The objective of this study was to describe a population of children admitted to a tertiary care pediatric hospital with severe trauma to identify key areas for injury prevention research, and programming.
Retrospective chart review conducted on all children 0-17 years admitted to the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO) between April 1, 1996, and March 31, 2000, following acute trauma. Each record was reviewed and assigned an ISS using the AIS 1990 revision. All cases with an ISS > 11 were included in the study.
There were 2610 trauma cases admitted to CHEO over the study period. Of these, 237 (9.1%) had severe trauma (ISS > 11). Sixty-two percent were male. Twenty-nine percent were between the ages of 10 and 14 years, 27% between 5 and 9 years, 16% between 15 and 17 years, 15% between 1 and 4 years, and 13% less than 1 year old. The most common mechanisms of injury were due to motor vehicle traffic (39%), falls (24%), child abuse (8%), and sports (5%). Of those resulting from motor vehicle traffic, 53 (57%) were occupants, 22 (24%) were pedestrians, and 18 (19%) were cyclists. When combining traffic and nontraffic mechanisms, 26 (11% of all severe trauma cases) occurred as a result of cycling incidents. The most severe injury in 65% of patients was to the head and neck body region.
Research efforts and activities to prevent severe pediatric trauma in our region should focus on road safety, protection from head injuries, avoidance of falls, and prevention of child abuse.
Snowboard injuries in a Swedish ski area were evaluated from 1989 to 1999. All injured skiers (alpine, telemark, snowboarders) who sought medical attention at the local Medical Center within 48 h of the accident, were asked to answer an injury form. Physicians assessed and treated the injured skiers. There were a total of 1775 injured skiers; 568 injured snowboarders mean age 19 years. The female/male ratio was 34/66%, the injury rate 3/1000 skier days, three times higher than that of alpine skiers. The skill level of the injured snowboard riders improved during the period. The fall/run ratio of the beginners was higher (1.0) and their risk behavior lower (3.9 on visual analogue scale 1-10) in comparison to the advanced riders (0.4 and 6.6, respectively). Injuries were in 54% located to the upper extremity, 35% were wrist/lower arm injuries. Beginners had significantly higher frequency of lower arm/wrist injuries (46%), than average (32%) and advanced riders (20%). The most frequent single diagnosis was wrist/lower arm fracture (20%). Advanced riders tend to have more head/neck injuries than beginners, 17% vs. 13% (NS). Thus, with elevated skill level the injury pattern changed. For injury prevention, wrist guards and helmets are recommended for snowboard riders.
25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) deficiency is associated with compromised bone mineralisation, fatigue, suppressed immune function and unsatisfactory skeletal muscle recovery. We investigated the risk of 25(OH)D insufficiency or deficiency in endurance athletes compared to sedentary non-athletes living at 64° north.
University student-athletes (TS) and sedentary students (SS) volunteered to participate in this study. TS engaged in regular exercise while SS exercised no more than 20 minutes/week. Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET) scores for participants were determined. Vitamin D intake was assessed using the National Cancer Institute's 24-hour food recall (ASA24). Fasting plasma 25(OH)D levels were quantified via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
TS reported higher activity levels than SS as assessed with MET-minutes/week and ranking of physical activity levels (p
Cites: Chem Biol. 2014 Mar 20;21(3):319-29 PMID 24529992
We present a series of 331 patients admitted to hospital in 1980-87 with abdominal injuries after blunt trauma. The patients included 230 males and 101 females. The median age was 29 years. More than half of the patients were injured in traffic accidents. 11% were transferred to our Trauma Center from other hospitals, median five hours after the accident. A doctor-manned helicopter transported 52 patients (18%) directly to our hospital. 70% had extra-abdominal injuries as well. A minimum of 20% were intoxicated by alcohol and/or drugs. Severe injuries (AIS greater than 3) were present in 46%. 168 patients underwent laparotomy, in 56% within two hours of admission. In 27 of the 168 laparotomized patients (16%) no intraabdominal injury was encountered that needed repair.
Three hundred and forty-eight children from Skaraborg County, Sweden, admitted to hospital with abdominal injuries over a 30-year period (1951-1980), have been analysed and compared with all patients with abdominal injury (1407) admitted to hospital from the same area during the same period. The number of children admitted in the second half of the period was greater than during the first but the proportion of children compared with adults was considerably reduced. During the period abdominal injuries due to car accidents increased in adults but not in children. The most frequent cause of abdominal injury in children was a bicycle accident. Abdominal injury due to sport also increased over the period. Mortality decreased, with no deaths in the past 10 years, compared with 8.6 per cent mortality in the first 10 years of the period.
A retrospective study of intra-abdominal injuries treated during the ten-year period 1977 to 1986, show that road traffic accidents were responsible for the injury in 38% of 221 patients. Accidents from sports and recreation were the cause in 23% of the cases. The median age was 19 years. Renal injuries were most common, followed by splenic injuries. 119 patients (54%) were operated for abdominal injury. 90 patients (41%) needed blood transfusions and 29 (13%) were treated by respirator. 95 patients had concommitant extraabdominal injuries. The overall lethality was 9%.
The frequency of abdominal injury is rising. In an analysis of 1,354 cases of closed abdominal trauma sustained during a 30-year period (1950-1979) in Skaraborg County, Sweden, a distinct increase was found in the numbers associated with sporting activities. The severity of the injuries caused by sports likewise showed an increase. The representation of injured organs was of the same order as in the total series of closed abdominal injuries. An analysis of the 136 cases of sports-associated injury is presented with regard to cause and type of the injuries, diagnosis and prognosis.
The association between ABO blood groups and Achilles tendon (AT) ruptures was studied in 215 consecutive AT rupture patients treated at Oulu University Hospital during the 16-year period from 1979 to 1994 as compared with control material consisting of earlier blood group determinations performed on an unselected sample of 5,536 young Finnish male adults. There was no blood group O dominance or other statistical differences in ABO blood groups between the patients with AT rupture and the control population (chi 2 3.79, P = 0.28), the A/O ratio being 1.82 in the rupture group and 1.42 in the controls. We found no blood group O dominance in competitive athletes, recreational athletes or non-athletes, in patients with sports-related AT ruptures or non-sports-related ruptures and in younger ( or = 45--years) patients. In conclusion, our results do not confirm early findings of blood group O dominance in patients with AT rupture.
The aim of this study was to characterise the acceleration and sprint profiles of elite football match play in one Norwegian elite football team (Rosenborg FC). Fifteen professional players in five playing positions took part in the study (n = 101 observations). Player movement was recorded during every domestic home game of one full season (n = 15) by an automatic tracking system based on microwave technology. Each player performed 91 ± 21 accelerations per match, with a lower number in the second compared with the first half (47 ± 12 vs. 44 ± 12). Players in lateral positions accelerated more often compared to players in central positions (98.3 ± 20.5 vs. 85.3 ± 19.5, p