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17 records – page 1 of 2.

AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases in the arctic regions.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature1681
Source
Arctic Medical Research. 1990; 49 Suppl 3:1-38. Proceedings of the Circumpolar Meeting on AIDS Prevention, Ilulissat, Greenland, September 26-28, 1989.
Publication Type
Article
Date
1990
Source
Arctic Medical Research. 1990; 49 Suppl 3:1-38. Proceedings of the Circumpolar Meeting on AIDS Prevention, Ilulissat, Greenland, September 26-28, 1989.
Date
1990
Language
English
Geographic Location
Multi-National
Greenland
Publication Type
Article
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
AIDS
HIV
Population
Syphilis
Gonorrhea
Homosexuality
Health education
STD
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome - epidemiology - prevention & control - transmission
Adolescent
Adult
Arctic Regions - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Gonorrhea - epidemiology - prevention & control - transmission
HIV Seropositivity - epidemiology
Humans
Infant
Male
Middle Aged
Sexual Behavior
Syphilis - epidemiology - prevention & control - transmission
Notes
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 1891.
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Associations between vitamins A and E and legacy POP levels in highly contaminated Greenland sharks (Somniosus microcephalus).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302431
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2013 Jan 1;442:445-54. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.10.012. Epub 2012 Nov 24.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Molde K
Ciesielski TM
Fisk AT
Lydersen C
Kovacs KM
Sørmo EG
Jenssen BM
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2013 Jan 1;442:445-54. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.10.012. Epub 2012 Nov 24.
Date
2013
Language
English
Geographic Location
Greenland
Norway
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Data Interpretation, Statistical
Environmental monitoring
Female
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Greenland
Male
Norway
Organic Chemicals
Blood
toxicity
Sharks
Vitamin A
Vitamin E
Water Pollutants, Chemical
Abstract
The Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) is a top predator in Arctic marine ecosystems, and the species bioaccumulates high levels of biomagnifying persistent organic pollutants (POP). In teleost fish, as well as in marine mammals and seabirds, legacy POP have been shown to interfere with the vitamin A and vitamin E homeostasis. Thus, there is the potential for negative health effects from these legacy compounds in Greenland sharks. In the present study we examined associations among plasma levels of legacy POP and plasma vitamin A (retinol [RET], retinyl palmitate [RPA]) and vitamin E (a-tocopherol [a-TOC]) in Greenland sharks from Svalbard, Norway. Plasma levels of POP were on average higher than the hepatic levels previously reported in Greenland sharks from Iceland and Davis Strait, Canada. Levels were also higher than the plasma levels reported in Arctic marine mammals. DDTs (mean 8,069 ng/g l.w., range: 900-59,707 ng/g l.w.), PCBs (mean 5,766 ng/g l.w., range 1344-16,106 ng/g l.w.) and chlordanes (mean 1,551 ng/g l.w., range: 323-5,756 ng/g l.w.) had the highest concentrations among the POP groups studied. There were significant inverse relationships between RET concentrations and the concentrations of the dioxin-like compounds PCB-118 and PCB-156/171, and the non-dioxin-like compounds PCB-99 and PCB-128. There were also significant inverse relationships between RPA and 18 of the 38 POP compounds measured. Furthermore, there were significant positive associations between a-TOC and 13 of the 27 PCB congeners. The study suggests that these vitamin systems can be affected by the relatively high POP concentrations exhibited by Greenland sharks at Svalbard. However, the present study is correlative and thus the potential interplay between POP and vitamin dynamics of Greenland sharks must be interpreted cautiously, pending further research on this issue among elasmobranchs.
