25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) deficiency is associated with compromised bone mineralisation, fatigue, suppressed immune function and unsatisfactory skeletal muscle recovery. We investigated the risk of 25(OH)D insufficiency or deficiency in endurance athletes compared to sedentary non-athletes living at 64° north.
University student-athletes (TS) and sedentary students (SS) volunteered to participate in this study. TS engaged in regular exercise while SS exercised no more than 20 minutes/week. Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET) scores for participants were determined. Vitamin D intake was assessed using the National Cancer Institute's 24-hour food recall (ASA24). Fasting plasma 25(OH)D levels were quantified via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
TS reported higher activity levels than SS as assessed with MET-minutes/week and ranking of physical activity levels (p
Cites: Chem Biol. 2014 Mar 20;21(3):319-29 PMID 24529992
The purpose was to examine cigarette smoking, use of snus, alcohol, and performance-enhancing illicit drugs among adolescent elite athletes and controls, and possible gender and sport group differences. First-year students at 16 Norwegian Elite Sport High Schools (n = 677) and two randomly selected high schools (controls, n = 421) were invited to participate. Totally, 602 athletes (89%) and 354 (84%) controls completed the questionnaire. More controls than athletes were smoking, using snus, and drinking alcohol. Competing in team sports was associated with use of snus [odds ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6 to 4.7] and a similar percentage of male and female handball (22.2% vs 18.8%) and soccer players (15.7% vs 15.0%) reported using snus. For controls, not participating in organized sport was a predictor for smoking (odds ratio = 4.9, 95% CI 2.2 to 10.9). Female athletes were more prone to drink alcohol than males (46.3% vs 31.0%, P
Asthma prevalence is high among elite endurance athletes, but little is known about its prevalence among competitive recreational athletes. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of self-reported asthma and asthma medication use among competitive recreational endurance athletes and their association with training.
A web survey on asthma and medication was conducted among 38,603 adult participants of three Swedish endurance competitions (cross-country running, cross-country skiing, and swimming).
The overall response rate was 29%. The prevalence of self-reported asthma (physician-diagnosed asthma and use of asthma medication in the last 12 months) was 12%. Among those reporting asthma, 23% used inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting beta-agonists daily. We found no association between training volume and daily use of asthma medication, except a trend in relation to short-acting beta-agonists. Independent predictors of self-reported asthma were female sex, allergic rhinitis, previous eczema, family history of asthma, cycling, and training for >5?h 50?min/week.
The prevalence of self-reported asthma among Swedish competitive recreational endurance athletes appears to be higher than that in the general Swedish population. A large proportion of recreational athletes were reported with asthma use medications, indicating an association between high physical activity and self-reported asthma among competitive recreational athletes.
Physical activity appears to be inversely related to cancer risk, although the evidence is convincing for colon cancer only. As physical activity levels are difficult to measure in the general population, we aimed to investigate how physical activity influences cancer risk using a cohort of Norwegian world class athletes.
The cohort includes 3,428 athletes. Individual questionnaires gave information about physical activity and lifestyle variables until attained age. To elucidate the level of cancer risk, groups of athletes were compared to the general population (external comparisons) and to each other (internal comparisons).
A slightly reduced risk of total cancer was observed in the cohort of athletes, but stronger effects were observed for subgroups. The risk reduction was most pronounced for lung cancer and for leukemia/lymphoma. In women, a threefold increased risk of thyroid cancer was observed.
This cohort of athletes seems to have a reduced risk of cancer. The beneficial association, however, is weak and may be attributed to healthy lifestyle as well as to physical activity. Prolonged strenuous exercise may also increase the risk of thyroid cancer in women.
Regular physical activity plays a major role, in both prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Less is known whether vigorous physical activity during young adulthood is associated with costs of diabetes medication in later life. The aim of this study is to evaluate this question.
The study population consisted of 1314 former elite-class athletes and 860 matched controls. The former athletes were divided into three groups based on their active career sport: endurance, mixed and power sports. Information on purchases of diabetes medication between 1995 and 2009 was obtained from the drug purchase register of the Finnish Social Insurance Institution.
The total cost of diabetes medication per person year was significantly lower among the former endurance (mean 81 € [95% CI 33-151 €]) and mixed group athletes (mean 272 € [95% CI 181-388 €]) compared with the controls (mean 376 € [95% CI 284-485 €]), (p
To determine the nutritional intake of Canadian high-performance athletes.
Prospective survey study.
Canadian sport center athletes.
Three hundred twenty-four high-performance athletes (114 males and 201 females; mean age 21.3 +/- 13 years) from 8 Canadian sport centers participated in the study.
Subjects prospectively completed 3-day dietary records, reporting all food, fluid, and supplement consumption.
