The 2 Ã? 2 model of perfectionism posits that the 4 within-person combinations of self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism (i.e., pure SOP, mixed perfectionism, pure SPP, and nonperfectionism) can be distinctively associated with psychological adjustment. This study examined whether the relationship between the 4 subtypes of perfectionism proposed in the 2 Ã? 2 model (Gaudreau & Thompson, 2010) and academic outcomes (i.e., academic satisfaction and grade-point average [GPA]) differed across 2 sociocultural groups: Asian Canadians and European Canadians. A sample of 697 undergraduate students (23% Asian Canadians) completed self-report measures of dispositional perfectionism, academic satisfaction, and GPA. Results replicated most of the 2 Ã? 2 model's hypotheses on ratings of GPA, thus supporting that nonperfectionism was associated with lower GPA than pure SOP (Hypothesis 1a) but with higher GPA than pure SPP (Hypothesis 2). Results also showed that mixed perfectionism was related to higher GPA than pure SPP (Hypothesis 3) but to similar levels as pure SOP, thus disproving Hypothesis 4. Furthermore, results provided evidence for cross-cultural differences in academic satisfaction. While all 4 hypotheses were supported among European Canadians, only Hypotheses 1a and 3 were supported among Asian Canadians. Future lines of research are discussed in light of the importance of acknowledging the role of culture when studying the influence of dispositional perfectionism on academic outcomes.
Past research showed that East Asians' belief in holism was expressed as their tendencies to include background facial emotions into the evaluation of target faces more than North Americans. However, this pattern can be interpreted as North Americans' tendency to downplay background facial emotions due to their conceptualization of facial emotion as volitional expression of internal states. Examining this alternative explanation, we investigated whether different types of contextual information produce varying degrees of effect on one's face evaluation across cultures. In three studies, European Canadians and East Asians rated the intensity of target facial emotions surrounded with either affectively salient landscape sceneries or background facial emotions. The results showed that, although affectively salient landscapes influenced the judgment of both cultural groups, only European Canadians downplayed the background facial emotions. The role of agency as differently conceptualized across cultures and multilayered systems of cultural meanings are discussed.
A man-made chemical disaster occurred in the Amur River, leading to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the Nanai people indigenous to the river's surrounding area. PTSD severity measured by the total scores of Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) (Total-I) and Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) (Total-C) were not always identical in terms of demographic and ethnocultural characters. It is possible that the results derived using the Total-I and Total-C may differ for persons with different backgrounds and/or individual characteristics. In this study, the associations between PTSD severity and personal characteristics were evaluated.
The study was a field-type survey including 187 randomly selected participants (75 males and 112 females). In addition to Total-I/Total-C, scores for each IES-R/CAPS item, Intrusion, Avoidance, and Hyperarousal, and Ego Structure Test by Ammon (ISTA) score were examined to evaluate their personal characteristics.
No specific trends in ISTA score were obvious among four groups defined according to Total-I/Total-C. The results of principal component analysis showed that all IES-R/CAPS items contributed positively to the 1st axis but to the 2nd axis in a different manner. ISTA items did not always show correlations to each other, but principal component analysis suggested that Construct contributed positively and Destruct and Deficient (with the exception of Destruct sexuality) contributed negatively. High IES-R scores were associated with Construct Aggression and Deficient Inner demarcation, but high CAPS score was less likely to exhibit Construct Narcissism.
To avoid the misdiagnosis of PTSD, usage of both IES-R/CAPS may be required. Simultaneous application of personality/ego tests may be helpful, but appropriate numbers of their questions would be important.
Cites: Ann Occup Environ Med. 2015 Jun 05;27:16 PMID 26137313
To identify and describe barriers to access to mental health services encountered by ethnoracial seniors.
A multiracial, multicultural, and multidisciplinary team including a community workgroup worked in partnership with seniors, families, and service providers in urban Toronto Chinese and Tamil communities to develop a broad, stratified sample of participants and to guide the study. This participatory, action-research project used qualitative methodology based on grounded theory to generate areas of inquiry. Each of 17 focus groups applied the same semistructured format and sequence of inquiry.
Key barriers to adequate care include inadequate numbers of trained and acceptable mental health workers, especially psychiatrists; limited awareness of mental disorders among all participants: limited understanding and capacity to negotiate the current system because of systemic barriers and lack of information; disturbance of family support structures; decline in individual self-worth; reliance on ethnospecific social agencies that are not designed or funded for formal mental health care; lack of services that combine ethnoracial, geriatric, and psychiatric care; inadequacy and unacceptability of interpreter services; reluctance of seniors and families to acknowledge mental health problems for fear of rejection and stigma; lack of appropriate professional responses; and inappropriate referral patterns.
There is a clear need for more mental health workers from ethnic backgrounds, especially appropriately trained psychiatrists, and for upgrading the mental health service capacity of frontline agencies through training and core funding. Active community education programs are necessary to counter stigma and improve knowledge of mental disorders and available services. Mainstream services require acceptable and appropriate entry points. Mental health services need to be flexible enough to serve changing populations and to include services specific to ethnic groups, such as providing comprehensive care for seniors.
