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Alcohol, drugs, and impairment in fatal traffic accidents in British Columbia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature215043
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 1995 Jun;27(3):335-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1995
Author
G W Mercer
W K Jeffery
Author Affiliation
B.C. Police Commission, Ministry of Attorney General, Vancouver, Canada.
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 1995 Jun;27(3):335-43
Date
Jun-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - mortality - prevention & control
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Alcoholic Intoxication - mortality
Attention - drug effects
British Columbia - epidemiology
Cause of Death
Cross-Sectional Studies
Ethanol - pharmacokinetics
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Psychotropic Drugs - pharmacokinetics
Street Drugs - pharmacokinetics
Substance Abuse Detection
Substance-Related Disorders - mortality - prevention & control
Abstract
Blood samples and accident records of 41 female and 186 male fatally injured drivers were examined. Analyses suggested that drugs other than alcohol are causally related to fatal traffic accidents in British Columbia. Toxicologies showed: 37% alcohol only, 11% alcohol and drugs, and 9% drugs only. The most frequently found drugs were: 48% alcohol, 13% tetrahydrocannabinol or its metabolites (THC/THCCOOH), 4% cocaine, and 5% diazepam. In addition, alcohol-only impairment was missed by investigating police officers in many cases, impairment by alcohol and drugs was mistakenly identified as alcohol-only impairment, and drug-only impairment was misclassified as "driving without due care and attention".
PubMed ID
7639917 View in PubMed
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An exploration on the effects of marijuana on eyewitness memory.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature206132
Source
Int J Law Psychiatry. 1998;21(1):117-28
Publication Type
Article
Date
1998

Associations between prenatal cigarette smoke exposure and externalized behaviors at school age among Inuit children exposed to environmental contaminants.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258359
Source
Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2013 Sep-Oct;39:84-90
Publication Type
Article
  1 document  
Author
Caroline Desrosiers
Olivier Boucher
Nadine Forget-Dubois
Eric Dewailly
Pierre Ayotte
Sandra W Jacobson
Joseph L Jacobson
Gina Muckle
Author Affiliation
Université Laval, Québec City, Québec, Canada; Centre de recherche du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec, Québec City, Québec, Canada.
Source
Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2013 Sep-Oct;39:84-90
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
File Size
63846
Keywords
Attention - drug effects
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - chemically induced - epidemiology - psychology
Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders - chemically induced - psychology
Child
Drug Interactions
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - toxicity
Female
Fetal Blood - chemistry
Humans
Inuits - psychology
Lead Poisoning, Nervous System, Childhood - blood - psychology
Male
Mercury Poisoning, Nervous System - blood - psychology
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - chemically induced - psychology
Prevalence
Quebec - epidemiology
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects
Abstract
Smoking during pregnancy is common among Inuit women from the Canadian Arctic. Yet prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) is seen as a major risk factor for childhood behavior problems. Recent data also suggest that co-exposure to neurotoxic environmental contaminants can exacerbate the effects of PCSE on behavior. This study examined the association between PCSE and behavior at school age in a sample of Inuit children from Nunavik, Qu?bec, where co-exposure to environmental contaminants is also an important issue. Interactions with lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), two contaminants associated with behavioral problems, were also explored.
Participants were 271 children (mean age=11.3years) involved in a prospective birth-cohort study. PCSE was assessed through maternal recall. Assessment of child behavior was obtained from the child's classroom teacher on the Teacher Report Form (TRF) and the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale (DBD). Exposure to contaminants was assessed from umbilical cord and child blood samples. Other confounders were documented by maternal interview.
After control for contaminants and confounders, PCSE was associated with increased externalizing behaviors and attention problems on the TRF and higher prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed on the DBD. No interactions were found with contaminants.
