Thirty-two typical patients with breast cancer, aged 32-81 years and classified 'high risk' because of tumor spread to the lymph nodes in the axilla, were studied for 18 months following an Adjuvant Nutritional Intervention in Cancer protocol (ANICA protocol). The nutritional protocol was added to the surgical and therapeutic treatment of breast cancer, as required by regulations in Denmark. The added treatment was a combination of nutritional antioxidants (Vitamin C: 2850 mg, Vitamin E: 2500 iu, beta-carotene 32.5 iu, selenium 387 micrograms plus secondary vitamins and minerals), essential fatty acids (1.2 g gamma linolenic acid and 3.5 g n-3 fatty acids) and Coenzyme Q10 (90 mg per day). The ANICA protocol is based on the concept of testing the synergistic effect of those categories of nutritional supplements, including vitamin Q10, previously having shown deficiency and/or therapeutic value as single elements in diverse forms of cancer, as cancer may be synergistically related to diverse biochemical dysfunctions and vitamin deficiencies. Biochemical markers, clinical condition, tumor spread, quality of life parameters and survival were followed during the trial. Compliance was excellent. The main observations were: (1) none of the patients died during the study period. (the expected number was four.) (2) none of the patients showed signs of further distant metastases. (3) quality of life was improved (no weight loss, reduced use of pain killers). (4) six patients showed apparent partial remission.
Comparative investigations were performed to study the effect of endogenous and exogenous N-nitrosodiethylamine on the dynamics of content variations of oxidized cytochrome P-450 and its isoforms in the monooxygenase system of rat liver. The variations of cytochrome P-450 contents in both cases were demonstrated to be of the same character correlating with hepatocarcinogenesis stages. Higher quantities of oxidized cytochrome P-450 and its isoforms with MM 52, 53, and 56 kDa in the rat liver when acted upon by NDEA precursors are seen as the precondition of enhancing the monooxygenase reaction of NDEA bioactivation and, as a result, of the carcinogenic effects. Ascorbic acid is assumed to block the synthesis of NDEA from its precursors giving use to a compound whose metabolism does not influence the activity of the monooxygenase system of liver cells.