Cultural effects on sexuality are pervasive and potentially of great clinical importance, but have not yet received sustained empirical attention. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of acculturation on sexual permissiveness and sexual function, with a particular focus on arousal in Asian women living in Canada. We also compared questionnaire responses between Asian and Euro-Canadian groups in hopes of investigating whether acculturation captured unique information not predicted by ethnic group affiliation. Euro-Canadian (n = 173) and Asian (n = 176) female university students completed a battery of questionnaires in private. Euro-Canadian women had significantly more sexual knowledge and experiences, more liberal attitudes, and higher rates of desire, arousal, sexual receptivity, and sexual pleasure. Anxiety from anticipated sexual activity was significantly higher in Asian women, but the groups did not differ significantly on relationship satisfaction or problems with sexual function. Acculturation to Western culture, as well as maintained affiliation with traditional Asian heritage, were both significantly and independently related to sexual attitudes above and beyond length of residency in Canada, and beyond ethnic group comparisons. Overall, these data suggest that measurement of acculturation may capture information about an individual's unique acculturation pattern that is not evident when focusing solely on ethnic group comparisons or length of residency, and that such findings may be important in facilitating the assessment, classification, and treatment of sexual difficulties in Asian women.
Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of considering acculturation when investigating the sexuality of East Asian women in North America. Moreover, bidimensional assessment of both heritage and mainstream cultural affiliations provides significantly more information about sexual attitudes than simple unidimensional measures, such as length of residency in the Western culture.
The goal of this study was to extend the findings in women to a sample of East Asian men.
Self-report measures of sexual behaviors, sexual responses, and sexual satisfaction.
Euro-Canadian (N = 124) and East Asian (N = 137) male university students privately completed a battery of questionnaires in exchange for course credit. Results. Group comparisons revealed East Asian men to have significantly lower liberal sexual attitudes and experiences, and a significantly lower proportion had engaged in sexual intercourse compared with the Euro-Canadian sample. In addition, the East Asian men had significantly higher Impotence and Avoidance subscale scores on the Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction, a measure of sexual dysfunction. Focusing on East Asian men alone, mainstream acculturation, but not length of residency in Canada, was significantly related to sexual attitudes, experiences, and responses.
Overall, these data replicate the findings in women and suggest that specific acculturation effects over and above length of residency should be included in the cultural assessment of men's sexual health.
Breast cancer is becoming a major concern for many South Asian women. Clinical observations of women from a South Asian community living in Canada revealed an under use of early detection strategies. The purpose of this qualitative ethnoscience study was to examine breast health practices from the perspective of South Asian women to provide a foundation for the development of culturally suitable breast health services for this group. Open-ended interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 50 South Asian women over the age of 30 who had not been diagnosed with breast cancer. Adequate representation of the main religious groups (i.e. Sikh, Hindu, Muslim and Christian) was ensured through sampling techniques. Analysis of translated interviews involved identification of themes and the development of a taxonomy to represent relationships among emerging cultural themes and domains. Four central domains of beliefs related to breast health practices were identified: beliefs about a woman's calling, beliefs about cancer, beliefs about taking care of your breasts and beliefs about accessing services. These beliefs hold important implications for how health promotion strategies should be structured and offered, In particular, attention must be paid to the language that is used to talk about breast cancer, the importance of the role of the family in women's health decisions and traditions related to using narratives to share information and advice.
A survey of women dental students enrolled in all American and Canadian dental schools during the 1977-78 academic year was conducted to determine their backgrounds, current status, motivation regarding dentistry as a career, perception of the dental school environment, preferences in dental education, and future plans. The data were analyzed on the basis of ethnic or racial derivation to delineate differences in the perceptions of female dental students of various ethnic groups. Recognizing the nature of such differences may prove beneficial to dental educators, who must determine the specific problems faced by female students of various ethnic groups.
Social identity, including identification with one's ethnic group, is an important aspect of social development. However, little is known about the subjective meaning associated with social group memberships, particularly during middle childhood. Using second- and fourth-graders responses to an open-ended question, we explored the meaning of ethnic identity with a sample of Chinese, Dominican, Russian, White, and Black American children. Analyses revealed that middle childhood is an active period for meaning making as children described the ethnic identity to include ideas such as language, physical appearance, pride, relative social position, and culture. While there were few differences in the ethnic identity meaning responses of second- and fourth-grade children, the meaning of ethnic identity varied considerably across the ethnic groups underscoring how the unique features and experiences of different ethnic groups shapes the subjective meaning of ethnic identity. These findings align with prior research on the meaning of ethnic identity among adults and adolescents and offer insight for future research regarding the conceptualization and measurement of the meaning of social group membership.