This study extends the existing empirical evidence linking PCSE to behavioral problems in school-aged children by reporting these effects in a population where tobacco use is normative rather than marginal. Co-exposure to Pb and Hg do not appear to exacerbate tobacco effects, suggesting that these substances act independently.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23916943 View in PubMed
Documents
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Behavioral effects of long-term exposure to a mixture of organic solvents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature250539
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 1976 Dec;2(4):240-55
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1976
Author
H. Hänninen
L. Eskelinen
K. Husman
M. Nurminen
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 1976 Dec;2(4):240-55
Date
Dec-1976
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Affective Symptoms - chemically induced
Attention - drug effects
Automobiles
Clinical Trials as Topic
Cognition Disorders - chemically induced
Environmental Exposure
Finland
Humans
Learning Disorders - chemically induced
Memory Disorders - chemically induced
Middle Aged
Occupational Diseases - chemically induced
Personality Disorders - chemically induced
Psychological Tests
Psychomotor Disorders - chemically induced
Solvents - adverse effects
Time Factors
Toluene - adverse effects
Verbal Learning - drug effects
Vision Disorders - chemically induced
Abstract
The behavioral effects of long-term exposure to a mixture of organic solvents were investigated in a comparison of the test results of 100 car painters with those of a reference group. The test battery included tests for intelligence, memory, psychomotor performances, and personality. In addition to the comparison of the mean results, two discriminant function analyses were made. In one, only the performance test variables were used, but in the other personality variables were also included. The results indicated impairments in psychological performances, as well as personality changes in the exposed group. Impairments in visual intelligence and verbal memory and a reduction of emotional reactivity were the central features of the adverse effects of solvent exposure, but the behavioral disturbances also involved several other functions, including performance on a verbal intelligence test. The possible role of the differences in the initial intelligence levels were controlled with a separate comparison of the test results of 33 pairs of exposed and nonexposed subjects who were matched for age and for their intelligence level, measured during the military service. The discriminant function analyses were based on the results of these matched subgroups and tested in the rest of the material. According to the results the sensitivity of the psychological test methods was high, but the specificity somewhat low, with regard to solvent exposure. The concentration of various solvents included in the exposure of car painters were low, the summated exposure corresponding corresponding to 32% of the Finnish threshold limit value. The possible role of a potentiating effect of the solvent in the development of behavioral disturbances is discussed.
PubMed ID
798266 View in PubMed
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Behavioural correlates of alcohol intoxication.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature11780
Source
Addiction. 1993 Jan;88(1):25-35
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1993
Author
C A Naranjo
K E Bremner
Author Affiliation
Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy Research Unit, Addiction Research Foundation, Toronto, Canada.
Source
Addiction. 1993 Jan;88(1):25-35
Date
Jan-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents - psychology
Aggression - drug effects
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects
Alcoholic Intoxication - blood - psychology
Arousal - drug effects
Attention - drug effects
Drug Interactions
Ethanol - antagonists & inhibitors - pharmacokinetics
Humans
Psychomotor Performance - drug effects
Violence
Abstract
Alcohol is used in most cultures despite knowledge of the physical, psychological and social problems associated with its abuse. Behavioural impairment is a function of several factors, including blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and the rate of alcohol metabolism by alcohol dehydrogenase and the microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system. Their availability and activity depend upon alcohol use history, ethnicity, other drug use and gender. Adverse social consequences related to alcohol intoxication include impaired driving, acts of aggression and violence towards self and others, and various types of accidents. About 40% of all fatal traffic accidents in Canada and the US in 1986-1987 were alcohol-related. Similar statistics have been reported in the UK and Europe (e.g. Sweden). The risk of a fatal car accident increases exponentially with a driver's BAC, prompting recommendations to lower the legal BAC limit for driving and piloting aircraft. Risks of falls, drownings, and fires and burns may also be increased by alcohol intoxication. At least 22% of work-related accidents may have involved alcohol use. These data are probably conservative estimates as under-reporting of alcohol use is likely. Alcohol facilitates aggressive behaviours, but it is difficult to separate the pharmacological effect from psychosocial effects or some other common factor (e.g. low CSF levels of the serotonin metabolite 5-H1AA have been reported in alcoholics, suicide attempters, violent offenders). In addition, alcohol interacts with other drugs to increase or decrease their behavioural and therapeutic effects. An acutely high BAC inhibits the metabolism of other CNS depressants (e.g. benzodiazepines), but long-term alcohol use increases the metabolism of most drugs. A potential amethystic agent, to block or reverse alcohol's effects, has been identified in preclinical studies (Ro15-4513, an imidazobenzodiazepine). Some clinical studies indicated that naloxone, lithium, ibuprofen, zimeldine and catecholamine agonists may reduce ethanol-induced behavioural or cognitive effects but the results have not been consistently replicated. More research is needed to determine the potential clinical use of amethystic agents and other pharmacotherapies in the prevention and treatment of problem behaviours associated with alcohol abuse and intoxication.
