Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a disease with a remarkable racial and geographical distribution. In most parts of the world it is a rare condition and in only a handful of places does this low risk profile alter. These include the Southern Chinese, Eskimos and other Arctic natives, inhabitants of South-East Asia and also the populations of North Africa and Kuwait.
About 7000 Swedish citizens were on Christmas holiday in the disaster area at the time of the South-east Asian tsunami in 2004, in many cases with children and adolescents in their families.
To investigate how adolescents experience a traumatic exposure to a natural disaster.
Twenty adolescents aged 16-19 years, who had experienced the 2004 tsunami and participated in a follow-up study 19 months post-disaster, were randomly selected and interviewed about their reactions, their life afterwards and their families. The study combines the face-to-face, semi-structured interviews with questionnaire data on mental health for 4910 Swedish adolescents and adults.
The themes that emerged inductively during the analysis of the interviews were psychological reactions during the catastrophe, the coping after, changes in self-image, worldview, role in the family, risk interpretation and altruism. The disaster had profound impact on family relations, social networks and plans for the future. Many felt strengthened by the experience and by their ability to cope in comparison with other family members, but also perceived isolation and lack of understanding. The general mental health status among the adolescents did not differ significantly from those of older age at the 19-month follow-up.
According to the adolescents', they experienced the tsunami-disaster differently than others around them. Their subjective interpretation of the event and its aftermath indicates resilience, especially among the young men. Future follow-up studies in larger samples of both symptoms and psychological functioning are warranted.
AIDS continues to pose a grave global problem because it is spreading in the general population by increasing heterosexual transmission and vertical transmission from seropositive mothers to fetuses. A minor rate of transmission has been observed from blood transfusion and blood products. On October 31, 1990 WHO data indicated that a total of 298,914 AIDS cases had been reported. In Africa there were 75,642 cases: 15,569 were in Uganda, 11,732 in Zaire, 9139 in Kenya, 7160 in Malawi, 3647 in the Ivory Coast, 3494 in Zambia, and 3134 in Zimbabwe, with the rest averaging less than 4% of the total African caseload. There were 180,663 cases in the Americas: 149,498 in the US, 11,070 in Brazil, 4941 in Mexico, 4427 in Canada, 2456 in Haiti, 1368 in the Dominican Republic, 870 in Venezuela, 743 in Honduras, 710 in Argentina, 648 in Trinidad an Tobago, 643 in Colombia, 507 in the Bahamas, and 203 in Panama, the rest being less than 200. Asia had only 790 cases: 290 in Japan, 116 in Israel, 48 in India, 45 in Thailand, 37 each in Turkey and the Philippines, 31 in Lebanon, and 27 in Hong Kong. Europe had 39,526 cases: 9718 in France and 6701 in Italy as of June 30, 1990, however, by December 31, 1990 there were 8227 cases reported of whom 4074 had died. There were 6210 in Spain, 5266 in the German Federal Republic, 3798 in England, 1462 in Switzerland, 1443 in the Netherlands, 999 in Romania, 764 in Belgium, 663 in Denmark, 481 in Portugal, 450 in Austria, 443 in Sweden, and 347 in Greece. Little attention has paid to notification in eastern Europe: 40 cases in the USSR, 43 in Poland, 23 in Czechoslovakia, 22 in the German Democratic Republic, 42 in Hungary which is contrasted to 999 cases in Romania. Oceania had 2293 cases: 2040 in Australia, 207 in New Zealand, 16 in French Polynesia, 14 in New Caledonia, 13 in New Guinea, 2 in Tonga, 1 in Fiji, and 1 in the Federated States of Micronesia.
An international comparison study of women's occupational health issues was carried out in 2000 for the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Canada, Hong Kong and Singapore. The study was funded by the Canadian International Development Agency's Southeast Asia Gender Equity Program.
The objective was to compare the issues, risk factors, social determinants, and challenges in women's occupational health, according to the status of economic development as defined by the World Bank.
Data were collected through 27 key informant interviews of high-ranking government officials and senior researchers, self-administered questionnaires on country or regional statistics and 16 courtesy calls.
Results indicated that women's occupational health problems common in these countries or regions included women's long hours of work (double workday), shift work and a caring role for family and friends. Problems reported in developing countries but not developed countries included poor access to training and protective equipment, and insufficient legislation to protect women's rights. Problems reported in developed countries but not in developing countries included obesity, smoking and not including women in health research.
This paper provides insights into the changing environment in the workplace, such as increasing participation of women in the paid workforce and changes in gender differences due to the changing country economy, for improving women's occupational health.
Comment In: Occup Med (Lond). 2005 Oct;55(7):513-416251368
Antibiotic resistance was compared in 844 Campylobacter jejuni/coli strains acquired outside Sweden and 575 acquired in Sweden during 1990-2002. There was a clear gradual increase in ciprofloxacin and tetracycline resistance among C. jejuni/coli strains acquired outside Sweden during the 13 y period. This trend was not seen for erythromycin or in domestically acquired strains for any of the 3 antibiotics tested.
