OBJECTIVE: To compare subtotal abdominal hysterectomy (SH) and total abdominal hysterectomy (TH) regarding influence on postoperative psychological wellbeing and surgical outcome measurements. DESIGN: A prospective, open, randomised multicentre trial. SETTING: Seven hospitals and one private clinic in the south-east of Sweden. POPULATION: Two-hundred women scheduled for abdominal hysterectomy for benign conditions were enrolled in the study; 179 women completed the study (94 SH and 85 TH). METHODS: Four different psychometric tests were used to measure general wellbeing, depression and anxiety preoperatively, and at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Statistical analysis of variance and covariance were used. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Effects of operating method on psychological wellbeing postoperatively. Analysis of demographic, clinical and surgical data, including peri- and postoperative complications and complaints at follow up. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed between the two groups in any of the psychometric tests. Both surgical methods were associated with a significantly higher degree of psychological wellbeing at 6 and 12 months postoperatively, compared with preoperatively. No significant differences were found in the clinical measures including complications. A substantial number of women experienced persistent cyclic vaginal bleedings after SH. Neither minor or major postoperative complications, nor serum concentration of sex hormones, were associated with general psychological wellbeing 12 months after the operation. CONCLUSIONS: General psychological wellbeing is equally improved after both SH and TH within 12 months of the operation, and does not seem to be associated with the occurrence of peroperative complications or serum concentration of sex hormones.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine if there were any long-lasting elevated anxiety levels in women attending colposcopy after an abnormal cervical smear. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, MalmÃ??Ã?Â¶ University Hospital, Sweden. POPULATION: One hundred consecutive women were invited to participate when referred for colposcopy. METHODS: Women in the study group completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale-self-rate (MADRS-S) and had a psychosocial interview prior to colposcopy at their two follow-up visits. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: State anxiety levels and depression scores at first visit, 6 months and 2 years. RESULTS: At follow up, levels of state anxiety and the depression scores of the women studied had decreased and were comparable to those of Swedish normative data. Two variables from the MADRS-S, 'ability to focus on different activities' and 'emotional involvement with others and in activities' were the most prominent for women with moderate to severe depression. At the 2-year visit, 30% of the women still had a fear of cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Referral for colposcopy after an abnormal cervical smear does not seem to result in long-lasting anxiety and depression. However, a subgroup of women, with the initially highest depression scores, still had at 2-year state anxiety levels and depression scores significantly higher than normal. Almost one-third of the women still had a fear of cancer in spite of lower 2-year state anxiety levels.
BACKGROUND: Some consider the loss of a child as the most stressful life event. When the death is caused by a malignancy, the parents are commonly exposed not only to their own loss, but also to the protracted physical and emotional suffering of the child. We investigated parental risk of anxiety and depression 4-9 years after the loss of a child owing to a malignancy. METHOD: In 2001, we attempted to contact all parents in Sweden who had lost a child due to a malignancy during 1992--1997. We used an anonymous postal questionnaire and utilized a control group of non-bereaved parents with a living child. RESULTS: Participation among bereaved parents was 449/561 (80 %); among non-bereaved 457/659 (69%). We found an increased risk of anxiety (relative risk 1.5, 95 % confidence interval 1.1-1.9) and depression (relative risk 1.4, 95 % confidence interval 1.1-1.7) among bereaved parents compared with non-bereaved. The risk of anxiety and depression was higher in the period 4-6 years after bereavement than in the 7-9 years period, during which the average excess risks approached zero. Psychological distress was overall higher among bereaved mothers and loss of a child aged 9 years or older implied an increased risk, particularly for fathers. CONCLUSIONS: Psychological morbidity in bereaved parents decreases to levels similar to those among non-bereaved parents 7-9 years after the loss. Bereaved mothers and parents who lose a child 9 years or older have on average an excess risk for long-term psychological distress.
To examine the longitudinal association of dual and single (vision and hearing) sensory loss on symptoms of depression and anxiety in older adults.
Two thousand eight hundred ninety adults aged 60 years or over who participated in the longitudinal population-based Tromsø Study, Norway, were included. The impact of objective vision loss, self-report hearing loss, or dual sensory loss on symptoms of depression and anxiety, as assessed by the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 10, was examined at baseline and 6-year follow-up using linear mixed models.
Hearing loss had a cross-sectional relationship with increased depression (b = 0.1750, SE = 0.07, P = .02) and anxiety symptoms (b = 0.1765, SE = 0.08, P = .03); however, these relationships were not significant at the 6-year follow-up. Both vision loss only and dual sensory loss predicted increased depression scores at follow-up (b = 0.0220, SE = 0.01, P = .03; and b = 0.0413, SE = 0.02, P = .01, respectively). Adjustment for social isolation did not attenuate the main depression results.
Dual sensory loss resulted in increased depression symptomatology over time and posed an additional long-term risk to depression severity beyond having a single sensory loss only. Only hearing loss is associated with anxiety symptoms. Older adults with vision, hearing, and dual sensory loss have different mental health profiles. Therefore, management and intervention should be tailored to the type of sensory loss.
