Although many studies have investigated the possible association between analgesic use (acetaminophen and aspirin) and the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD), the effect of analgesics on the progression of established CKD of any cause has not yet been investigated.
In this population-based Swedish cohort study, we investigated the decline over 5-7 years in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) among 801 patients with incident, advanced CKD (serum creatinine >3.4 mg/dL for men, >2.8 mg/dL for women for the first time) and with different analgesic exposures. Lifetime analgesic use and current regular use were ascertained through in-person interviews at inclusion while data on analgesic use during the follow-up was abstracted from the medical records at the end of the study period. A linear regression slope, based on their eGFR values during the follow-up, provided a summary of within-individual change. In the final multivariate analyses, a linear mixed effects model was implemented to assess the relation of analgesic use and change in eGFR over time.
The progression rate for regular users of acetaminophen was slower than that for non-regular users (regular users progressed 0.93 mL/min/1.73 m(2) per year slower than non-regular users; 95% CI 0.03, 1.8). For regular users of aspirin, the progression rate was significantly slower than that for non-regular users (regular users progressed 0.80 mL/min/1.73 m(2) per year slower than non-regular users; 95% CI 0.1, 1.5). Different levels of lifetime cumulative dose of acetaminophen and aspirin did not significantly affect the progression rate.
We suggest that single substance acetaminophen and aspirin may be safe to use by patients with diagnosed advanced CKD stage 4-5 without an adverse effect on the progression rate of the disease.
Essential thrombocythemia is a chronic myeloproliferative disease characterized by persistent thrombocytosis and an increased risk of thromboembolic complications. Most patients are asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis. In this article guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of this disorder are presented on behalf of the Norwegian Society of Hematology. On the basis of a literature search in international databases (Medline) and international medical journals, articles have been selected according to their clinical relevance. The risk of major thrombosis is higher in patients older than 60 years and highest among those with a previous occlusive event. In individual patients there is no clear relationship between platelet count and risk of thrombosis. Low-dose aspirin (75-100 mg/day) is recommended to all patients with platelet count
Comment In: Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2000 Feb 10;120(4):512-310833946
Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Unit of Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Anticoagulant treatment might enhance the natural defense against tumor cell dissemination caused by diagnostic needle biopsy by counteracting thrombocyte coating of such cells. To clarify whether women using anticoagulant treatment at the time of biopsy have a lower occurrence of lymph node metastasis, we conducted a nationwide Swedish cohort study of 26,528 female incident breast cancer patients in 2006-2011. Point risk ratio (RR) of risk of lymph node metastasis among users of anticoagulant treatment adjusted for age, T-stage, socioeconomic factors, and concomitant medication was RR?=?0.94, (95% CI: 0.87-1.03), and lower in younger women (RR?=?0.80, 95% CI 0.50-1.29). Although nonsignificant, these associations may underestimate a true negative association since women using anticoagulant treatment are likely to have more concomitant diseases, lead an unhealthier lifestyle, and have lower participation in mammography screening. These findings provide some support for the hypothesis that anticoagulant medications might counteract breast cancer spread caused by needle biopsy.
Although warfarin therapy reduces the risk of stroke among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), the risk of hemorrhagic complications and other concerns may make clinicians reluctant to prescribe this treatment for elderly patients. Aspirin is a lower-risk alternative to warfarin but is also less effective. This study examines the use of antithrombotic therapy with warfarin or aspirin at hospital discharge among 182 Medicare beneficiaries 65 or older with chronic AF who were admitted to nine Alaska hospitals during 1996. Sixty-five percent of patients without contraindications were discharged on warfarin, and an additional 16% received aspirin. The rate of anticoagulation with warfarin was much higher among patients aged 65-74 (95%) than among those 75 or older (45%). The relatively low rate of warfarin use for very elderly patients may represent an opportunity to improve care. Although these patients have the highest risk of hemorrhagic complications, they also have the greatest potential to benefit from anticoagulation.
Aspirin (75 mg/day) after an episode of unstable coronary artery disease: long-term effects on the risk for myocardial infarction, occurrence of severe angina and the need for revascularization. Research Group on Instability in Coronary Artery Disease in Southeast Sweden.
In this study, 796 men with unstable coronary artery disease (that is, unstable angina or non-Q wave myocardial infarction) were randomized to double-blind placebo-controlled treatment with aspirin (75 mg/day). The long-term efficacy was judged from the occurrence of myocardial infarction or death or severe angina necessitating referral to coronary angiography. The risk of myocardial infarction or death was reduced during aspirin treatment--after 1 year, the risk ratio was 0.52 (confidence interval 0.37 to 0.72). Severe angina necessitating referral to coronary angiography was less common during aspirin therapy--after 3 months, the risk ratio was 0.59 (0.42 to 0.84) and after 1 year 0.71 (0.56 to 0.91). The combined event rate of myocardial infarction or death or referral to coronary angiography was reduced; after 3 months, the risk ratio was 0.44 (0.30 to 0.66) and after 1 year 0.65 (0.54 to 0.79). The 75-mg aspirin dose was well tolerated and had a high level of patient compliance. Treatment with aspirin (75 mg/day) should be recommended to all men for greater than or equal to 3 months after an episode of unstable coronary artery disease. Long-term therapy should be considered if there are no contraindications or side effects.