Dietary records were analyzed for total calories, macronutrients, and micronutrients for food alone and food plus supplements for all subjects collectively and according to gender and competitive event.
Average daily energy intake was 2533 +/- 843 Kcal/day with males consuming more calories than females (2918 +/- 927 and 2304 +/- 713 Kcal/day, respectively; P
Erratum In: Clin J Sport Med. 2010 Jan;20(1):71Dosage error in article text
The relative age effect (RAE) has been reported for a number of different activities. The RAE is the phenomena whereby players born in the first few months of a competition year are advantaged for selection to elite sports. Much of the literature has identified elite male athletics, such as the National Hockey League (NHL), as having consistently large RAEs. We propose that RAE may be lessened in the NHL since the last examination.
We examined demographic and selection factors to understand current NHL selection biases.
We found that RAE was weak and was only evident when birth dates were broken into year halves. Players born in the first half of the year were relatively advantaged for entry into the NHL. We found that the RAE is smaller than reported in previous studies. Intraplayer comparisons for multiple factors, including place of birth, country of play, type of hockey played, height and weight, revealed no differences. Players who were not drafted (e.g., free agents) or who played university hockey in North America had no apparent RAE.
We found little evidence of an RAE in the current NHL player rosters. A larger study of all Canadian minor hockey intercity teams could help determine the existence of an RAE.
The aim of this study was to examine the associations between self-rated health (SRH), physical activity and other lifestyle habits among former athletes and referents in late adulthood. Male athletes (N=514) who represented Finland from 1920 through 1965 and referents (N=368) who were classified healthy at the age of 20 years participated in this population-based cohort study. The present analysis was based on a questionnaire study in 2001. SRH was assessed by a single question. Univariate binary and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations of health-related behaviours with SRH. The majority of former athletes (64%) rated their health better than referents (48%). A higher percentage of the athletes (54%) compared to the referents (44%) belonged to the most physically active groups (MET quintiles IV-V). A high percentage of the athletes (77%) and referents (79%) were occasional or moderate alcohol users. The proportion of never smokers among athletes was 59% and among referents 37%. Among current smokers there were no differences in nicotine dependence between athletes and referents (p=0.07). In the univariate analysis the odds of reporting good SRH was 2 times higher for athletes (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.53-2.64, p
In orienteering, the number of injury-registration studies is limited. Most researchers have used a cross-sectional design during specific events and, therefore, have mainly identified acute injuries.
To determine the prevalence of injuries by registering acute and overuse injuries in adolescent elite orienteerers over 26 weeks and to study the variation of injury prevalence over the season and the potential risk factors.
Two high schools in Sweden with national orienteering teams.
All athletes (33 adolescent girls, 31 adolescent boys; age = 17 ± 1 years) from 2 high schools with orienteering teams.
We used a weekly Web-based questionnaire to identify the incidence and prevalence of injuries and training variables. Risk factors for injury were calculated using multiple linear regression techniques.
The average weekly prevalence of overuse and acute injuries was 35.7% (95% confidence interval = 34.8%, 36.6%) and 1.7% (95% confidence interval = 1.3%, 2.1%), respectively; overuse injuries (78.0%, n = 85) accounted for the majority. The incidence of acute and overuse injuries was highest for the foot/lower leg (48.6%, n = 53), and 71.6% (n = 78) of all injuries affected the foot/lower leg and knee area. Time to the first reported injury was associated with training volume (ß = 0.184, P = .001), competition time (ß = -0.701, P = .009), running on asphalt roads (ß = -0.348, P = .008), and running on forest surfaces and trails (ß = -0.331, P = .007), with a model fit of r(?2) = 0.50 (intercept = 2.196, P
To investigate the prevalence between back and hip pain in young Elite skiers.
Sample group (n = 102), consisted of young Elite skiers (n = 75) and age-matched non-athletes (n = 27), all completed a three-part back and hip pain questionnaire, Oswestry Disability Index and EuroQoL to evaluate general health, activity level, back and hip pain prevalence.
No significant differences were shown for lifetime prevalence of back pain in the skiers (50%) compared with controls (44%) (n.s.). Duration of back pain for the skiers showed (30%) > 1 year, whilst (46%) > 5 years. A significant difference was shown with increased Visual Analogue Scale back pain levels for skiers 5.3 (SD 3.1) compared with controls 2.4 (SD 1.9, p = 0.025). No significant differences were shown for lifetime prevalence of hip pain in skiers (21%) compared with controls (8%) (n.s.).
Young Elite skiers are shown not to have increased lifetime prevalence for back and hip pain compared with a non-athletic control group.
Cites: Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2011 Nov;63 Suppl 11:S240-52 PMID 22588748
Cites: Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1996 Feb;28(2):165-70 PMID 8775149