Laboratory of Atherosclerosis Genetics, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Tampere University Hospital and the Medical School at the University of Tampere, 33014 Tampere, Finland. email@example.com
Individuals suffering from ATH (adult-type hypolactasia), defined by the LCT (gene encoding lactase-phlorizin hydrolase) C/C(-13910) genotype (rs4988235), use less milk and dairy products and may have higher plasma HDL (high-density lipoprotein) and lower triacylglycerol (triglyceride) concentrations than their counterparts without ATH. To investigate the effects of ATH status on the early markers of atherosclerosis, we examined its association with CIMT (carotid intima-media thickness), CAC (carotid artery compliance) and brachial artery FMD (flow-mediated dilation) in a young population-based cohort of otherwise healthy individuals. As part of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, we performed CIMT, CAC and FMD analyses, LCT C/T(-13910) genotyping and risk factor determination in 2109 young subjects 24-39 years of age (45% males) at the time of the examination. The consumption of both milk and dairy products was lowest and the consumption of alcohol highest in subjects with the C/C(-13910) genotype (P
Children with persistent Chlamydia pneumoniae infection may be at increased risk for atherosclerosis. The impact of antimicrobial therapy for primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is unsolved.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether treatment with antimicrobial agents effective against C pneumoniae during childhood, regardless of indication, has a favorable influence on the arterial wall-thickness in children by the time they reach adolescence.
The association of macrolide, tetracycline, quinolone, and rifamycin use (number of exposure events) between ages 5 and 13 years with carotid and aortic intima-media thickness at age 13 years was investigated among 508 healthy children. Information about the use of medications was obtained from the Finnish prescription register. Arterial intima-media thickness was measured with a high-resolution ultrasound.
Mean aortic intima-media thickness showed a significant direct association with the number of antichlamydial antimicrobial exposure events also after controlling for established atherosclerotic risk factors. Elevated C-reactive protein level had an additional effect on aortic intima-media thickness in a multivariable model. Carotid intima-media thickness was not associated with the number of preceding antichlamydial treatments.
Recurrent antichlamydial treatments in childhood have no favorable influence on early vascular changes but are associated with increased intima-media thickness in the abdominal aorta. These findings suggest that the use of antimicrobial agents does not offer protection against the potential atherogenicity of repeated infectious insults.
Scavenging and reverse transport of atherogenic oxidized lipids by high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was recently suggested to contribute to atheroprotection. We investigated the associations of oxidized HDL lipids (oxHDLlipids) with known risk factors for atherosclerosis in a population-based cross-sectional study of 1395 Finnish adults ages 24-39 years (54.9% women). Analysis of oxidized lipids in isolated HDL and LDL (oxLDLlipids) was based on the determination of conjugated dienes. Oxidized LDL was measured also with a method based on antibodies against oxidized Apo-B (oxLDLprot). Serum lipids and risk factors were measured. In multivariable models, oxHDLlipids were associated inversely with age (partial R(2)=2.9% in men, 0.8% in women) and directly with oxLDLlipids (partial R(2)=3.4% in men, 4.2% in women) after adjustment for Apo-A1 (partial R(2)=9.6% in men, 25.2% in women). In men, oxHDLlipids were also associated inversely with insulin (partial R(2)=1.1%). In women, oxHDLlipids were additionally inversely associated with waist circumference (partial R(2)=1.8%) and daily smoking (partial R(2)=0.7%) and directly with C-reactive protein (CRP; partial R(2)=0.5%) and alcohol use (partial R(2)=0.5%). We conclude that an elevated risk profile characterized primarily by advanced age is associated with lower oxHDLlipid levels in a population of young Finnish men and women. Higher levels of oxHDLlipids are additionally associated with higher oxLDLlipid levels. In men, higher insulin levels are also associated with lower oxHDLlipid levels. In women, increased waist circumference and daily smoking are also associated with lower oxHDLlipid levels, and higher CRP levels and alcohol use are associated with higher oxHDLlipid levels.
To determine prevalence and type of atherosclerotic vascular events (AVE) occurring after entry to the University of Toronto Lupus Clinic; and to compare risk factors in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with AVE to matched SLE controls without AVE.
Patients with SLE attending the University of Toronto Lupus Clinic who did not have AVE prior to clinic entry were included. Patients have been followed at 2-6 months since 1970 according to a standard protocol. Cases with AVE were matched for sex, era at first clinic visit (1970s, 1980s, 1990s +), inception status, age at first visit, and duration of followup. Chi-square, Fisher's exact, paired T test, and McNemar test were used. Comparison of risk factors for the development of AVE was done using a stepwise conditional logistic regression model for matched pairs.
In a total cohort of 1087 SLE patients followed from 1970 until 2004, the prevalence of AVE was 10.9%, and in 561 inception patients it was 9.6%. In multivariate analyses, neuropsychiatric involvement was significantly associated with AVE in both the total and inception cohorts. Smoking was also associated with AVE in the inception cohort, whereas the number of coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors and vasculitis were significant in the total cohort.
AVE are major contributors to the clinical presentation of late-stage lupus. A combination of lupus related factors and classic CAD risk factors contributed to the development of AVE.