One of fastest-growing population groups in recent decades, Asian Americans represent a vastly diversified and rich mixture of cultures, languages, beliefs, and practices, many of which differ widely from those of European Americans. As immigrants, Asian Americans have experienced and continue to experience various emotional and behavioral problems. However, they tend to underuse existing services except those that are culturally appropriate and linguistically compatible. Misdiagnosis frequently occurs, and the existence of culture-bound syndromes points to a lack of precise correspondence between indigenous labels and established diagnostic categories. Due to Asian traditions of viewing the body and mind as unitary rather than dualistic, patients tend to focus more on physical discomforts than emotional symptoms, leading to an overrepresentation of somatic complaints. Traditional practices and healing methods are frequently used to alleviate distress both before and after patients and their family members approach the conventional mental health care system. Help seeking typically is a family venture. Asian patients respond well to highly structured therapeutic interventions such as those used in behavioral, cognitive, and interpersonal models. When applying pharmacotherapy, clinicians should pay attention to Asians' unique responses to psychotropics, especially in regard to dosage requirements and side effects. Research in this area as well as on other important issues is in the early stage of development.
We examined differential effects of overt and subtle forms of racial discrimination on 2 dimensions of mental health-positive affect and depressive symptoms, and explored the mediating roles of emotional arousal and cognitive appraisal.
Cross-sectional survey data were collected through face-to-face interviews with a sample (N=180) of adult Korean immigrants living in Toronto, Ontario. Maximum likelihood estimates of path coefficients were obtained using structural equation models.
Perceived racial discrimination was associated with both the erosion of positive affect and depressive symptoms. Overt discrimination was associated with the erosion of positive affect, and subtle discrimination was associated with depressive symptoms. Effects of subtle discrimination on depressive symptoms were mediated through cognitive appraisal.
The results emphasize the salience of subtle discrimination for the mental health of Asian immigrants. Experiences of overt racial bias seemed to be of little importance for the levels of depressive symptoms among those in our sample, although the experience of blatant discrimination tended to reduce positive mood.
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The phenomenon of somatization was explored in relation to the experiences of acculturation, stress, support, and distress.
A representative community sample of 1,747 Chinese Americans (aged 18-65 years), selected by a multi-stage household sampling design, in the Los Angeles County was interviewed to tap their psychiatric diagnoses, symptomatology, level of acculturation, stress, and support.
Across all indices, Chinese Americans' level of somatic symptoms, impairment related to somatization, and percentage of meeting the Somatic Symptom Index 5/5 (SSI 5/5) criterion were comparable to those found in other populations. Length of residence in the U. S. and acculturation were not related to somatization. Regression analyses showed that anxiety, depression, gender, age, education, stressors, and support were significantly related to somatization, ps
To determine predictors of clinical breast examination (CBE) among South Asian immigrant women residing in Toronto, Canada. A cross-sectional self-administered survey with women patients visiting family physician group practices. Fifty-four women participated in the study (response rate 77%). Twenty women (38.5%) "ever had" CBE. Compared to women who never had CBE, women who had CBE were statistically older, had lived more years in Canada, had better knowledge of breast cancer, had lower perceived barriers to CBE, and were more likely to have ever had a periodic health exam. No significant differences were found between the two groups for education, employment, English language abilities, perceived health, and perceived benefits of CBE. A direct logistic regression with five predictor variables, significant at a univariate level, was statistically reliable, chi(2) (5, n=51) = 34.7, p
To examine the influence of diet-related psychosocial constructs on the dietary practices of Chinese populations living in North America.
Data are from a cross-sectional survey of 244 women of Chinese ethnicity living in Seattle, WA, USA and Vancouver, BC, Canada. Using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and PRECEDE/PROCEED as our model, we collected information on diet-related psychosocial (predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing) factors; consumption of foods reflecting Western and Chinese dietary practices; and past and current consumption of fruits, vegetables and fat.
Participants generally believed that there were strong relationships between diet and health, but only about a quarter were aware of nutrition information from the government. Food cost, availability, and convenience did not appear to be major concerns among these participants. Respondents' older relatives and spouses tended to prefer a Chinese diet and also had a strong influence on the household diet. Associations of the psychosocial factors with demographic characteristics, adoption of Western dietary practices, and consumption of fruits and vegetables were informative. For example, older, less educated respondents considered it very important to eat a low fat, high fruit and vegetable diet; while younger, more educated participants who were employed outside the home did not think the Chinese diet is healthier than a typical Western diet (all p