PubMed ID
23183125 View in PubMed
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Breeding on the extreme edge: Modulation of the adrenocortical response to acute stress in two High Arctic passerines.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261017
Source
J Exp Zool A Ecol Genet Physiol. 2015 Mar 10;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-10-2015
possible. In the High Arctic, these birds are generally migratory. Very few spend the entire year in the north, and those that do remain are only found in lower Arctic regions. These species are also interesting because of the differences in their timing of arrival onto High Arctic breeding grounds. The
  1 document  
Author
Brian G Walker
Simone L Meddle
L Michael Romero
Meta M Landys
Jeroen Reneerkens
John C Wingfield
Source
J Exp Zool A Ecol Genet Physiol. 2015 Mar 10;
Date
Mar-10-2015
Language
English
Geographic Location
Greenland
Publication Type
Article
File Size
330198
Keywords
Animal Migration
Physiology
Animals
Arctic Regions
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
Cold Climate
Corticosterone
Female
Greenland
Male
Molting
Reproduction
Songbirds
Species Specificity
Stress
Pharmacology
Abstract
Arctic weather in spring is unpredictable and can also be extreme, so Arctic-breeding birds must be flexible in their breeding to deal with such variability. Unpredictability in weather conditions will only intensify with climate change and this in turn could affect reproductive capability of migratory birds. Adjustments to coping strategies are therefore crucial, so here we examined the plasticity of the adrenocorticotropic stress response in two Arctic songbird species-the snow bunting (Plectrophenax nivalis) and Lapland longspur (Calcarius lapponicus)-breeding in northwest Greenland. Across the breeding season, the stress response was strongest at arrival and least robust during molt in male snow buntings. Snow bunting females had higher baseline but similar stress-induced corticosterone levels compared to males. Modification of the stress response was not due to adrenal insensitivity, but likely regulated at the anterior pituitary gland. Compared to independent nestlings and adult snow buntings, parental-dependent chicks had a more robust stress response. For Lapland longspurs, baseline corticosterone was highest at arrival in both male and females, and arriving males displayed a higher stress response compared to arriving females. Comparison of male corticosterone profiles collected at arrival in Greenland (76°N) and Alaska (67-71°N;) reveal that both species have higher stress responses at the more northern location. Flexibility in the stress response may be typical for birds nesting at the leading edges of their range and this ability will become more relevant as global climate change results in major shifts of breeding habitat and phenology for migratory birds. J. Exp. Zool. 9999A: 1-10, 2015. Copyright © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
PubMed ID
25757443 View in PubMed
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Changing geo-political realities in the Arctic region: possibilities and challenges for relations between Denmark and China..

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299974
Source
University of Copenhagen. Newsletter for Center for Polar and Oceanic Studies, 3(2):2-7.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Sorensen, Camilla T.N.
Source
University of Copenhagen. Newsletter for Center for Polar and Oceanic Studies, 3(2):2-7.
Date
2014
Language
English
Chinese
Geographic Location
Denmark
Greenland
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions
China
Geopolitics
Transportation
Access
Natural resources
Notes
Published in Bulletin of International Studies on the Polar Regions (Quarterly).
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Contaminants, health, and effective risk assessment & communication in the circumpolar north

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature96122
Source
Page 318 in S. Chatwood, P. Orr and Tiina Ikaheimo, eds. Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Yellowknife, Canada, July 11-16, 2009. Securing the IPY Legacy: from Research to Action. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2010; 69 (Suppl 7).
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Date
2010
assessment and communication of health risks and benefits for environmental health issues in Arctic regions. This project also includes a Masters thesis subproject exploring: what are the current and possible contributions of Indigenous knowledge to environmental health benefit-risk management processes
  1 document  
Author
Friendship, K.
Furgal, C.
Council of Yukon First Nations, Yukon Contaminants Committee
Author Affiliation
Canadian Studies Indigenous Studies Graduate Program, Trent University
Indigenous Environmental Studies Program, Trent University
Source
Page 318 in S. Chatwood, P. Orr and Tiina Ikaheimo, eds. Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Yellowknife, Canada, July 11-16, 2009. Securing the IPY Legacy: from Research to Action. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2010; 69 (Suppl 7).
Date
2010
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
U.S.
Greenland
Russia
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Cross-cultural misunderstandings
Environment and health research
Indigenous knowledge
Politicization of information
Notes
Part of Abstracts: Oral presentations. Chapter 8. Food Security and Our Environments.
Documents
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Exposure to perfluorinated compounds and human semen quality in Arctic and European populations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302401
Source
Hum Reprod. 2012 Aug;27(8):2532-40. doi: 10.1093/humrep/des185. Epub 2012 May 30.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Toft G
Jönsson BA
Lindh CH
Giwercman A
Spano M
Heederik D
Lenters V
Vermeulen R
Rylander L
Pedersen HS
Ludwicki JK
Zviezdai V
Bonde JP
Source
Hum Reprod. 2012 Aug;27(8):2532-40. doi: 10.1093/humrep/des185. Epub 2012 May 30.