Researchers have shown that bicultural individuals, including 2nd-generation immigrants, face a potential conflict between 2 cultural identities. The present authors extended this primarily qualitative research on the bicultural experience by adopting the social identity perspective (H. Tajfel & J. C. Turner, 1986). They developed and tested an empirically testable model of the role of cultural construals, in-group prototypicality, and identity in bicultural conflict in 2 studies with 2nd-generation Asian Canadians. In both studies, the authors expected and found that participants' construals of their 2 cultures as different predicted lower levels of simultaneous identification with both cultures. Furthermore, the authors found this relation was mediated by participants' feelings of prototypicality as members of both groups. Although the perception of cultural difference did not predict well-being as consistently and directly as the authors expected, levels of simultaneous identification did show these relations. The authors discuss results in the context of social identity theory (H. Tajfel & J. C. Turner) as a framework for understanding bicultural conflict.
This study manipulated the race of the defendant and the victim (White/White, White/Asian, Asian/Asian, and Asian/White) in a domestic violence case to examine the potential prejudicial impact of race on juror decision making. A total of 181 undergraduate students read a trial transcript involving an allegation of spousal abuse in which defendant and victim race were manipulated using photographs. They then provided a verdict and confidence rating, a sentence, and responsibility attributions, and completed various scales measuring attitudes toward wife abuse and women. Findings revealed that female jurors were harsher toward the defendant than were male jurors. When controlling for attitudes toward Asians, jurors found the defendant guilty more often in cases involving interracial couples, as compared to same-race couples. Path analyses revealed various factors and attitudes involved in domestic violence trial outcomes. Findings contribute to the scarce literature on legal proceedings involving Asians, particularly in domestic violence cases. Outcomes also provide a model for relevant factors and characteristics of jurors in domestic violence cases. Roadblocks inherent in jury research are also discussed.
To better understand the dental health care pathways of Montreal-based Chinese immigrants.
An ethnographic study based on 12 in-depth semi-structured qualitative interviews was conducted among low-income Chinese immigrants in Montreal, Canada, from January to June 2005. Data about their dental health care-seeking pathways, barriers to the use of professional dental health care services and attitudes to dental health care were collected and coded, and resulting themes analyzed.
Dental health care pathways include self-treatment and consulting a dentist in Canada or during a return visit to China. The pathways vary, depending on the circumstances. For dental caries and other acute dental diseases such as toothache, Chinese immigrants preferred to consult a dentist. For chronic diseases, some of them relied on self-treatment. Financial problems, and language and cultural barriers were the main factors that affected Chinese immigrants' access to dental care services in Canada.
Understanding immigrants' dental health care pathways can help dental health care providers supply culturally competent services and help policy makers devise preventive dental health care programs to suit community needs and cultural contexts.
The authors investigated the impact of ethnic change experienced by Chinese Canadian couples on gender-role attitude, household task-role expectations and performance. The authors presented acculturation and Chinese ethnic identification as the two discriminant facets of ethnic change. Results indicated a nonsignificant role of acculturation in bringing about modifications of the gender-role attitudes of husbands and of their household task-role expectations. In contrast, the acculturation of Chinese Canadian wives proved to be a significant factor in promoting more modern (less traditional) gender-role attitudes, which in turn led to role expectations that they should contribute less to the performance of the tasks that traditionally fall in the female domain whereas their husbands should contribute more. Subsequent results also revealed that the acculturation of wives was directly linked to the role expectation that they should assume a greater share of responsibility in taking care of the traditionally husband-responsible tasks whereas their husbands should contribute a smaller share. Moreover, Chinese ethnic identification emerged as a significant determinant of husbands' gender-role attitudes and influenced their role expectation that husbands should contribute more to the performance of the tasks that traditionally fall in the male domain whereas their wives should contribute less.
This paper challenges common belief that the aging experience is primarily different for seniors in Asia and those in western cultures. The examination reveals that there are many differences in the life situation of seniors living in mainland China and those living in Canada, with Shanghais seniors living in much greater poverty, with much less education and typically not alone when compared to Canadian seniors whether they be of Chinese origin or not. The Shanghais are also in worse health and perceive themselves to be in worse health. However, when examining the predictors of subjective quality of life, life satisfaction, in both cultures it is social support and health that predict life satisfaction. The form that social support takes (the importance of sons is clearly evident in Shanghai, whereas spouses are more important in Canada) and the particular physical health problems that one might suffer from differ across cultures but it is social support and health that appear to be universal in their affects on our subjective quality of life. Similarly when examining caregivers there are many differences evident across the cultures but when examining subjective burden in both cultures it is the deteriorated health of the care receiver that is the major predictor of burden. The data suggest that there are cross-cultural universals, with particularistic forms.
Parent and teacher data for 14,990 children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth were used in multilevel analyses to examine the relationship between ethnicity, children's aggression and emotional problems, and parenting. Using parent and teacher report, relationships between ethnicity and child behavior were present but modest. The association between parental harshness and child aggression differed between ethnic groups and across informants. Using teacher report of outcomes, parental harshness was positively related to child aggression in European Canadian families but negatively related in South Asian Canadian families. For all ethnic groups, parental harshness was positively related to children's aggression when parent report of outcomes was used, but relationships varied in strength across ethnic groups. The relationship of parental harshness with child emotional problems did not differ across groups, irrespective of informant. The results are discussed within the context of an ecological model of parenting.