The 2 Ã? 2 model of perfectionism posits that the 4 within-person combinations of self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism (i.e., pure SOP, mixed perfectionism, pure SPP, and nonperfectionism) can be distinctively associated with psychological adjustment. This study examined whether the relationship between the 4 subtypes of perfectionism proposed in the 2 Ã? 2 model (Gaudreau & Thompson, 2010) and academic outcomes (i.e., academic satisfaction and grade-point average [GPA]) differed across 2 sociocultural groups: Asian Canadians and European Canadians. A sample of 697 undergraduate students (23% Asian Canadians) completed self-report measures of dispositional perfectionism, academic satisfaction, and GPA. Results replicated most of the 2 Ã? 2 model's hypotheses on ratings of GPA, thus supporting that nonperfectionism was associated with lower GPA than pure SOP (Hypothesis 1a) but with higher GPA than pure SPP (Hypothesis 2). Results also showed that mixed perfectionism was related to higher GPA than pure SPP (Hypothesis 3) but to similar levels as pure SOP, thus disproving Hypothesis 4. Furthermore, results provided evidence for cross-cultural differences in academic satisfaction. While all 4 hypotheses were supported among European Canadians, only Hypotheses 1a and 3 were supported among Asian Canadians. Future lines of research are discussed in light of the importance of acknowledging the role of culture when studying the influence of dispositional perfectionism on academic outcomes.
Alaska Native people have suffered disproportionately from previous influenza pandemics. We evaluated 3 separate syndromic data sources to determine temporal and geographic patterns of spread of 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1 (pH1N1) in Alaska, and reviewed records from persons hospitalized with pH1N1 disease in 3 areas in Alaska to characterize clinical and epidemiologic features of disease in Alaskans. A wave of pH1N1 disease swept through Alaska beginning in most areas in August or early September. In rural regions, where Alaska Native people comprise a substantial proportion of the population, disease occurred earlier than in other regions. Alaska Native people and Asian/Pacific Islanders (A/PI) were 2-4 times more likely to be hospitalized than whites. Alaska Native people and other minorities remain at high risk for early and substantial morbidity from pandemic influenza episodes. These findings should be integrated into plans for distribution and use of vaccine and antiviral agents.
The secretion of the ABH antigens in saliva was tested in indigenous individuals of several populations: Icelanders in Reykjavik and Husavik (northeastern Iceland), Aland Islanders, Finno-Ugrians (Finns, Finnish Lapps, Komi) and Eskimos (Augpilagtok, northwestern Greenland). The frequencies of ABH non-secretors among the Icelanders (28-36%) were among the highest ever noted in Europeans. Among Alanders and Swedes on the Finnish mainland the frequency (around 20%) was comparable to Swedish values but considerably higher than among Finns (13-14%). The values among northeastern Finns and Komi (about 9%) were intermediate between values among Lapps (below 5%) and Scandinavians (15-26%), excluding Icelanders (28-41%). The average frequency of non-secretors among Lapps in Finland (2.2 +/- 0.5%) was the lowest observed among white populations. Like many other arctic populations of the Mongolian race, the Greenland Eskimos had a very low frequency of non-secretors. It is probable that the non-secretor allele ABH*se was absent from the ancient Lapps and Greenland Eskimos but introduced by invading populations. It is concluded that the ABH*se allele frequencies vary much more among northern European populations than hitherto appreciated. Recent studies indicate that the non-secretor status of the ABH blood group substances in mucous body fluids is associated with pathological conditions of the mucous membranes of the embryologically related digestive and respiratory systems, particularly with duodenal ulcer and gastric (pre)malignancies but probably also with pulmonary dysfunction. In view of these disadvantages of the ABH non-secretor status the high frequency of ABH*se in Icelanders is a paradoxical phenomenon. The frequency of ABH non-secretors among the founders (Vikings) of Iceland may have been considerably higher than among the present populations in northwestern Europe. The increase in northwestern direction of the ABH*se allele frequencies supports this hypothesis; the dilution effect has not been as strong in Iceland as on the European continent.
Three methods were employed to assess whether human volunteers (Caucasian, Asian or Cree Indian) possessed the typical or atypical mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) isozyme. These methods were: (1) questioning individuals about facial flushing responses following alcohol consumption; (2) application of the ethanol skin patch test, and (3) direct analysis using isoelectric focusing and activity staining of ALDH activity in hair root samples. The results from the three methods were in good agreement and revealed that only the typical ALDH2 isozyme was expressed in Saskatchewan Cree Indians. In agreement with previous reports, the typical ALDH2 was expressed in the Caucasian group of subjects, while both the typical and atypical forms were expressed in the Asian subjects.