OBJECTIVE: To explore attitudes towards pain and returning to work in young immigrants on long-term sick leave because of chronic pain. DESIGN: As a part of a randomised-controlled rehabilitation programme for immigrants 16-45 years of age on sick leave > 6 weeks, the participants in the experimental group were interviewed about their attitudes towards their pain. SETTING: A primary health care centre in an immigrant district in Stockholm, Sweden. SUBJECTS: Twenty-six first generation immigrants with long-standing musculoskeletal or imprecise pain. MEASURES: Semi-structured interviews of explanatory models of pain. The content of the interviews was abstracted and categorised, with the focus on factors that might influence the rehabilitation process and especially cause pain anxiety. RESULTS: The majority of the interviewees were Turks and Southern Europeans with a median age of 38.5 years and a median sick leave of 12.0 months. Nearly all assessed themselves as having no capacity to work and two-thirds reported pain anxiety. The shared characteristics of the attitude to pain were that rest is the best treatment and that occupational work is the main etiological factor for the pain. A difference was found regarding the meaning of the pain, with one cluster of interviewees focusing on a disorder (Type I attitudes) and the other cluster focusing on the pain sensation itself (Type II attitudes). These clusters were equally large and there were no significant differences regarding ethnicity, religion, or other data between them. However, persons in the Type II cluster were generally more fatalistic about their future health and significantly more were working, at least part-time, at the 3 (p
Somatic complaints in children and adolescents may be considered part of a broader spectrum of internalizing disorders that include anxiety and depression. Previous research on the topic has focused mainly on the relationship between anxiety and depression without investigating how common somatic symptoms relate to an underlying factor and its etiology. Based on the classical twin design with monozygotic and dizygotic twins reared together, our study aimed to explore the extent to which the covariation between three phenotypes in adolescent girls and boys can be represented by a latent internalizing factor, with a focus on both common and specific etiological sources. A population-based sample of twins aged 12-18 years and their mothers and fathers (N?=?1394 families) responded to questionnaire items measuring the three phenotypes. Informants' ratings were collapsed using full information maximum likelihood estimated factor scores. Multivariate genetic analyses were conducted to examine the etiological structure of concurrent symptoms. The best fitting model was an ACE common pathway model without sex limitation and with one substantially heritable (44%) latent factor shared by the phenotypes. Concurrent symptoms also resulted from shared (25%) and non-shared (31%) environments. The factor loaded most on depression symptoms and least on somatic complaints. Trait-specific influences explained 44% of depression variance, 59% of anxiety variance, and 65% of somatic variance. Our results suggest the presence of a general internalizing factor along which somatic complaints and mental distress can be modeled. However, specific influences make the symptom types distinguishable.
PURPOSE: This study from Norway examines mental health status of women with child sexual abuse (CSA) who formerly had outpatient psychotherapy for anxiety disorders and/or depression. The relative contributions of CSA and other family background risk factors (FBRF) to aspects of mental health status are also explored. SUBJECTS: At a mean of 5.1 years after outpatient psychotherapy, 56 female outpatients with CSA and 56 without CSA were personally examined by an independent female psychiatrist. Systematic information about current mental health and functioning was collected by structured interview and questionnaires. RESULTS: Among women with CSA 95% had a mental disorder, 50% had PTSD, and mean global assessment of functioning (GAF) score was 61.8+/-10.6. In contrast, 70% of women without CSA had a mental disorder, 14% had PTSD, and mean GAF 71.2 + 8.5. GAF and trauma scale scores were mainly determined by CSA, while FBRF mainly influenced the global psychopathology and dissociation scores. DISCUSSION: We have little knowledge on the mental health status at long-term in women with CSA who had psychotherapy. This study found their mental status to be rather poor, and worse than that of women without CSA who had psychotherapy for the same disorders. From the broad spectrum of mental disorders associated with CSA, this study concerns only women treated as outpatients for anxiety disorders and/or non-psychotic depressions. CONCLUSION: Women with CSA showed poor mental health at long-term follow-up after treatment. The fitness of the psychodynamic individual psychotherapy given, or to what extent treatment can remedy the consequences of such childhood adversities, is discussed.
OBJECTIVE: The present study was undertaken in order to evaluate the relationship between depressed mood (depression, emotional distress) and disease-specific subjective health symptoms upon mortality risk among patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). METHODS AND RESULTS: Proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the effects of selected biomedical, subjective health and psychological variables on mortality among 119 clinically stable patients (71.4% men; mean age 65.7 years +/- 9.6) with symptomatic heart failure, recruited from an outpatient cardiology practice. Twenty deaths were registered during the twenty-four-month period of data collection, all from cardiac causes. Results indicated that depressed mood was a significant predictor of mortality with a hazard ratio of 1.9, p .002. In contrast, subjective health was not a significant predictor of mortality in a Cox regression model that included depressed mood. The hazard ratio for a 1-point increase in Zung Depression Scale score was equal to 1.08 based on the multivariate model. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that depressed mood is significantly related to increased mortality risk among heart failure patients. This finding is of concern to clinicians and should have implications for treatment of patients with congestive heart failure.