In a study of a total high-school population, 2300 students aged 16-17 years were screened for depression (BDI, CES-DC). Those with a self-evaluation indicating depression, together with controls matched for sex, age, and class were interviewed (DICA-R-A). The 177 pairs, where both individuals were interviewed and the control had no lifetime diagnosis of depression, were analysed in the form of paired differences for psychosocial factors and compared within diagnostic groups. The psychosocial factors were measured with the ISSI subscales and six attitude questions about family climate (KSP). Adolescents with an episode of major depression during part of the last year did not differ from their controls. Those with long-lasting depressive symptoms, i.e. dysthymia with or without episodes of major depression, had a more limited social interaction and were not satisfied with it. They also evaluated their family climate and attachment network as being more inadequate than did their controls. Depressed adolescents with comorbid conduct disorder had a more negative evaluation of availability and adequacy of both social interaction and attachment network than their controls. This group had a very negative view of their family climate. Since this is a case-control study conclusions cannot be drawn about cause and effect.
This cross-sectional study of reading,writing and mathematics skills in a total population of 589 children attending 4th grade in regular public schools showed that neuropsychiatric disorder was a strong predictor of poor performance, girls scored better than boys on language tests and some mathematics test, and immigrant children had similar results as native Swedish children on most tests. Sixty percent of boys with and 7% of boys without DAMP (Deficits in Attention,Motor control and Perception) or ADHD (Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) had substantial school difficulties. The rate of children requiring individualised special education measures was estimated at a minimum of 15%. This constitutes a major challenge to a society claiming to offer equal opportunities and participation for all children.
Few studies have focused on conduct problems and co-occurring problems among the youngest children in schools, such as social, internalizing and attention problems. In particular, there is a lack of studies that differentiate between boys and girls in terms of such problems.
The aim of the current study was to test associations between conduct problems and social, internalizing and attention problems, as well as adaptive school functioning, which was rated by the teachers of boys and girls in grades 1-3.
In a cross-sectional study, 103 boys and 108 girls in grades 1-3 at six schools participated in a national Norwegian study of child conduct problems in the normal population. Linear regression analysis was used to test the associations between conduct problems, social skills, problems of internalization, attention problems and adaptation to school among boys and girls.
There were significant associations between high levels of conduct problems and social skills problems, attention problems and low adaptive school functioning scores among boys and girls. Attention problems had the most powerful associations with conduct problems for both genders.
Young schoolchildren with high levels of conduct problems also had co-occurring problems. Schools and teachers need to adopt a comprehensive approach to help these children during their first years in school.
Parents and teachers of 342 school children, aged from 7 to 11 years, were questioned with the (SDQ) using non-randomized method. The following comparative analysis of SDQ items measured in parents and teachers of children with ADHD and age-matched controls was carried out. It has been shown that the spectrum of disturbances characteristic of ADHD is not confined only to main symptoms of ADHD. The results of questionnaire of both parents and teachers indicated the marked intensity of emotional disturbances, behavioral problems and difficulties in interactions with peers as well as the underdevelopment of social trends in behavior in children with ADHD compared to the controls. The data obtained confirm the necessity of treatment extension beyond the core symptoms with considering more general parameters of the patients quality of life.
A cohort of extremely prematurely born children and matched term controls was assessed at 5 years of age. The parents completed a questionnaire on their behavioral and social development. The purpose was to illuminate whether the children's general intellectual ability and parental sensitivity were associated with behavioral and social development. The index children exhibited more hyperactive behavior and had poorer social skills than the controls. Lower Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) was associated with outward reacting and hyperactive behavior and poorer social skills. Sensitive parenting was associated with less outward reacting and less hyperactive behavior. When controlling for differences in FSIQ and parental sensitivity, the index children persisted to have an increased risk of exhibiting hyperactive behavior but not poorer social skills. The index children with normal intellectual development, however, did not exhibit more behavioral problems or poorer social skills than the control children did.
AIMS: To evaluate whether being born small for gestational age (SGA) was associated with an increased frequency of preschool behavioral problems. STUDY DESIGN: Follow-up study at 5 years of age. SUBJECTS: A population based cohort of 318 term infants who were SGA, defined as having a birthweight less than the 15th percentile for gestational age, and without major handicap such as cerebral palsy or mental retardation, and a random control sample of 307 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants. OUTCOME MEASURES: The Personality Inventory for Children and the Yale Children's Inventory (completed by the mothers), and child behavior during psychometric testing. RESULTS: Behavior problems was not more common among the SGA children. The results were not confounded by a wide range of parental demographic and child rearing factors, including maternal non-verbal problem solving abilities, child rearing style, and maternal psychological distress. However, the parental factors explained 13% of the variance in a summary score of child behavior compared to 1% explained by SGA vs. AGA status. The SGA children were not more sensitive to the negative impacts of parental risk factors than AGA controls. The study does not address the outcome of severely growth-retarded SGA infants. CONCLUSION: Being born moderately SGA is not a significant risk factor for preschool behavior problems.