Date
2012
Language
English
Geographic Location
Greenland
Russia
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult Fluorocarbons/toxicity* Greenland Humans Male Mass Spectrometry/methods Poland Pregnancy Semen/drug effects* Semen Analysis* Sperm Count Sulfonic Acids/toxicity* Ukraine
Alkanesulfonic
Acids/toxicity
Arctic Regions
Caprylates/toxicity
Chromatography, Liquid/methods
Environmental Pollutants/toxicity
Europe
Female
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been suspected to adversely affect human reproductive health. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between PFC exposure and male semen quality.
METHODS: PFCs were measured in serum from 588 partners of pregnant women from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine who provided a semen sample, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) could be detected in >97% of the samples. The associations between levels of these compounds and semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility and morphology were assessed.
RESULTS: Across countries, sperm concentration, total sperm count and semen volume were not consistently associated with PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS or PFNA levels. The proportion of morphologically normal cells was 35% lower [95% confidence interval (CI): 4-66%) for the third tertile of PFOS exposure as compared with the first. A similar reduction was found in relation to increasing PFHxS levels. At the third PFOA exposure tertile, the percentage of motile spermatozoa was 19% (95% CI: 1 to 39%) higher than in the first.
CONCLUSIONS: The most robust finding in the present study was the negative associations between PFOS exposure and sperm morphology suggesting adverse effects of PFOS on semen quality, possibly due to interference with the endocrine activity or sperm membrane function. It cannot be excluded that this association and the positive association between PFOA and semen motility, which was not consistent across countries, might represent a chance finding due to the multiple statistical tests being performed.
PubMed ID
22647447 View in PubMed
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Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances and sperm DNA global methylation in Arctic and European populations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302406
Source
Environ Mol Mutagen. 2014 Aug;55(7):591-600. doi: 10.1002/em.21874. Epub 2014 Jun 3.
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Leter G
Consales C
Eleuteri P
Uccelli R
Specht IO
Toft G
Moccia T
Budillon A
Jönsson BA
Lindh CH
Giwercman A
Pedersen HS
Ludwicki JK
Zviezdai V
Heederik D
Bonde JP
Spanò M
Source
Environ Mol Mutagen. 2014 Aug;55(7):591-600. doi: 10.1002/em.21874. Epub 2014 Jun 3.
Date
2014
Language
English
Geographic Location
Greenland
Russia
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
5-Methylcytosine
Epidemiology
Flow Cytometry
Human spermatozoa
Perfluoroalkyl substances
Pyrosequencing
Chemistry
Adult
Alkanesulfonic Acids
Arctic Regions
Biomarkers
Analysis
Caprylates
DNA Methylation
Fluorocarbons
Greenland
Humans
Male
Poland
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Spermatozoa
Drug effects
Sulfonic Acids
Ukraine
Abstract
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are widely used in a variety of industrial processes and products, and have been detected globally in humans and wildlife. PFASs are suspected to interfere with endocrine signaling and to adversely affect human reproductive health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations between exposure to PFASs and sperm global methylation levels in a population of non-occupationally exposed fertile men. Measurements of PFASs in serum from 262 partners of pregnant women from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine, were also carried out by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were detected in 97% of the blood samples. Two surrogate markers were used to assess DNA global methylation levels in semen samples from the same men: (a) average DNA methylation level in repetitive DNA sequences (Alu, LINE-1, Sata) quantified by PCR-pyrosequencing after bisulfite conversion; (b) flow cytometric immunodetection of 5-methyl-cytosines. After multivariate linear regression analysis, no major consistent associations between PFASs exposure and sperm DNA global methylation endpoints could be detected. However, since weak but statistically significant associations of different PFASs with DNA hypo- and hyper-methylation were found in some of the studied populations, effects of PFASs on sperm epigenetic processes cannot be completely excluded, and this issue warrants further investigation.
