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70 records – page 1 of 7.

A 1-year, three-couple expedition as a crew analog for a Mars mission.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature31234
Source
Environ Behav. 2002 Sep;34(5):672-700
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2002
Author
Gloria R Leon
Mera M Atlis
Deniz S Ones
Graeme Magor
Author Affiliation
Clinical Psychology, University of Minnesota, USA.
Source
Environ Behav. 2002 Sep;34(5):672-700
Date
Sep-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adult
Aerospace Medicine
Arctic Regions
Astronauts - psychology
Canada
Child
Cold Climate
Darkness
Expeditions
Female
Humans
Interpersonal Relations
Male
Mars
Norway
Personality
Personnel Selection
Questionnaires
Social Isolation
Space Simulation
Spouses - psychology
Abstract
This study assessed the intrapersonal and interpersonal functioning of a three-couple expedition group that included a 2 1/2-year-old child which was ice-locked on a boat in the High Arctic during a major portion of the expedition. Personality assessment indicated that team members were generally well adjusted, scoring relatively higher on well-being and achievement and relatively lower on stress reactivity. Weekly mood ratings showed that the group exhibited significantly higher positive than negative affect. Reported negative events were relatively most frequent at the beginning of the Arctic stay and toward the end of the darkness period and were lowest during the initial darkness interval. The period of darkness had both a salutary and negative impact. A highly important means of coping with stress was seeking emotional support from one's partner. Selection of couples with strong bonds with their partner appears to be one viable approach for crew selection for long-duration missions.
PubMed ID
12481801 View in PubMed
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[An analysis of standards documents on the radiation safety problem in space flights and the proposals for their improvement].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature199630
Source
Aviakosm Ekolog Med. 1999;33(6):21-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
1999
Author
A V Shafirkin
Iu G Grigor'ev
V M Petrov
Source
Aviakosm Ekolog Med. 1999;33(6):21-32
Date
1999
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Astronauts - standards
Documentation - standards
Humans
Maximum Allowable Concentration
Middle Aged
Radiation Dosage
Radiation Protection - standards
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Russia
Safety - standards
Space Flight - standards
Time Factors
United States
Abstract
The paper considers in retrospective the criteria of radiation hazard during space flight, and approaches to safeguarding the radiation safety to crew members adopted in a sequence of Russian and US standards defining the space radiation limits. Based on comparison of the magnitudes of radiation risk in space flight, total radiation risk over lifetime, the risk of fatal cancer, and risk relation to age, the most meaningful and age-independent criterion has been chosen to set limits and admissible total doses over cosmonaut's career. Justification is given to the range of these doses that still ensures socially acceptable levels of health and performance by the end of space career. Impliable dose limits for critical tissues (blood-forming organs, skin, lenticular epithelium) in consequence of a single acute or continuous exposure for a month, a year or career are discussed.
PubMed ID
10656131 View in PubMed
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Biodosimetry results from space flight Mir-18.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature207375
Source
Radiat Res. 1997 Nov;148(5 Suppl):S17-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1997
Author
T C Yang
K. George
A S Johnson
M. Durante
B S Fedorenko
Author Affiliation
NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas 77058, USA.
Source
Radiat Res. 1997 Nov;148(5 Suppl):S17-23
Date
Nov-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Astronauts
Chromosome Aberrations
Humans
In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
Lymphocytes
Radiation Dosage
Radiation monitoring
Russia
Sister Chromatid Exchange
Space Flight
Abstract
Astronauts are classified as radiation workers due to the presence of ionizing radiation in space. For the assessment of health risks, physical dosimetry has been indispensable. However, the change of the location of dosimeters on the crew members, the variation in dose rate with location inside the spacecraft and the unknown biological effects of microgravity can introduce significant uncertainties in estimating exposure. To circumvent such uncertainty, a study on the cytogenetic effects of space radiation in human lymphocytes was proposed and conducted for Mir-18, a 115-day mission. This study used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with whole-chromosome painting probes to score chromosomal exchanges and the Giemsa staining method to determine the frequency of dicentrics. The growth kinetics of cells and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) were examined to ensure that chromosomal aberrations were scored in the first mitosis and were induced primarily by space radiation. Our results showed that the frequency of chromosomal aberrations increased significantly in postflight samples compared to samples drawn prior to flight, and that the frequency of SCEs was similar for both pre- and postflight samples. Based on a dose-response curve for preflight samples exposed to gamma rays, the absorbed dose received by crew members during the mission was estimated to be about 14.75 cSv. Because the absorbed dose measured by physical dosimeters is 5.2 cGy for the entire mission, the RBE is about 2.8.