PubMed ID
8448514 View in PubMed
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The case for a 0.05% criminal law blood alcohol concentration limit for driving.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature187349
Source
Inj Prev. 2002 Sep;8 Suppl 3:iii1-iii17
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2002
Author
E. Chamberlain
R. Solomon
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Law, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 3KZ.
Source
Inj Prev. 2002 Sep;8 Suppl 3:iii1-iii17
Date
Sep-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - prevention & control
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Alcohol Drinking - blood - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control
Attention - drug effects
Automobile Driving - legislation & jurisprudence
Canada
Central Nervous System Depressants - blood
Crime - legislation & jurisprudence
Ethanol - blood
Humans
Law Enforcement
Licensure - legislation & jurisprudence
Mental Processes - drug effects
Middle Aged
Psychomotor Disorders - etiology
Public Opinion
Safety
Vision Disorders - etiology
Notes
Cites: Am J Prev Med. 2001 Nov;21(4 Suppl):66-8811691562
Cites: Accid Anal Prev. 2001 Sep;33(5):569-8311491238
Cites: Accid Anal Prev. 2000 Jul;32(4):483-9210868751
Cites: Accid Anal Prev. 1986 Aug;18(4):273-873741579
Cites: J Stud Alcohol. 2000 May;61(3):387-9510807209
Cites: Accid Anal Prev. 1999 Sep;31(5):421-4310440540
Cites: Am J Public Health. 1996 Sep;86(9):1297-98806383
Cites: Public Health Rep. 1994 Nov-Dec;109(6):738-447800781
Cites: J Stud Alcohol. 1992 Sep;53(5):420-61405633
Cites: J Stud Alcohol. 1991 Jul;52(4):302-101875701
Cites: Accid Anal Prev. 1988 Feb;20(1):9-173337768
Cites: J Stud Alcohol. 1980 May;41(5):488-957412300
Cites: Inj Prev. 2001 Dec;7(4):272-511770650
Cites: Inj Prev. 2000 Jun;6(2):109-1410875666
PubMed ID
12486814 View in PubMed
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Characteristics of methylphenidate misuse in a university student sample.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature173155
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 2005 Jul;50(8):457-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2005
Author
Sean P Barrett
Christine Darredeau
Lana E Bordy
Robert O Pihl
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec. barrett@ego.psych.mcgill.ca
Source
Can J Psychiatry. 2005 Jul;50(8):457-61
Date
Jul-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Alcoholism - epidemiology - psychology
Attention - drug effects
Central Nervous System Stimulants
Comorbidity
Cross-Sectional Studies
Drug Interactions
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Methylphenidate
Quebec
Recreation
Street Drugs
Students - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Abstract
Methylphenidate (MPH) is a prescription stimulant drug with known abuse potential; however, little is known about its patterns of misuse or the characteristics of its abusers.