Comment On: J Am Coll Cardiol. 1991 Dec;18(7):1617-261960305
There are few known modifiable risk factors for Hodgkin lymphoma, but the recent finding of an inverse association between routine regular-strength aspirin use and Hodgkin lymphoma risk suggests that aspirin may protect against Hodgkin lymphoma development. To further investigate this association using prospectively collected data, we conducted a population-based case-control study in northern Denmark. A total of 478 incident Hodgkin lymphoma cases were identified in nationwide health-care databases from 1991 to 2008. Ten population controls were matched to each case on age, sex, and county using risk-set sampling. Use of aspirin, selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) from 1989 to 2007 was ascertained by linkage to a population-based prescription database. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios for associations between medication use and risk of Hodgkin lymphoma. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for ever use (>2 prescriptions) compared with never/rare use (2 prescriptions in the 1-2 years before the index date), short-term use ( or =25% of duration of use covered by prescription) of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors or other NSAIDs was associated with increased Hodgkin lymphoma risk possibly due to prodromal symptoms among cases. In conclusion, our results provide some evidence of a protective effect of low-dose aspirin, but not other NSAIDs, against Hodgkin lymphoma development.
Aspirin compared with acetaminophen in the treatment of fever and other symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection in adults: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, single-dose, 6-hour dose-ranging study.
BACKGROUND: Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and acetaminophen (paracetamol) are frequently used to treat fever and other symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). Both are available over the counter for use at the standard recommended doses of 500 and 1000 mg per single use. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the efficacy, safety profiles, and tolerability of aspirin 500 and 1000 mg and acetaminophen 500 and 1000 mg compared with placebo in adult patients with acute febrile URTI of suspected viral origin. METHODS: This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial conducted in Ukraine and Russia. Patients with URTI and acute fever of > or =38.5 degrees C received a single dose of aspirin 500 or 1000 mg, acetaminophen 500 or 1000 mg, or matching placebo. Oral body temperature was measured in the clinic at specified time points up to 6 hours after dosing. The intensity of other symptoms of URTI was rated by patients at baseline and at 2, 4, and 6 hours after dosing (scale from 0 = none to 10 = severe). The primary efficacy measure was the AUC for the change in orally measured body temperature from the time of treatment (baseline) to 4 hours after dosing. Secondary outcome measures included the change in body temperature from baseline to specified time points between 0.5 and 6 hours after dosing, the difference between baseline and the lowest measured body temperature, the time to the lowest measured body temperature, and the intensity of other symptoms of URTI (ie, headache, sinus sensitivity to percussion, sore throat, achiness, and feverish discomfort). Tolerability was monitored by recording of adverse events. RESULTS: Three hundred ninety-two patients were enrolled (78 in both aspirin groups, 79 in both acetaminophen groups, 78 in the placebo group). Demographic and baseline characteristics were comparable in the 5 groups; 51% of patients were male, with a mean age of 37.4 years and a mean body weight of 74.3 kg. The AUC values for the change in body temperature 0 to 4 hours after dosing were 3.18 (95% CI, 2.78-3.57) for aspirin 500 mg, 4.26 (95% CI, 3.84-4.68) for aspirin 1000 mg, 3.13 (95% CI, 2.77-3.49) for acetaminophen 500 mg, 4.11 (95% CI, 3.73-4.49) for acetaminophen 1000 mg, and 0.76 (95% CI, 0.38-1.13) for placebo. In terms of the primary efficacy variable, all active treatments were significantly superior to placebo (P
Levels of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis from 5 centers involved in the Arthritis, Rheumatism, and Aging Medical Information System were correlated with the use of specific antirheumatic medications. Elevated levels of SGOT and SGPT were most frequent in patients taking salicylates and methotrexate (MTX) and least frequent in patients taking hydroxychloroquine. The combination of MTX and salicylates greatly increased the frequency of abnormal liver enzyme values. In contrast, the addition of hydroxychloroquine to a regimen of either MTX or aspirin essentially eliminated the SGOT and SGPT abnormalities. Results from all 5 centers were consistent and remained so after adjustment for age, sex, and disease duration. Knowledge of these important drug interactions may permit continuation of MTX therapy in patients in whom the drug might otherwise be discontinued.
Aspirin (ASA) use has been associated with improved breast cancer survival in several prospective studies.
We conducted a nested case-control study of ASA use after a breast cancer diagnosis among women using Swedish National Registries. We assessed prospectively recorded ASA exposure during several different time windows following cancer diagnosis using conditional logistic regression with breast cancer death as the main outcome. Within each six-month period of follow-up, we categorized dispensed ASA doses into three groups: 0, less than 1, and 1 or more daily doses.
We included 27,426 women diagnosed with breast cancer between 2005 and 2009; 1,661 died of breast cancer when followed until Dec 31, 2010. There was no association between ASA use and breast cancer death when exposure was assessed either shortly after diagnosis, or 3-12 months before the end of follow-up. Only during the period 0-6 months before the end of follow-up was ASA use at least daily compared with non-use associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer death: HR (95% CI)?=0.69 (0.56-0.86). However, in the same time-frame, those using ASA less than daily had an increased risk of breast cancer death: HR (95% CI)?=1.43 (1.09-1.87).
Contrary to other studies, we did not find that ASA use was associated with a lower risk of death from breast cancer, except when assessed short term with no delay to death/end of follow-up, which may reflect discontinuation of ASA during terminal illness.
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