The significance of various risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) is, to a great deal, unresolved. The high risk for CVD in patients with CRF may be caused by the high prevalence of recognized risk factors for CVD or by factors characteristic of CRF in these patients. In this prospective cross-sectional study, we examined risk factors for thoracic aortic atherosclerosis in a population of patients with CRF consisting of predialysis and dialysis patients, as well as renal transplant recipients.
Of 118 patients, 52 patients had moderate to severe predialysis CRF, 32 patients were on dialysis treatment, and 34 patients were renal transplant recipients. Mean age was 52 +/- 12 years, and 35 patients (30%) had diabetes. Multiplane transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) was performed using local anesthesia.
Large aortic plaques (LAPs; > or = 3.0 mm in diameter) were found in 39 patients (33%). In univariate analysis, age, duration of hypertension, pulse pressure, low diastolic blood pressure, elevated fibrinogen level, C-reactive protein level, total cholesterol level, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and duration of dialysis or a functioning renal transplant were significantly associated (P
The most significant risk factors of the development of this pathology are: arterial hypertension, IHD, smoking. A group of patients younger than 50 was three times less that a group of patients 51-60 years old. Based on data of morbidity the authors counted the spread of occlusive lesions of the aorta arc branches in the population of men studied, which amounts 4.15%.