A sample of 50 university students reporting MPH misuse and 50 control subjects matched for age, sex, and ethnicity completed structured face-to-face interviews about their MPH and other drug use. For each substance ever used, they provided information regarding routes of administration and other substances ever coadministered, as well as details about the most recent administration. MPH users provided additional information about their reasons for use and, in 36 cases, about how they obtained the drug.
Relative to control subjects, those who misused MPH were more likely to have used various other prescription and nonprescription stimulant drugs over their lifetime, and most MPH users reported mixing the drug with other psychoactive substances. Of the MPH sample, 70% reported recreational use of the drug, while 30% reported that MPH was used exclusively for study purposes. Relative to those using it exclusively for study, recreational users were more likely to report using MPH intranasally, as well as coadministering MPH with other substances. Most of those who reported their source of MPH obtained it from an acquaintance with a prescription.
Those who misuse MPH are more likely than their peers to misuse various other substances, and MPH misuse frequently occurs in the context of simultaneous polydrug use. Because the primary supply of inappropriately used MPH appears to be prescribed users, efforts should be directed toward preventing its diversion.
Notes
Comment In: Can J Psychiatry. 2006 Feb;51(2):126-7; author reply 12716989112
PubMed ID
16127963 View in PubMed
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[Comparative study of alpha-lipoic acid and mexidol effects on affective status, cognitive functions and quality of life in diabetes mellitus patients].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature127505
Source
Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2011;74(11):17-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
I A Volchegorskii
L M Rassokhina
M I Koliadich
M I Alekseev
Source
Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2011;74(11):17-23
Date
2011
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Antioxidants - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Attention - drug effects
Cognition - drug effects
Cognition Disorders - drug therapy - metabolism - physiopathology
Diabetes Complications - drug therapy
Diabetes Mellitus - drug therapy - metabolism - physiopathology
Double-Blind Method
Female
Humans
Hyperglycemia - drug therapy
Hyperlipidemias - drug therapy - metabolism
Hypoglycemic Agents - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Lipid Peroxidation - drug effects
Male
Middle Aged
Picolines - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Placebos
Prospective Studies
Psychotropic Drugs - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Quality of Life
Questionnaires
Russia
Thioctic Acid - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Abstract
Short-term, prospective placebo-controlled simple blind randomized study of the effects of alpha-lipoic acid and mexidol on the dynamics of affective status disorders, cognitive functions, and quality of life in parallel with changes in carbohydrate metabolism and lipidemia has been conducted in diabetic patients. It is established that two-week administration of alpha-lipoic acid (600 mg once a day, i.v.) and mexidol (300 mg once a day, i.v.) reduced hyperglycemia by 13.00 with simultaneous decrease of depressive "feelings of guilt". In case of mexidol, these effects were accompanied by positive "vitality" dynamics established with SF-36 questionnaire and reflecting improvement in patients' quality of life. Additionally, course administration of alpha-lipoic acid increased attention as studied with Schulte tables. Favorable psychotropic effects of alpha-lipoic acid and mexidol were unrelated to changes in lipidemia and "lipid peroxidation - antioxidant protection" system indicators.