The present study examines the 10-year time-trend changes of adolescent psychiatric symptoms, smoking and alcohol use. Representative population-based samples with same methods at two time-points, same age range and with 10-year period between the time points were gathered in Finland to investigate secular changes in adolescents' emotional and behavioral problems. Seventh and ninth grade students filled in the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and questions regarding alcohol use and smoking anonymously during a school lesson in 1998 (n = 1458) and 2008 (n = 1569). The self-reports of SDQ showed substantial stability in emotional and behavioral problems from 1998 to 2008. There was no increase between the two timepoints in self-reports of SDQ total, conduct, hyperactivity, emotional or peer problems when using the 90th percentile clinical cut-off points. However, there was a trend showing decreasing prosocial behavior among girls indicating that proportions of adolescent boys and girls having problems in prosocial behavior have converged, The self-reported alcohol use, drunkenness and cigarette smoking decreased within the 10-year time period. Of alcohol use, the number of non-users increased from 44 to 63 % between the years 1998 and 2008. Similarly, the proportion of non-smokers increased from 56 to 68 %. Although rates of substance use declined within the 10-year study period, drunkenness-oriented alcohol use and regular smoking are still prevalent among Finnish adolescents.
To study differences in children's psychiatric symptoms and child mental health service use at three time points: 1989, 1999, and 2005.
Three cross-sectional representative samples of 8-year-old children were compared from southern Finland. The sampling, procedure, and methods were similar at all three time points. Information was gathered from parents and teachers using Rutter questionnaires and other related determinants of service use and from children using the Children's Depression Inventory. The participation rate at the three time points was 96% in 1989, 86% in 1999, and 84% in 2005.
Overall, parent and teacher reports of children's problems did not show a significant increase during the 16-year period. Parent reports of boys' conduct symptoms decreased from 1989 to 1999. However, self-reported depressive symptoms among girls increased from 1989 to 2005. Low parental education level, broken family, and negative life events were associated with depressive symptoms among girls. Although 4% of boys and 1% of girls had used child mental health services in 1989, the respective figures in 2005 were 12% and 4%. The majority of children who were screen positive on either parent or teacher ratings of emotional and behavioral problems using Rutter scales had received some educational support from school in 2005.
Reports of depressive symptoms increased among girls, and this finding merits further studies. Use of services has continuously increased. School services play an important role in providing support and early detection of children who need to be referred to child mental health services.
Disruptive behavioral disorders (DBD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are both characterized by certain patterns of misbehavior among adolescents.
The aim of this study was to examine how the comorbidity of DBD and ADHD affects in misbehavior among adolescents.
A total of 158 adolescents aged 16-18 years, from a subsample of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC 1986), were interviewed with the Finnish translation of the semi-structured Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children--Present and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL) in order to obtain DBD, including conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and ADHD diagnoses. The structure of the CD symptoms, obtained from the K-SADS-PL, was compared with the previously formed model about the development of the problematic behavior. The severity of the CD symptoms was compared with adolescents diagnosed with only DBD, only ADHD and with both DBD and ADHD. Also, the associations with other psychiatric disorders diagnosed at age 16 were evaluated.
The boys in the study sample were diagnosed with ADHD or with comorbid DBD and ADHD more often than girls. The severity of CD symptoms was statistically significantly associated with the comorbid DBD and ADHD group. The adolescents diagnosed with comorbid DBD and ADHD had an increased risk for anxiety disorders, depressive disorders and substance abuse disorders.
The comorbidity of DBD and ADHD seems to indicate the severity of CD symptoms.
The comorbidity between DBD and ADHD should be considered in clinical practice because it could indicate more serious problematic behavior than pure disorders alone.
From 1995 to 2000, 422 youths, aged 18 years and under, died as a result of suicide in Quebec. More than one-third had received services from youth centres (YCs) at some point. This study sought to characterize a sample of those youths to improve services for this at-risk population.
From a retrospective study of YCs and coroner's office files, we investigated the clinical features of youths who had received YC services and died by suicide. We compared them with YC patients matched for age, sex, and geographic area who had reported suicidal behaviour or who had no such symptoms.
Among those who committed suicide, we found a ratio of 3.8 boys for 1 girl, with a mean age of 16.8 years. Hanging, used by 73.6%, was the most frequent means; 53.6% had a previous suicide attempt. The group that committed suicide had more indicators of major depression, substance abuse, and disruptive behaviours, as well as more adverse events.
Interventions should focus on screening for mental disorders and suicidal behaviours on the initial contact with YC services. This screening should be implemented through a medical multidisciplinary team that includes psychoeducational services.