Apolipoprotein E (apoE) phenotypes were determined in a random sample of 466 Danish men born in 1948. The frequencies of the common alleles of the apoE gene were (with 95% confidence intervals) epsilon 2 = 0.085 (0.068-0.105), epsilon 3 = 0.741 (0.712-0.769), and epsilon 4 = 0.174 (0.150-0.200). These frequencies were compared to findings in 45 other study populations around the world (n greater than 100). The Danish population was found to cluster with populations from Iceland, Norway, Iceland, Scotland, the Netherlands, Germany, France (Paris), and Caucasian populations in Canada and the USA. The compiled data further show that dissimilarities in apoE allele frequencies among Caucasian populations are comparable to dissimilarities between some Caucasian and Asian populations. Notably, the frequency of epsilon 4 appears to be higher in northern regions of Europe (the Nordic countries, Scotland, Germany, and the Netherlands) than in southern regions (Switzerland, Tyrol, France [Nancy], Italy, and Spain).
Since its first isolation in 1996 in Guangdong, China, the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 has circulated in avian hosts for almost two decades and spread to more than 60 countries worldwide. The role of different avian hosts and the domestic-wild bird interface has been critical in shaping the complex HPAIV H5N1 disease ecology, but remains difficult to ascertain. To shed light on the large-scale H5N1 transmission patterns and disentangle the contributions of different avian hosts on the tempo and mode of HPAIV H5N1 dispersal, we apply Bayesian evolutionary inference techniques to comprehensive sets of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase gene sequences sampled between 1996 and 2011 throughout Asia and Russia. Our analyses demonstrate that the large-scale H5N1 transmission dynamics are structured according to different avian flyways, and that the incursion of the Central Asian flyway specifically was driven by Anatidae hosts coinciding with rapid rate of spread and an epidemic wavefront acceleration. This also resulted in long-distance dispersal that is likely to be explained by wild bird migration. We identify a significant degree of asymmetry in the large-scale transmission dynamics between Anatidae and Phasianidae, with the latter largely representing poultry as an evolutionary sink. A joint analysis of host dynamics and continuous spatial diffusion demonstrates that the rate of viral dispersal and host diffusivity is significantly higher for Anatidae compared with Phasianidae. These findings complement risk modeling studies and satellite tracking of wild birds in demonstrating a continental-scale structuring into areas of H5N1 persistence that are connected through migratory waterfowl.
Biliary tract cancer is a rare cancer in most parts of the world, but it is relatively common in some countries and ethnic groups, such as Japan, Central and South America, eastern Europe and in American Indians, and Hispanics. In some countries, such as Japan, Sweden, Finland and Italy, the age adjusted mortality of biliary tract cancer has been increasing, whereas in females in some other countries--Israel, The Netherlands, USA, Canada, Federal Republic of Germany, etc--mortality has been declining. The reasons for these geographical or ethnic variations and time trends for biliary tract cancer are not clear, but some unknown environmental risk factors or a genetic susceptibility are suspected. Not many analytical epidemiological studies on biliary tract cancer have been conducted yet and little is known about its aetiology apart from a close association with gall stones and a female preponderance of gall bladder cancer. Besides gall stones, some other factors such as obesity, pregnancy, female sex hormones, exposure in rubber and some other chemical industries and genetic factors have been suspected of being associated with gall bladder cancer directly or indirectly through cholelithiasis. As an artificial factor, the effect of the prevalence of cholecystectomy on biliary tract cancer must be considered. More studies are needed in the future to elucidate the aetiology of biliary tract cancer and to establish measures to prevent this cancer.
There is a four to fivefold variation in breast cancer incidence rates across different countries. The lowest rates are observed in Asia, and the highest rates are observed in western Europe and North America. The incidence of breast cancer has increased in all countries since 1960. We studied in detail (whenever possible) the changes in incidence and mortality between 1955 and 1990 in four age groups (35-44, 45-54, 55-64 and 65-74) for 11 "representative" countries (USA, England and Wales, Norway, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Spain, Colombia, Singapore, Japan, India and China). The largest increase in incidence took place in Japan and Singapore. The incidence rate for women aged 35-44 in Japan doubled between 1960 and 1985 and by 1985 was roughly two thirds the USA rate. There has been essentially no change in mortality rates in the USA, England and Wales or Norway, whereas there has been a 50-60% increase in Japan, Singapore and Hungary. Most of the observed increase in incidence rates in the USA, England and Wales and Norway may be "artefactual", that is, due to changes in screening patterns. Screening may also have contributed to the rate increase in other countries, but outside western Europe and North America the major part of the increase is likely to be due to changes in known and suspected breast cancer risk factors.
Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan, with their total population of more than 1,500 million, make up the subcontinent of South Asia. Despite massive diversity across the region, there are sufficient similarities to warrant a collective approach to chronic disease control, including development of cancer control programs. Cancer is already a major problem and there are general similarities in the prevalence patterns. In males, oral and lung cancer are either number one or two, depending on the registry, with the exceptions of Quetta in the far north, Larkana and Chennai. Moderately high numbers of pharyngeal and/or laryngeal cancer are also consistently observed, with prostate cancer now becoming visible in the more developed cities. Breast and cervical cancer share first and second place except in Muslim Pakistan, where oral cancer generally follows breast. The ovary is often included in the five most prevalent types. Markedly increasing rates for breast cancer and distribution shifts in other cancers suggest that, despite improvement in cervical and oral rates, the overall burden will only become heavier over time, especially with increasing obesity and aging of what are still youthful populations. Coordination of activities within South Asia is a high priority for cancer control in the region.