to as midwives in the following; n=800, response rate 79%), and lay people (n=2000, response rate 62%). Midwives were more worried about the consequences of genetic testing and stressed the autonomy of the customer more strongly than lay people did. Furthermore, professionals considered that lay peoples' expectations as regards to genetic testing are too high. Having more medical education was related to having less 'cannot say' and missing responses. Our results do not suggest that major conflicts about the direction of genetic testing and screening would arise in near future. However, different positions and interests should be considered. Reporting in public about new prospects and developments in medical genetics should pay more attention also to concerns for balancing promises and drawbacks.
In 1987, 74 Danish first-year and 90 final-year medical students from Aarhus University participated in a global questionnaire investigation concerning the smoking habits of medical students and their attitudes to the tobacco problem. This investigation was initiated by the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. In order to observe particular characteristics or unexpected findings, the Danish percentage replies were calculated and compared with corresponding average figures for the other European medical students and Danish doctors and the normal population. A statistically significant difference was demonstrated in a single instance only: the proportion of smokers among Danish final-year female medical students in the last term was considerably higher than among junior doctors. Strikingly few Danish medical students towards the end of their curriculum considered smoking the main cause of coronary disease but problems in translation were possibly involved here. Unless a concrete reason was present, Danish medical students were very reticent concerning discussion of the injurious effects of smoking with patients. A possible reason for this was that only one fourth of the Danish final-year students considered that their present knowledge formed an adequate basis for patient counselling.
Finnish students (N=3261) filled out a questionnaire on attitudes towards genetically modified and organic food, plus the rational-experiential inventory, the magical thinking about food and health scale, Schwartz's value survey and the behavioural inhibition scale. In addition, they reported their eating of meat. Structural equation modelling of these measures had greater explanatory power for attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) foods than for attitudes towards organic foods (OF). GM attitudes were best predicted by natural science education and magical food and health beliefs, which mediated the influence of thinking styles. Positive attitudes towards organic food, on the other hand, were more directly related to such individual differences as thinking styles and set of values. The results of the study indicate that OF attitudes are rooted in more fundamental personal attributes than GM attitudes, which are embedded in a more complex but also in a more modifiable network of characteristics.