PubMed ID
24889506 View in PubMed
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Feasibility of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in Arctic field studies

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6643
Source
Pages 280-283 in J. Lepp�¤luoto, ed. Circumpolar Health 2003. Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Nuuk, Greenland, September 10-14, 2003. International Journal of Circumpolar Health. 2004;63(Suppl.2)
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
)EXA scanning for use in field studies in the Arctic region and to obtain data on B:'.'vID in Greenland Inuit Methods. We measured Blv!D in 52 healthy Inuit living in Ilulissat and Saqqaq in North Greenland using a portable peripheral DEXli.._ scanner. The measurement sites \Vere fo- rear1ns and
  1 document  
Author
Andersen, S
Boeskov, E
Holm, J
Laurberg, P
Author Affiliation
Department of Endocrinology and Medicine, Arhus University Hospital, Reberbansgade, Denmark
Source
Pages 280-283 in J. Lepp�¤luoto, ed. Circumpolar Health 2003. Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Nuuk, Greenland, September 10-14, 2003. International Journal of Circumpolar Health. 2004;63(Suppl.2)
Date
2004
Language
English
Geographic Location
Greenland
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Bone Density
Densitometry, x-ray - standards - utilization
DEXA
Feasibility Studies
Greenland
Humans
Inuits
Male
Portable scanner
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Bone strength decreases with age. Bone mineral density (BMD) is a measure of bone strength. Data on BMD in present-day Inuit are limited, and data on circumpolar populations using Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA scanning) are lacking. OBJECTIVES: Our aims were to validate DEXA scanning for use in field studies in the Arctic region and to obtain data on BMD in Greenland Inuit. METHODS: We measured BMD in 52 healthy Inuit living in Ilulissat and Saqqaq in North Greenland using a portable peripheral DEXA scanner. The measurement sites were forearms and calcaneal bones. Two measurements were performed at both radii and both calcanei. Triplicate measurements were performed in eleven Inuit. RESULTS: The portable scanner fitted into a standard bag suitable for transportation in the arctic winter. Imprecision was well within 2% for all calibrations. CV% were 0.16% to 1.79% in the forearms and 0.38% to 1.53% in the heels. The overall CV% was 1.09% in forearm and 1.01% in heel. Mean BMD in men was 0.569 g/cm2 in forearms and 0.542 in heel. In women it was 0.479 in forearms and 0.468 in heel. CONCLUSION: DEXA scanning is a feasible, reliable and comfortable method in rural Greenland. BMD values are now available for Greenland Inuit.
PubMed ID
15736668 View in PubMed
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Gestational diabetes and macrosomia among Greenlanders. Time to change diagnostic strategy?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295362
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1528126
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
12-2018
  1 document  
Author
Michael Lynge Pedersen
Ole Lind
Trine Abelsen
Jesper Olesen
Marit Eika Jørgensen
Author Affiliation
a Queen Ingrid Primary Health Care Center , Nuuk , Greenland.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1528126
Date
12-2018
Language
English
Geographic Location
Greenland
Publication Type
Journal Article
File Size
558385
Keywords
Adult
Alcohol drinking - epidemiology
Arctic Regions - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diabetes, Gestational - diagnosis - epidemiology
Female
Fetal Macrosomia - epidemiology
Glucose Tolerance Test
Greenland - epidemiology
Humans
Obesity - epidemiology
Overweight - epidemiology
Pregnancy
Prevalence
Smoking - epidemiology
World Health Organization
Young Adult
Abstract
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a serious condition associated to both maternal and offspring complications. Yet, no globally accepted consensus exists on how to test and diagnose GDM. In Greenland, the clinical criteria for testing and diagnosing GDM are adapted from Danish guidelines. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of GDM among Greenlanders using both the current clinical GDM criteria and the recent WHO 2013 criteria and, further, to study the association between GDM, pre-pregnant overweight or obesity and macrosomia. A cross-sectional study of all 450 Greenlandic women who gave birth to a singleton in Nuuk within 1 year was performed. Based on an oral glucose tolerance test measuring capillary whole blood glucose, 119 women were categorised as having clinical GDM, WHO 2013 GDM or not GDM. Macrosomia defined as birth weight above 4,000 g was used as outcome variable. The prevalence of clinical GDM and WHO 2013 GDM was 0.4% (95% CI; 0-1.1) and 6.9% (95% CI; 4.5-9.2). WHO 2013 GDM, fasting blood glucose, pre-pregnant maternal overweight and obesity were associated with macrosomia. WHO 2013 GDM criteria were superior to clinical criteria in predicting macrosomia indicating that it may be time to consider the diagnostic strategy used in Greenland. Pre-pregnant overweight may also need more intensified lifestyle-intervention.
GDM: Gestational diabetes mellitus; VP: venous plasma; CWB: capillary whole blood; OGTT: oral glucose tolerance test; WHO: World Health Organisation; FIGO: The International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics; BMI: body mass index; GA: gestational age.
Notes
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PubMed ID
30300118 View in PubMed
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17 records – page 1 of 2.