PubMed ID
9355852 View in PubMed
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Biohazard potential of putative Martian organisms during missions to Mars.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature163488
Source
Aviat Space Environ Med. 2007 Apr;78(4 Suppl):A79-88
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2007
Author
David Warmflash
Maia Larios-Sanz
Jeffrey Jones
George E Fox
David S McKay
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, TX, USA. dwarmfla@ems.jsc.nasa.gov
Source
Aviat Space Environ Med. 2007 Apr;78(4 Suppl):A79-88
Date
Apr-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aerospace Medicine
Astronauts
Containment of Biohazards
Environmental Microbiology
Environmental monitoring
Exobiology
Extraterrestrial Environment
Humans
Life
Mars
Risk
Space Flight
Spacecraft
United States
United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Weightlessness
Abstract
Exploration Class missions to Mars will require precautions against potential contamination by any native microorganisms that may be incidentally pathogenic to humans. While the results of NASA's Viking biology experiments of the 1970s have been generally interpreted as inconclusive for surface organisms, and attributed to active but nonbiological chemistries, the possibility of native surface life has never been ruled out completely. It is possible that, prior to the first human landing on Mars, robotic craft and sample return missions will provide enough data to know with certainty whether future human landing sites harbor extant life forms. If native life were found to exist, it would be problematic to determine whether any of its species might present a medical danger to astronauts. Therefore, it will become necessary to assess empirically the risk that the planet contains pathogens based on terrestrial examples of pathogenicity and to take a reasonably cautious approach to biohazard protection. A survey of terrestrial pathogens was conducted with special emphasis on those whose evolution has not depended on the presence of animal hosts. The history of the development and implementation of Apollo anti-contamination protocol and recommendations of the National Research Council's Space Studies Board regarding Mars were reviewed. Organisms can emerge in Nature in the absence of indigenous animal hosts and both infectious and non-infectious human pathogens are therefore theoretically possible on Mars. Although remote, the prospect of Martian surface life, together with the existence of a diversity of routes by which pathogenicity has emerged on Earth, suggests that the probability of human pathogens on Mars, while low, is not zero. Still, since the discovery and study of Martian life can have long-term benefits for humanity, the risk that Martian life might include pathogens should not be an obstacle to human exploration. As a precaution, it is recommended that EVA (extravehicular activity) suits be decontaminated when astronauts enter surface habitats upon returning from field activity and that biosafety protocols approximating laboratory BSL 2 be developed for astronauts working in laboratories on the Martian surface. Quarantine of astronauts and Martian materials arriving on Earth should also be part of a human mission to Mars, and this and the surface biosafety program should be integral to human expeditions from the earliest stages of the mission planning.
PubMed ID
17511302 View in PubMed
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Biological dosimetry in Russian and Italian astronauts.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature183670
Source
Adv Space Res. 2003;31(6):1495-503
Publication Type
Article
Date
2003
Author
O. Greco
M. Durante
G. Gialanella
G. Grossi
M. Pugliese
P. Scampoli
G. Snigiryova
G. Obe
Author Affiliation
Radiation Oncology Department, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI 48201-2013, USA.
Source
Adv Space Res. 2003;31(6):1495-503
Date
2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Astronauts
Chromosome Aberrations - classification - statistics & numerical data
Cosmic Radiation
Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
Extravehicular Activity
Humans
Italy
Lymphocytes - cytology - radiation effects
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - prevention & control
Occupational Exposure
Radiation Dosage
Risk assessment
Russia
Space Flight
Abstract
Large uncertainties are associated with estimates of equivalent dose and cancer risk for crews of long-term space missions. Biological dosimetry in astronauts is emerging as a useful technique to compare predictions based on quality factors and risk coefficients with actual measurements of biological damage in-flight. In the present study, chromosomal aberrations were analyzed in one Italian and eight Russian cosmonauts following missions of different duration on the MIR and the international space station (ISS). We used the technique of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to visualize translocations in chromosomes 1 and 2. In some cases, an increase in chromosome damage was observed after flight, but no correlation could be found between chromosome damage and flight history, in terms of number of flights at the time of sampling, duration in space and extra-vehicular activity. Blood samples from one of the cosmonauts were exposed in vitro to 6 MeV X-rays both before and after the flight. An enhancement in radiosensitivity induced by the spaceflight was observed.