The traditional values of Chinese culture promote care and respect toward older adults. While it appears to be ironic to discuss issues of abuse and neglect in the Chinese culture, research findings in Chinese societies do indicate the occurrences of such problems. However, little research on the abuse and neglect of older Chinese in Western societies has been available. This study aims to examine the incidence of abuse and neglect and the associated correlates based on data collected from a random sample of 2,272 aging Chinese 55 years and older in seven Canadian cities. The findings show that 4.5% of the participants reported experiencing at least one incident of maltreatment or neglect within the past year. The most common forms of neglect and abuse experienced by the aging Chinese include being scolded, yelled at, treated impolitely all the time, and ridiculed. Close family members such as spouses and sons are those that most commonly maltreat older Chinese. Those who were more likely to report at least one incident of maltreatment or neglect were older adults living with others; they tended to have no education, more access barriers, more chronic illnesses, less favorable mental health, and a higher level of identification with Chinese cultural values. The findings implied that the face value of respect and care received by older people in Chinese culture should not be taken for granted. Culturally appropriate precautionary steps are needed for prevention and early problem identification.
People of South-Asian origin have an increased prevalence of coronary artery disease. Although cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is effective, South Asians are among the least likely people to participate in these programs. Automatic referral increases CR use and may reduce access inequalities. This study qualitatively explored whether CR referral knowledge and access varied among South-Asian patients. Participants were South-Asian cardiac patients receiving treatment at hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Each hospital refers to CR via one offour methods: automatically through paper or electronically, through discussion with allied health professionals (liaison referral), or through referral at the physician's discretion. Data were collected via interviews and analyzed using interpretive-descriptive analysis. Four themes emerged: the importance of predischarge CR discussions with healthcare providers, limited knowledge of CR, ease of the referral process for facilitators of CR attendance, and participants'needs for personal autonomy regarding their decision to attend CR. Liaison referral was perceived to be the most suitable referral method for participants. It facilitated communication between patients and providers, ensuring improved understanding of CR. Automatic referral may not be as well suited to this population because of reduced patient-provider communication.
The incidence of active tuberculosis in 8692 Indochinese refugees admitted to British Columbia between 1979 and 1981 was reviewed. In the first 3 months after entry into the province the rate was extremely high--estimated at 1890/100 000 (126 times the provincial average). A large proportion of these cases were of primary or minimal pulmonary tuberculosis. However, although the proportion of cases of minimal pulmonary tuberculosis was twice the provincial average, the proportion of these cases that were confirmed by culture was only one third the provincial average; this suggests some overdiagnosis in this period. In the subsequent 21 months of residence the incidence of active tuberculosis was also high, at 353/100 000, which was more than 20 times the provincial average. The distribution of cases by severity was closer to the provincial distribution in this period, but advanced disease accounted for a far smaller proportion of cases in both periods than it did in 1980 in the entire province.
Cites: Am Rev Respir Dis. 1979 Jan;119(1):11-8420429
CONTEXT: Hospital-based studies have found that increased susceptibility to certain infections is associated with low serum levels of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) due to MBL variant alleles. However, the contribution of MBL insufficiency to incidence of common childhood infections at a population level is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of MBL insufficiency on risk for acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) in unselected children younger than 2 years. DESIGN AND SETTING: Population-based, prospective, cohort study conducted in Sisimiut, Greenland. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred fifty-two children younger than 2 years who were followed up weekly between August 1996 and August 1998 for morbidity surveillance. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Risk of ARI, based on medical history and clinical examination, compared by MBL genotype, determined from blood samples based on presence of structural and promoter alleles. RESULTS: A 2.08-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.41-3.06) increased relative risk (RR) of ARI was found in MBL-insufficient children (n = 13) compared with MBL-sufficient children (n = 239; P
Comment In: JAMA. 2001 Mar 14;285(10):1348-911255392
Primary Sj?gren's syndrome (SS) shares many features with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here we investigated the association of the three major polymorphisms in IRF5 and STAT4 found to be associated with SLE, in patients from Sweden and Norway with primary SS. These polymorphisms are a 5-bp CGGGG indel in the promoter of IRF5, the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs10488631 downstream of IRF5 and the STAT4 SNP rs7582694, which tags the major risk haplotype of STAT4. We observed strong signals for association between all three polymorphisms and primary SS, with odds ratios (ORs) >1.4 and P-values