Elevated oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) may promote inflammation, and is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease and worsening complications of diabetes mellitus. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of chitin-glucan (CG), alone and in combination with a potentially anti-inflammatory olive oil (OO) extract, for reducing OxLDL in subjects with borderline to high LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) levels.
This 6-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of a novel, insoluble fiber derived from the Aspergillus niger mycelium, CG, evaluated 130 subjects free of diabetes mellitus with fasting LDL-C 3.37-4.92?mmol/l and glucose = 6.94?mmol/l. Participants were randomly assigned to receive CG (4.5?g/day; n=33), CG (1.5?g/day; n=32), CG (1.5?g/day) plus OO extract (135?mg/day; n=30), or matching placebo (n=35).
Administration of 4.5?g/day CG for 6 weeks significantly reduced OxLDL compared with placebo (P=0.035). At the end of study, CG was associated with lower LDL-C levels relative to placebo, although this difference was statistically significant only for the CG 1.5?g/day group (P=0.019). CG did not significantly affect high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin or F2-isoprostane levels. Adverse events did not substantively differ between treatments and placebo.
In this 6-week study, CG (4.5?g/day) reduced OxLDL, an effect that might affect the risk for atherosclerosis.
A cross-sectional study of a representative sample of boys aged 7-17 years (n=569) was carried out in Arkhangelsk. The rate of asymptomatic hyperuricemia was 27.59 %. Serum level of uric acid correlated with levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting glycemia, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.49; 0.27; 0.27; 0.26; 0.34 u 0.35, respectively; p
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of dietary micronutrient intake in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
This study included 111 SLE patients and 118 age and gender-matched controls. Data on diet (food frequency questionnaires) were linked with data on Systemic Lupus Activity Measure, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) and carotid atherosclerotic/echolucent plaque (B-mode ultrasound). Dietary micronutrient intake were compared between SLE patients and controls and in relation to lupus activity and atherosclerosis in SLE. Associations between micronutrient intake and plaque were analyzed through logistic regression, adjusted for potential confounders.
Micronutrient intake did not differ between patients and controls, and between lower and higher lupus activity, apart from the fact that phosphorus was associated with SLEDAI?>?6. In SLE patients, some micronutrients were associated with atherosclerotic plaque, left side. Lower intake of riboflavin and phosphorus was associated with atherosclerotic plaque, left side (odds ratio (OR) 3.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-8.40 and OR 4.36, 95% CI 1.53-12.39, respectively). Higher intake of selenium and thiamin was inversely associated with atherosclerotic plaque, left side (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.09-0.89 and OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.08-0.80, respectively). In addition, higher intake of thiamin was inversely associated with echolucent plaque, left side (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.06-0.84). Lower intake of folate was inversely associated with bilateral echolucent plaque (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.13-0.99).
SLE patients did not have different dietary micronutrient intake compared to controls. Phosphorus was associated with lupus activity. Riboflavin, phosphorus, selenium and thiamin were inversely associated with atherosclerotic plaque, left side in SLE patients, but not in controls. Dietary micronutrients may play a role in atherosclerosis in SLE.
There is a paucity of detailed information about the role of childhood food patterns or on the impact of individual nutrients on adulthood cardiovascular disease (CVD). We review here the reports that have investigated these questions in the Young Finns Study with its 3596 subjects at baseline, aged 3 to 18 years. All the participants filled in a food habit questionnaire, and half of them provided a 48-hour dietary recall interview. In adulthood, cardiovascular risk factors as well as structural and functional markers of subclinical atherosclerosis were measured, i.e. carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT), and measurements of arterial elasticity and brachial artery endothelial function. Our data demonstrate that dietary patterns can already be identified in childhood. These patterns remain relatively stable over the life-course and associate with cardiovascular risk factors and vascular markers of subclinical atherosclerosis. For example, a traditional dietary pattern characterized by low intakes of fruits and vegetables was associated with elevated increased adulthood IMT especially in men, whereas a diet with a high intake of vegetables was independently associated with increased arterial elasticity in both genders. Our findings and the current literature suggest that childhood nutrition has a significant role in the progression of CVD.
To examine the relationship between birth weight and later low-grade inflammation in children and adolescents.
We selected 166 children (49.4% boys; aged, 9.5 +/- 0.3 years) and 126 adolescents (43.7% males; aged, 15.5 +/- 0.4 years) from the Swedish part of the European Youth Heart Study. Birth weight data were collected from parental recall. Low-grade inflammatory markers include C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and complement factors C3 and C4. Fatness was measured by the sum of 5 skinfold thicknesses. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured with a maximal ergometer bike test. The association between birth weight and low-grade inflammatory markers was examined with multiple regression analyses.
Birth weight was negatively associated with fibrinogen (beta = -0.059; P = .036), C3 (beta = -0.019; P = .010), and C4 (beta = -0.024; P = .031), after controlling for sex, pubertal status, mother's body mass index and socioeconomic status, fatness and fitness. Birth weight was not associated to later C-reactive protein level (all P > .1).
Our results showed that smaller birth weight is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation in children and adolescents. Because of the implication of complement factors on atherosclerosis process, these results contribute to explain the increased cardiovascular risk associated with low birth weight.
The authors revealed prevalence of arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis risk factors among female Internal Ministry officers, demonstrated influence of occupational activities on frequency of the studied parameters and on cardiovascular risk.