PubMed ID
12971404 View in PubMed
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Biomechanical aspects of gravitational training of the astronauts before the flight.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature50070
Source
J Gravit Physiol. 1997 Jul;4(2):P139-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1997
Author
A N Laputin
Author Affiliation
Institute on System Research of the Man of Ukrainian Federation of Cosmonautics, Kiev, Ukraine.
Source
J Gravit Physiol. 1997 Jul;4(2):P139-40
Date
Jul-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Astronauts - education
Biomechanics
Exercise - physiology
Exercise Therapy
Humans
Hypergravity
Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
Muscle, Skeletal - physiology
Space Flight - education
Space Suits
Weightlessness
Abstract
Researchers tested a hypothesis that astronauts can become more proficient in training for tasks during space flight by training in a high gravity suit. Computer image analysis of movements, tensodynamography, and myotonometry were used to analyze movement in the hypergravity suit, muscle response, and other biomechanical factors. Results showed that training in the hypergravity suit improved the biomechanics of motor performance.
PubMed ID
11540681 View in PubMed
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Blaha suggests need for future research on the effects of isolation and confinement.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature208226
Source
Hum Perf Extrem Environ. 1997 Jun;2(1):52-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1997

[Calculation of radiation loads in a space station compartment with a secondary shielding].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature104658
Source
Aviakosm Ekolog Med. 2013 Nov-Dec;47(6):61-6
Publication Type
Article
Author
D A Kartashov
R V Tolochek
V A Shurshakov
E N Yarmanova
Source
Aviakosm Ekolog Med. 2013 Nov-Dec;47(6):61-6
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Astronauts
Cosmic Radiation
Humans
Radiation Dosage
Radiation Injuries - prevention & control
Radiation Protection - instrumentation
Russia
Spacecraft
Abstract
Doses from space ionizing radiation were estimated using a model of ISS cosmonaut's quarters (CQ) outfitted with secondary shielding ("Protective shutter" (PS) as part of experiment MATRYOSHKA-R). Protective shutter is a "blanket" of water-containing material with mass thickness of - 6 g/cm2 covering the CQ exterior wall. Calculation was performed specifically for locations of experimental dosimetry assemblies. Agreement of calculations and experimental data reaching accuracy - 15% proves model applicability to estimating protective effectiveness of secondary shielding in the present-day and future space vehicles. This shielding may reduce radiation loading onto crewmembers as an equivalent dose by more than 40% within a broad range of orbit altitudes equally during the solar minimum and maximum.
PubMed ID
24660246 View in PubMed
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A Canadian high-energy neutron spectrometry system for measurements in space.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature175220
Source
Acta Astronaut. 2005 May-Jun;56(9-12):975-9
Publication Type
Article
Author
G. Jonkmans
H R Andrews
E T H Clifford
G. Frketich
H. Ing
V T Koslowsky
R A Noulty
R C Miller
Y. Zhou
A. Mortimer
D. Peterson
R. Wilkinson
Author Affiliation
Bubble Technology Industries Inc., Chalk River, ON, Canada.
Source
Acta Astronaut. 2005 May-Jun;56(9-12):975-9
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Astronauts
Calibration
Canada
Cosmic Radiation
Equipment Design
Extraterrestrial Environment
Humans
Neutrons
Radiation Dosage
Radiation Monitoring - instrumentation
Space Flight - instrumentation
Spectrum Analysis - instrumentation
Abstract
Bubble Technology Industries Inc. (BTI), with the support of the Canadian Space Agency, has finished the construction of the Canadian High-Energy Neutron Spectrometry System (CHENSS). This spectrometer is intended to measure the high energy neutron spectrum (approximately 1-100 MeV) encountered in spacecraft in low earth orbit. CHENSS is designed to fly aboard a US space shuttle and its scientific results should facilitate the prediction of neutron dose to astronauts in space from readings of different types of radiation dosimeters that are being used in various missions.
PubMed ID
15835056 View in PubMed
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70 records – page 1 of 7.