PubMed ID
22288155 View in PubMed
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Comparison of neuropsychological effects of adjunctive risperidone or quetiapine in euthymic patients with bipolar I disorder.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature129269
Source
Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2012 Mar;27(2):91-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2012
Author
Jan-Marie Kozicky
Ivan J Torres
David J Bond
Raymond W Lam
Lakshmi N Yatham
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
Source
Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2012 Mar;27(2):91-9
Date
Mar-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Antimanic Agents - therapeutic use
Antipsychotic Agents - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Attention - drug effects
Bipolar Disorder - drug therapy
British Columbia
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Dibenzothiazepines - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Dopamine Antagonists - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Drug Therapy, Combination - adverse effects
Executive Function - drug effects
Female
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Memory, Short-Term - drug effects
Neurotoxicity Syndromes - physiopathology
Receptors, Dopamine D2 - antagonists & inhibitors
Risperidone - adverse effects - therapeutic use
Severity of Illness Index
Verbal Learning - drug effects
Young Adult
Abstract
Although associations between antipsychotic use and neuropsychological impairment in bipolar I disorder have been observed, there is a lack of studies comparing the effects of specific agents used in this population. We compared performance between patients receiving maintenance treatment with mood stabilizer monotherapy (n=15), adjunctive risperidone (n=15) or quetiapine (n=17), and a group of demographically matched healthy controls (n=28) on tests of executive function (working memory, set shifting, and inhibition) and verbal learning. Despite having a similar clinical profile, patients being treated with risperidone showed significantly impaired working memory, set-shifting, and verbal learning (P
PubMed ID
22124206 View in PubMed
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Detecting chronic solvent encephalopathy in occupations at risk.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature124649
Source
Neurotoxicology. 2012 Aug;33(4):734-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2012
Author
Heidi Furu
Markku Sainio
Hanna Kaisa Hyvärinen
Ritva Akila
Beatrice Bäck
Sanni Uuksulainen
Ari Kaukiainen
Author Affiliation
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland. heidi.furu@fimnet.fi
Source
Neurotoxicology. 2012 Aug;33(4):734-41
Date
Aug-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Air Pollutants, Occupational - adverse effects
Attention - drug effects
Brain - drug effects - physiopathology
Chi-Square Distribution
Chronic Disease
Cognition - drug effects
Female
Finland
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Mass Screening - methods
Memory - drug effects
Middle Aged
Neurologic Examination
Neuropsychological Tests
Neurotoxicity Syndromes - diagnosis - etiology - physiopathology - prevention & control - psychology
Occupational Diseases - chemically induced - diagnosis - physiopathology - psychology
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects - prevention & control
Occupational Health
Predictive value of tests
Prognosis
Questionnaires
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Severity of Illness Index
Solvents - adverse effects
Time Factors
Abstract
Chronic solvent encephalopathy (CSE) is under-reported worldwide due to difficulties in recognition and differences in national legislation. Although its occurrence in developed countries has declined, new cases continue to be detected. Our aim was to determine whether CSE can be detected in risk trades, using a stepwise screening procedure. Another aim was to evaluate if this method detects more cases than present occupational health service (OHS) practices do in Finland, a country with decreasing exposures, high OHS coverage and an annual rate of around forty cases of suspected CSE and seven cases of occupational CSE. The studied fields, based on the national occurrence of CSE, were industrial and construction painting, floor layering, the printing press industry, boat construction, reinforced plastic laminating and the metal industry. We obtained contact information from trade union registers and municipal OHS. A postal survey including the Euroquest (EQ) neurotoxic symptom questionnaire, Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (Audit-C), and questions on exposure and medical conditions, was sent to 3,640 workers in the age range of 30-65 years in two Finnish provinces. The survey resulted in 1,730 responses (48%). This was followed by a clinical examination, with methods applicable to OHS, of subjects fulfilling the criteria: three or more EQ memory and concentration symptoms and sufficient exposure, a BDI score=18, an AUDIT-C score=8, and no evident medical condition explaining their symptoms. Of 338 respondents with memory and concentration symptoms, 129 subjects fulfilled all the criteria, of which 83 participated in clinical examinations. We found 38 CSE compatible cases. The study shows that more CSE compatible cases can be detected when the screening is directed towards the occupational fields at greatest risk. This stepwise method is more effective for finding CSE compatible cases than regular OHS activity. The number of cases was similar to the total annual occurrence, of new CSE-suspected cases, although the sample represented approximately 18% of the abundantly exposed workforce in Finland. Combining of exposure and medical differential diagnostics to neurotoxic symptom questionnaire, decreases the amount of cases needing clinical examinations. This two-step procedure can be carried out with methods suitable for OHS and other primary health care, both in industrialized and developed countries.
PubMed ID
22560996 View in PubMed
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25 records – page 1 of 3.